strengthen people morally and help them to forget the horrors of war. The blemishing of the landscape, on the other hand, was considered an expression of disorder in culture and society. Respect for nature as God’s creation should communicate the knowledge that people are only guests on the earth. Instead of the consumption of nature, people should adopt a contemplative approach to nature (Engels, “Hohe Zeit” 369). Conservationists reacted to the changes in youth behaviour with programs addressing the restorative aspects of conservation aimed at broader segments of society. Officially, the goal was social rehabilitation. Traditions, conservative patterns of order and patriarchal family relationships were associated with the so-called secondary virtues (“Sekundärtugend”) such as diligence, loyalty, obedience, discipline, dutifulness, punctuality, reliability, orderliness, courtesy and cleanliness (Lindner 37). These virtues were reflected in children and youth programs that included orderly hiking, tree planting campaigns, and song and dance group performances organized by local heritage clubs (“Im waldreichsten” 263).
(www.lfu.bayern.de/wasser/fachinformationenen/hochwasser_grundsaetze_ziele), while in the field of natureconservation, it operates a contract-based natureconservation programme with hardship compensation (VNP/EA), offering financial recompense for income losses and conservation expenditure. Exemplary projects are found in the Ramsar sites Donauauen and Donaumoos as well as Lech-Donau-Winkel. The LIFE projects 'Südlicher Chiemgau' (southern Chiemgau region), 'Hochmoore und Lebensräume des Wachtelkönigs im südlichen Chiemgau' (peatlands and habitats of the corncrake in southen Chiemgau), 'Auen, Haiden und Quellen im unteren Isartal' (water meadows, heathlands and springs in the lower Isar Valley) and 'Unterer Inn mit Auen' (Lower Inn and water meadows) (whose coverage is partially identical with the Ramsar site Unterer Inn) are now complete. The LIFE projects 'Rosenheimer Stammbeckenmoore' (Rosenheimer Stammbecken peatlands) and 'Schwäbisches Donautal' (Swabian Danube Valley), parts of which are identical to the Ramsar sites of Donauauen and Donaumoos, are currently in the process of being implemented.
for the Realization of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat. Also, to improve the coordination of planning and implementation of natureconservation activities, the Ministry of Nature Resources of Belarus has decided that national strategic targets and action plan on the sustainable use of wetlands will be included in the new edition of the Strategy for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Belarus for 2011-2020. Separate measures for complex management of Ramsar sites and other wetlands are included in the National Strategy for the Development of the Network of Specially Protected Natural Areas till January 1, 2030; Scheme of Rational Allocation of Specially Protected Areas of Republican Importance till January, 1, 2025; Strategy on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Peatlands.
WILDERNESS In the past few decades there has been a growing enthusiasm in British natureconservation circles for the wild and the untamed. This has partly been influenced by the wilderness movement in North America and by the paradigm shift in ecology from balance to catastrophe. Instead of thinking that there might be some ‘climax communities’ to which ecosys- tems inevitably develop, it is now widely considered that ecosystems are perpetually experiencing disturbances, e.g., fire, wind-throw, flood, dis- ease and pest outbreaks. There is, then, never a steady state, nor do ideal communities exist towards which the conservation manager can try to steer their nature reserve. Norton calls this the ‘Axiom of Dynamism’: “Nature is more profoundly a set of processes than a collection of objects” (1991). Although in fashion at the moment, this concept has never been completely eclipsed. In Britain mid-century, ecologists like Tansley and Watt worked on similar dynamic theories. They were also very involved in the establishment of the Nature Conservancy. Thus the National Nature Reserves were not only protected examples of ecosystems, to use Tansley’s own term, they were also outdoor laboratories—in Britain “more than anywhere else” (Nicholson 1957).
The results obtained in the course of ornithological and botanical monitoring are used to support the planning of tasks of active natureconservation. Changes in numbers of breeding and non-breeding birds as well as in the location of breeding sites determine the way of agricultural management of the area in that the time of grazing, mowing and opening for tourists depends upon the information received from the above monitoring. Correlating the results of monitoring of the bird breeding success with those of the American mink numbers provided for the introduction of control of mink numbers within the Park.
The Forests and NatureConservation Rules of Bhutan states that Forestry Clearance has to be obtained in case any adverse effect to forests may arise. The Forestry Clearance is carried out by field officers and further reported to the head office of the Department of Forest and Park Services. Therefore, the national mechanism foresees that any negative human- induced changes in the Ramsar Sites shall be reported by the responsible field officer to the Administrative Authority through the Forestry Clearance.
concept is so vast, its history is so long, that the word itself has become a source of mild embarrassment. Nature is the domain of things which do not change, or of things which change at the invisible pace of evolution, or of things which recur with little or no variations according to the seasons. When we speak of the nature of things, we evoke a fundamental, unvary- ing reality. Nature is the opposite of fashion. It is not difficult to understand why in a time like the present, when unpredictable events associated with markets seem uppermost, when changes of all kinds are preferred to permanence, when fashion is reinstated as a legitimate force, the idea of nature can seem fey and old-fashioned. Nature is an inconvenience. But
However, although in the market for 26 years now, DFNS are not as common as one could expect. Their practical application can be a quite complicated process involving as many as twelve steps. It starts with a common interest from the creditor and the debtor, followed up by serious negotiations, the draft of a formal debt conversion agreement and finally executes the conservation program. On the other hand, nature is starting to be scarce resource and more valuable every day. Therefore, I believe DFNS have a lot of potential and can become more widely utilized if properly structured and understood by all parties.
que ni desde la redacción de Nature ni desde la opi- nión de los revisores del trabajo se previó el impacto que tuvo la noticia. «De hecho –explica Campbell– un trabajo similar, aunque con células fetales ya se había publicado un año antes y pasó casi inadvertido». En este caso los asesores de comunicación de PPL The - rapeutics trazaron una estrategia que dio un buen resultado: solicitar a los científicos que hablaran de la posibilidad de clonar a células humanas, un hecho que en el trabajo publicado no se mencionaba. De hecho, Wilmut reconoce en la entrevista que la pre - sión de los medios de comunicación resultó positiva puesto que debido a los beneficios directos que le reportó la publicidad del hallazgo «ha sido más fácil conseguir dinero para poner en marcha una compañía que aproveche la técnica utilizada para obtener a Dolly».
. Este tipo de ensambles móviles lo encontramos con relativa frecuencia en las escuelas europeas coetáneas. Algunos ejemplos son los tableros de los retablos de Colmenar el Viejo y el Espinar, ambos en Castilla, España. Rocío Bruquetas, Técnicas y materiales de la pintura española en los Siglos de Oro, Madrid, Fundación de Apoyo a la Historia del Arte Hispánico, , p. . Por otra parte, de la escuela italiana traemos a colación el panel de El entierro de Cristo, de Mi- guel Ángel Buonarroti, ca. , conservado en la National Gallery de Londres; Jill Dunkerton et al., Dürer to Veronese. Sixteenth-Century Painting in The National Gallery, Londres, , pp. -. Sobre este tema véase también: Kathleen Dardes (ed.), The Structural Conservation of Panel Painting, Los Ángeles, The Getty Conservation Institute, . Asimismo, en obras de
Second, innovation and improvement of product func- tion would be improved. Conservation scientists who hope to translate their data into practice generally lack training in the transformation of research results into functional objects. A given result (e.g., a finding such as small mammals prefer narrow, covered corridors, whereas large mammals prefer broad, open corridors) is presented to the designer as a problem (e.g., What kind of corridor design provides narrow, covered crossings and wide, open crossings?), and the designer then pro- duces several possible designs that work within the con- straints set by stakeholders, such as number and place- ment of corridors and costs of construction and mainte- nance. Design can also be a powerful tool for mitigating animal-wildlife conflicts. Iterative collaboration between researchers (representing the species targeted for con- servation), stakeholders, and designers will bring to light further problems and constraints, yielding further sug- gested solutions until all collaborators are satisfied with the design (Zeisel 2006). Explicit testing of proposed so- lutions is ideal, but may not always be possible. The in- clusion of designers in this process should make explicit the relationship between data, conservation goals, and how those goals will be achieved. Collaboration with de- signers should also increase the likelihood of innovation and increase the set of possible solutions and thus the probability of finding an effective or optimal solution.
Werther’s fellow nature worshipper, Oronaro, chooses the opposite path and seeks instead containment strategies. Every evening when travelling, he unpacks his beloved puppet along with his “nature in a box,” creating a nature grotto in a designated room. Goethe’s Triumph derives its energy from this problem of containment. This scene of boxes is paralleled by another enactment of intense containment: the stand- alone monodrama in Act IV that mournfully stages the sufferings of Prosperina trapped in the barren landscapes of hell, longing for escape and some decent greenery and gardens. This is performed by the queen who has fallen for Oronaro’s effusive sentimentality, much to her husband’s dismay. Triumph’s containment of nature’s landscapes also contain and imprison the figures; this is in stark contrast to the wild storms and flooding rivers that destroy landscape forms and embody openness in Werther. Together the two Goethean texts provide us with ironic sentimentality about our very real material entanglements in the world, and suggest that, if nothing else, there is confusion with regard to “nature” about boundaries, where they are, who or what determines them, and what happens when one believes whole-heartedly in one’s own ability to create them or destroy them at whim.
In cooperation with other protected areas in Slovenia, including UNESCO World Heritage Sites and other Ramsar Sites, the Park is promoting the conservation of nature and cultural heritage as well as sustainable development. The caves’ international recognition as a World Heritage Site and Ramsar Site helps to increase the significance of the caves to visitors, and at the same time the image that the visitors collect when visiting the area also helps them to understand the meaning of the world heritage and internationally
Randy Thaman is University of South Pacific’s (USP) longest serving academic staff member. He re- ceived his BA and MA in geography from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Ph.D. from UCLA. Randy has conducted research in most of the USP member countries, with his most recent studies hav- ing been on community-based biodiversity conservation in Fiji, Solomon Islands Tonga, Niue, Tuvalu and Kiribati and the floras of Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Tuvalu and a number of islands in Fiji. Over the years countless USP students have worked with him on these projects. Many of these stu- dents now hold important positions with government and non-government agencies working in the areas of environmental management and sustainable development throughout the region. His main areas of research interest include: sustainable development, Pacific Island floras, atoll and small-island ecosystems and biodiversity, mangroves and coastal vegetation, marine biodiversity, agroforestry, in- vasive species, Pacific Island food systems, ethnobiology and traditional environmental knowledge, community-based biodiversity conservation and ecotourism. In March 1997 he was invested as a Mem- ber of the Order of Fiji for his contributions to Fiji through his teaching, sport and community service. Most recently, he was awarded Honorary Membership of IUCN at the 2012 World Conservation Con- gress in Jeju, Korea and was elected as a member of the first Multidisciplinary Expert Panel (MEP) of the recently established Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) in Bonn, Germany.
Abundan ilustraciones y párrafos sobre la representacion de una especie importante, Ho- mo sapiens en los famosos “hotspots”, que además de biodiversos son “amenazados” por la humanidad, pero en ninguna parte se dice de ella que pudiese ser una “hot species” en el sentido de importancia cuando se habla de conservar ese 1.4% de nuestra Tierra. Y es que la biodiversidad se mide, aparentemente, por su valor de uso y no solo por lo que cueste po- ner en un encierro a prueba de todo ese 1.4% de la Tierra. Y qué se hace con esas personas? Veamos el primer aspecto, del hombre co- mo azote y amenaza de la biodiversidad. Cin- cotta et al. en su artículo Human population in the biodiversity hotspots (Nature 404: 986-98- 90, 2000) que esos sitios privilegiados por Na- tura son, a su vez, los de mayores tasas de creci- miento poblacional (1.8% año –1) y donde en 1995 vivía aproximadamente 1.1 billones de se- res humanos, lo que sugiere que los cambios am- bientales cuanti- y cualitativos seguirán forzan- do un cociente de riesgo y extinción de especies muy importante y sin alternativas mientras se de a la biodiversidad un valor utilitario en los mer- cados internacionales. El ilustre ecólogo tropi- cal John Terborgh, en su reciente obra Requien for the Rainforests (1999, Island Press) nos pre- senta un panorama mós objetivo y lúcido sobre la conservación de la biodiversidad por la biodi- versidad que sin duda tendra gran acogida en la comunidad científica mundial conciente ya de que la idea de conservar la biodiversidad mun- dial es una quimera y que GAIA, hermoso con-
water love people Rep of Korea Mr Bongsu LEE gangwondo green energy Rep of Korea dr Yeong Seon JEON gangwondo green energy Rep of Korea mr yeong seog JEON Policy and Planning KFEM Seoul Rep of Korea Ms Seonyeong JANG water conservation center KFEM Rep of Korea Ms Sookyoung HAN media and communication Rep of Korea Ms Seongmi HONG
The third characteristic revealed the early relationship between tourism and conserva- tion, a relationship that has become increa- singly important through the institutionalisa- tion of leisure, the democratisation of tourism and the explosion of the global tourism in- dustry (MacCannell, 1999). In the current context of Post-Fordist capitalism, nature has become a profitable business for its abi- lity to generate authentic touristic experien- ces and to produce immaterial value (López and Pardo, 2018; Boltanski and Chiapello, 2002; Harvey, 2007). The yearning to consu- me the pristine, related to a pre-Fordist chro- notope, converts protected areas into a powerful tourist attraction and business op- portunity (Buscher et al., 2012). The number of visitors to Spain’s protected areas has not stopped growing (Prieto, 2017). Based on the latest Europarc report (2017), in 2014 there were approximately 23 million visitors to all of the country’s protected areas, and the number of visitors to the country’s national parks was approximately 14.4 million in 2015. The increase in tourists has been in parallel to the growth in the number of pro- tected areas and is also the result of policies designed in response to the rural crisis. In recent decades, the patrimonialisation of na- ture has granted new value to rural spaces, generating new economic initiatives related to nature (del-Mármol, 2012). As the elites did before, visitors to protected areas look for a pristine nature. This market niche has brought with it, however, the banalization, spectacularisation and commercialisation of nature, where profit governs the logic. The
En coopération avec d'autres aires protégées de Slovénie, y compris les sites du patrimoine mondial et d'autres sites Ramsar, le Parc encourage la conservation de la nature et du patrimoine culturel, ainsi que le développement durable. La reconnaissance internationale des grottes en tant que bien du patrimoine mondial et site Ramsar contribue à accroître l'importance des grottes pour les visiteurs et, simultanément, l'image que les visiteurs perçoivent lorsqu’ils visitent la région les aide aussi à comprendre la signification du patrimoine mondial et des zones humides d'importance internationale – c’est-à- dire le travail qu’accomplissent ces conventions internationales. Les activités menées par le Parc régional dans le domaine touristiques ont accru sa notoriété en Slovénie et à l'étranger et lui ont permis d’explorer de nouvelles possibilités d’élargir et d’enrichir le tourisme durable et de développer l'emploi local. Tout cela est lié au travail mené par le Parc pour soutenir le
essential for any project in cultural heritage buildings. Diagnosis is based on qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative approach is based on direct observation of the structural damage and material decay as well as historical and archaeological research, while the quantitative approach requires material and structural tests, monitoring and structural analysis. Often the application of the same safety levels used in the design of new buildings requires excessive, if not impossible, measures. In these cases other methods, appropriately justified, may allow different approaches to safety. Therapy should address root causes rather than symptoms. Each intervention should be in proportion to the safety objectives, keeping intervention to the minimum necessary to guarantee safety and durability and with the least damage to heritage values. The choice between “traditional” and “innovative” techniques should be determined on a case-by-case basis with preference given to those that are least invasive and most compatible with heritage values, consistent with the need for safety and durability. At times the difficulty of evaluating both the safety levels and the possible benefits of interventions may suggest “an observational method”, i.e. an incremental approach, beginning with a minimum level of intervention, with the possible adoption of subsequent supplementary or corrective measures. The characteristics of materials used in conservation work (in particular new materials) and their compatibility with existing materials should be fully established. This must include long-term effects, so that undesirable side effects are avoided.
rapidly developed and expanded, and the number of definitions of SEA has multiplied accordingly. SEA, by its nature, covers a wider range of activities or a wider area and often over a longer time span than the environmental impact assessment of projects. SEA might be applied to an entire sector (such as a national policy on energy, for example) or to a geographical area (for example, in the context of a regional development scheme). SEA does not replace or reduce the need for project-level EIA (although in some cases it can), but it can help to streamline and focus the incorporation of environmental concerns (including biodiversity) into the decision-making process, often making project-level EIA a more effective process. SEA is nowadays commonly understood as being proactive and sustainability-driven, whilst EIA is often described as being largely reactive.