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The Black Devil: the adjective μέλασ in Septuagint, New Testament, Epistle of Barnabas and the Sheperd of Hermas

The Black Devil: the adjective μέλασ in Septuagint, New Testament, Epistle of Barnabas and the Sheperd of Hermas

only on its adjectival function. As in the Septuagint, μέλασ is used to describe hair colour and therewith the strength of a person (Matt. 5:36); it also refers to the skin colour of horses (Rev. 6:5 in a symbolic sense as in the Septuagint) and to the colour of the sun when the sixth seal is opened (Rev. 6:12 ὁ ἣλιοσ ἐγένετο μέλασ , “the sun turned black”). 41 As in the Septuagint, μέλασ may have a positive connotation when describing hair colour and therewith the strength of a person (Matt. 5:36) or negative when symbolizing famine (Rev. 6:5 & 6:12) depending on the contexts. Despite the use of μέλασ in the Epistle of Barnabas and The Shepherd of Hermas to designate the Devil or things related to him, from what we have studied so far, we can observe that nor in the New Testament μέλασ is employed to describe the Devil.

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Bart Ehrman  The Textual Reliability of the New Testament: A Dialogue

Bart Ehrman The Textual Reliability of the New Testament: A Dialogue

the semester is over. First is the story that is probably the favorite story among Bible readers and has been for many years, the story of Jesus and the woman taken in adultery. One of my reasons for thinking that this is people’s favorite Bible story is because it’s in every Hollywood movie about Jesus. You simply can’t make a Jesus movie without this story. Even Mel Gibson, wanting to do a movie about Jesus’ last hours, had to sneak this scene in as a flashback. So you’re familiar with the story: The Jewish leaders drag this woman before Jesus and say, “She has been caught in the act of adultery, and according to the Law of Moses, we’re supposed to stone her to death. What do you say we should do?” This is setting up a trap for Jesus, because if Jesus says, “Well, yeah, stone her to death,” he’s breaking his teachings of love and mercy. If he says, “No, forgive her,” then he’s breaking the Law of Moses. So what’s he going to do? Well, Jesus, as you know, has a way of getting out of these traps in the New Testament. In this instance, he stoops down and starts writing on the ground. He then looks up and says, “Let the one without sin among you be the first to cast a stone at her.” He stoops down again and continues writing, and one by one, the Jewish leaders start feeling guilty for their own sins, and they leave until Jesus looks up, and it’s just the woman there. And he says to her, “Woman, is there no one left here to condemn you?” And she says, “No, Lord, no one.” And Jesus says, “Neither do I condemn you; go and sin no more.”

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Jesus and the Temple in John and Hebrews: Towards a New Testament Perspective

Jesus and the Temple in John and Hebrews: Towards a New Testament Perspective

The gospel of John demonstrates the ideal of the relationship that God wishes to have with humanity. On the other hand, the book of He- brews’ perspective of the heavenly sanctuary emphasises the means, with Jesus’ sacrifice and atoning blood as the key focal point of Christ’s mi- nistry of salvation for sinners, in both its earthly and heavenly phases. The concept of Jesus as the incarnational temple, focusing on His atoning sacrifice, therefore becomes the fundamental soteriological point of con- nection between Christ’s heavenly ministry and the lives of those who follow Him on this earth. This perfectly reconciles the New Testament notions of Jesus as the temple, and of Jesus in the temple.

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Reviving the Teaching of Dead Languages: The Case of Greek in Modern Christian Education

Reviving the Teaching of Dead Languages: The Case of Greek in Modern Christian Education

These standards are applicable to the acquisition of any modern or an- cient language. Applying them to the Hellenistic Greek of the New Tes- tament, would lead to the following specifics. The first goal —communi- cation— would be based on the New Testament text primarily, but also on other κοινή Greek texts, ranging from the non-literary papyri to the literary Polybius and Epictetus. Two things should be further developed here: speaking and listening, and the issue of pronunciation. First, the “oral use” does not stand for “speaking” and it is actually a phrase desig- ned to avoid the term “speaking” so as not to infer that the oral ability im- plies conversation. 31 However, I should say that simple oral drills would

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The adventists community and the practising of
polygamy in the Bible

The adventists community and the practising of polygamy in the Bible

Furthermore, this study will explain better about the God’s purpose of marriage from the beginning before sin could entered to the world and will also explain how did polygamy entered to the world. Moreover, pertaining to this matter of dealing with the polygamists converts we will try by all means to safe the dignity of the Seventh Day Adventist Church and at the same time we will be looking some best ways of saving those souls for Christ without hurting them too. This study will be 100% supported by the Bible and Ellen G, White writings. Lastly the following verses from the Old Testament and some from the New Testament we will be approaching them with all carefulness in order to have real meaning of them pertaining to marriage and polygamy. 2 Chronicles 11:21, Deuteronomy 21:15-17. In the New Testament, we will be looking at the following verse, Exodus 21:10-11 Matthew 19:4-9. All this is biblical based so it will be beneficial to church and the members at large.

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Constructs of prophecy in the former and latter prophets and other texts

Constructs of prophecy in the former and latter prophets and other texts

In the second paper going outside the Former and Latter Prophets, Peter Matthews Wright considers “The Qur’anic David.” A current dispute concerns the Qur’anic appropriation and “correction” of prior sacred revelations and how to evaluate them. Muslims usually see this as evidence that the Qur’an has superseded earlier writings. Yet the Qur’an states in several places that it “confirms” prior scriptures. To “correct” is not the same as to supersede. The original context is very important. This shows that the Qur’anic corrections of biblical material is only an example of a wider Near Eastern rhetorical mode that is also attested in the Bible. The Qur’an is part of a religious literary tradition beginning perhaps as early as the twelfth century BCE and draws not only on Old Testament and New Testament prophecy but also that from the wider ancient Near East. It belongs to a “super-canon” that includes Zoroastrian literature and the Tanakh. The Qur’anic David illustrates how the Qur’an corrects prior sacred traditions but also confirms them. David appears as a prophetic figure. He also appears as a penitent, though the nature of his sin is not spelled out. But 1 Chronicles is also silent on David’s sin. Thus, both 1 Chr 20 and the Qur’an use allusion to show that they are aware of the tradition but are passing on an existing tradition while also revising it. The revisionist interpretation of 1 Chronicles was only the beginning of a long process. The rabbis of the Babylonian Talmud continued to sanitize the Davidic tradition and the Qur’an brought it to a state of “prophetic impeccability.” Indeed, the interpretation of early prophecy is a post-exilic prophetic mode. This “rehabilitation” of David is part of a larger literary activity in the ancient Near East (“the rehabilitation of kings”?), as is illustrated by the development of the Alexander legend.

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Historical linguistics and biblical hebrew : steps toward an integrated approach

Historical linguistics and biblical hebrew : steps toward an integrated approach

which we discussed previously, 6 the linguistic characteristics and linguistic variants of other Qumran scrolls have largely gone unappreciated, thus the Qumran scrolls of Samuel which, while long recognized as relatively rich sources of textual evidence, have not generally been noted for their unusual linguistic profiles. 7 The preceding points are two general reasons as to why we thought a study of the language of Samuel would be interesting. But we should probably confess up front that in fact we just happen to like the book a lot, or at least one of us does! There are nevertheless several other practical reasons for our selection of this book. First, Samuel is one of the longest books in the MT Bible, third after Kings and Chronicles in terms of words, or second after only Kings in terms of graphic units. This means that the book might be expected to supply altogether more varied linguistic material than many and probably most other books in the Bible, such as, for example, the book of Ruth. Second, Samuel has the advantage that it is (partially) represented by four Qumran scrolls (1QSam, 4QSam a,b,c ), and while it does not fare as well as, for example, Isaiah which is represented extensively in 1QIsa a and numerous other scrolls, Samuel is actually much better off than most other biblical books, and the manuscript 4QSam a in particular is a sizeable textual witness compared to most other biblical scrolls. 8 Third, the extensive 4QSam a scroll also shares the kingdoms…” (J. Wellhausen, Prolegomena to the History of Israel [Edinburgh: A. & C. Black, 1885], 9). Similarly, Driver remarked: “The purest and best Hebrew prose style is that of JE and the earlier narratives incorporated in Jud. Sam. Kings: Dt. (though of a different type) is also thoroughly classical…” (S. R. Driver, An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament [9th ed.; Oxford: Clarendon, 1913], 505; cf. 124). Likewise, we find that the most frequently cited biblical books in grammars such as Joüon–Muraoka’s are Genesis and Samuel, and we may safely presume that it is largely these books about which they speak when they say: “This grammar, especially the syntax, is based mainly on classical prose texts, and good narrative texts in particular” (JM §3d, p. 11 n. 1; emphasis added).

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Instructing with advanced collaboration technology: lessons learned and unexpected transformations

Instructing with advanced collaboration technology: lessons learned and unexpected transformations

New technology that is not adopted fails! Prospective users of new technology are experiencing “new tool fatigue” [1]. Teachers, like corporate uses of new technology, are wary of unfulfilled promises of new technology and increased burdens to learn and use the technology. Teachers need enhancements to their instructional processes that integrate “naturally” into what they do. The best technologically-based solutions entice by leveraging existing skills and knowledge in such a way that instruction improves, learners excel, and the technology presence fades, i.e., successful adoption of technology-enabled transformational instruction demands stealth! Increased capability to instruct should emerge as needed during the instructional process while the fact that the capability is technology-enabled fades, i.e., enhancements should be integrated incrementally and available on an as-needed, just-in-time basis. Awareness of transformation should only occur upon reflection of where one was and how far one has come in the employment of advanced technology to develop more successful learners.

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Le Christianisme et l’animal: une histoire difficile

Le Christianisme et l’animal: une histoire difficile

Le christianisme puise ses fondements dans la Bible et son regard sur l’animal ne déroge pas à la règle. L’Ancien Testament est prolixe sur l’animal, mais la compréhension de son discours est entravée par la complexité de sa rédaction (la Genèse offrant deux récits de la création) et par ses traductions successives qui furent à chaque fois des réécritures à l’aune des sensibilités du moment, donnant lieu à des déformations qui ont fait oublier la pensée primitive et installé une autre tradition. En effet, une lecture en place dès les premiers siècles du christianisme voit dans l’Ancien Testament le fondement divin d’une infériorité et d'un asservissement de l’animal. Mais depuis peu une certaine exégèse, surtout protestante (de Pury), refuse une approche trop ethnocentrique du texte, tente d'en retrouver le sens originel en comparant le judaïsme avec les autres civilisations du Proche-Orient ancien (Borgaud; Parayre), et essaie, sous l’impact des idées écologistes, de se départir des réflexes anthropocentriques. Elle propose une lecture intéressante parce que plus complexe et nuancée, qu’il faut cependant relativiser : peut-être plus proche de la vérité, cette relecture est aussi mieux ajustée à nos idées.

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El Nou Testament i la història. Estudi sobre la interpretació contemporània de la sagrada escriptura

El Nou Testament i la història. Estudi sobre la interpretació contemporània de la sagrada escriptura

personatge molt important per a la teoria de Bailey pel que fa al valor explicatiu dels relats que ens han arribat d’aquest missioner i la seva activitat). Weeden fa, d’alguna manera, una exhaustiva exegesi dels articles de Bailey tot comparant-los amb la història que Rena Hogg, filla de John, va fer uns anys després de la mort del seu pare. Segons Weeden, «Rena Hogg’s revelation that the story Bailey presents as an example of the authentically preserved oral tradition about John Hogg is in actuality a bogus story about her father poses a serious blow to Bailey’s theory of informal controlled oral tradition. [...] What, then, I submit Rena Hogg experienced in 1910 regarding the transmission of the oral tradition about her father in those Hogg-founded communities was not informal controlled oral tradition but informal uncontrolled oral tradition» (p. 18; 20). L’apreciació que fa Weeden no és menor, atès que desacredita per complet tot allò defensat per Bailey. No resseguirem tots els exemples, atès que en tots Weeden arriba a la mateixa conclusió, això és, Bailey està totalment errat i la seva teoria no s’aguanta per enlloc. En un moment de l’article afirma emfàticament que «such informal controlled oral tradition is [...] not primarily nor particularly concerned with preservating uncorrupted the archaic, original historical facts» (p. 33), sense atendre al fet que aquests fets històrics originals de què parla no són aprehensibles si ens desentenem de la interpretació que se’n féu, ja d’antic. Aquest és, en efecte, un error que resta implícit en la concepció del Dr. Bailey, però que no inhabilita aital teoria per complet atès que aquesta, com veurem, té molts factors satisfactòriament explicatius. La conclusió final de Weeden és que «the primary concern of this particular version of informal controlled oral tradition [...] is to preserve a community’s social identification in its “present” consciousness —even if that means the alteration of its oral tradition, including the possible loss of authentic historical information related to the community’s past history — in order to bring its oral tradition into congruency with the community’s current self-understanding of its social identity, as well as to make its oral tradition congruently relevant in addressing the demands of new existential realities when they arise», i continua dient que «in historical Jesus studies, to opt for Bailey’s informal controlled oral tradition as “a working model” [...] or as “an explanatory model for the Jesus tradition” [...] is, in my judgment, methodologically unfounded» (p. 37; 43).

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Changing assessment methods: New rules, new roles

Changing assessment methods: New rules, new roles

Over the past 20 years, the use of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) has helped with the teaching of mathematics in engineer- ing schools. However the traditional use of CAS only in math labs has led to a narrow view by the student: the CAS is an addi- tional work, not included in the learning process. The didactic guidelines of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) propose a new teaching-learning model based on competencies. We sug- gest the use of the CAS be adapted to the new rules. In this paper, we present a model for the integrated use of the CAS, and we de- scribe and analyze two experiments carried out in the academic year 2011-2012. Our analysis suggests that the use of CAS in all learning and assessment activities has the potential to positively influence the development of competencies.

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New Energy

New Energy

En la actualidad ante la falta de recursos del Sector Público, las grandes empresas han optado promover la inversión privada, apoyadas por asociaciones como la Asociación Nacional de Empresarios de Colombia (ANDI) y la Asociación Colombiana de Generadores de Energía Eléctrica (ACOLGEN), sobre todo para proyectos a gran escala y dirigidos a grandes consumidores estos son aliados importantes para que las empresas busquen otras alternativas de energías. Con base al análisis de la competencia donde se muestran como competidores fuertes en el mercado de línea de negocio de diseño e implementación de energía solar, también se evidencia que no tienen un nicho de mercado definido, su mercado es amplio por ende New Energy se puede enfocar con mayor fuera el nicho de la industria manufacturera más exactamente en la industria textil.

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The translation of metaphor in the poetry of Derek Walcott - The Arkansas Testament

The translation of metaphor in the poetry of Derek Walcott - The Arkansas Testament

Among them, the most popular and notable in the first part are The Lighthouse, the poem that begins the book, which evokes the mixture of sweet and bitter feelings that come to the poet upon returning to his native Castries during the encounter with an old friend and The Villa Restaurant and The Light of the World, in which he exalts other forms of beauty, either the terracotta waitress at a restaurant or the traveler on the bus, symbol of his people. From the second part, there is Fame, a depressing description of the flip side of being famous, For Adrian, a moving elegy for the death of a child, and Summer Elegies which relates a love story. The work culminates with The Arkansas Testament in 24 stanzas, which recounts his vulnerability as a mulatto in white southern USA. 13

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NEW Productions

NEW Productions

Vinyamata (2001) afirma que “el conflicto es una lucha, por el desacuerdo, incompatibilidad aparente, confrontación de intereses, percepciones o actitudes hostiles entre dos o más partes. El conflicto es connatural con la vida misma, está en relación directa con el esfuerzo por vivir”. Partiendo del punto de que este es inherente a la condición humana, los conflictos no se limitan a las creencias personales, también se encuentran presentes en el ámbito laboral: acoso profesional, desacuerdo por diferentes ideales, inclusive el mantener los desacuerdos en silencio, genera que el problema se alargue imposibilitando la solución pertinente. Es allí donde hay un obstáculo que puede perjudicar a la organización y es necesario implementar estrategias comunicativas que permitan transformar dichas complicaciones, y los mensajes que New Productions se compromete a poner en todos sus productos, que no solo nos identifican como organización, sino que al tener una orientación positiva y de cambio, los empleados de una empresa al leer dichos mensajes podrán encontrar una guía o punto de partida para resolver las diferencias que tengan con sus pares, no solo al interior de su trabajo, sino que también en su vida.

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NEW Productions

NEW Productions

Con el desarrollo tecnológico, el avance industrial y el incesante crecimiento de nuestra especie, nos hemos alejado de nuestra condición más real y natural y es el hecho de que somos parte de la naturaleza. No somos dos cosas diferentes que van por separado, tenemos una relación directa y hemos olvidado que este es nuestro único planeta. En el afán de producir para una sociedad que no se sacia de consumir, las empresas han olvidado su responsabilidad con el medio ambiente y a muchas no les importa contaminar con tal de aumentar sus balances financieros. Empresas de comunicaciones hay muchas, sin embargo, New production’s nace a partir de la necesidad que tienen las organizaciones, particularmente las pymes, de hallar un equilibrio sustentable entre su accionar empresarial, el medioambiente y la forma en que se comunican, ya sean sus clientes internos o externos.

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L'antic Egipte a la Bíblia : el mite d'Egipte en les fonts de l'Antic Testament entre alteritat negativa i paradís d'acollida

L'antic Egipte a la Bíblia : el mite d'Egipte en les fonts de l'Antic Testament entre alteritat negativa i paradís d'acollida

En l'epigrafia hi ha una absència gairebé radical, almenys fins l'ocupació grega i romana. Les poques que s'han trobat –una síntesi de la minsa quantitat trobada es pot veure a New Advent: ("Semitic Epigraphy")– són alienes a la producció hebrea. Les ostraca no es poden considerar, en realitat, formes d'epigrafia. L'estela de Tell Dan, que esmenta la casa de David, no és hebrea sinó siriana. La manca d'epigrafia no solament afecta els hebreus, sinó que es presenta també en territoris cananeus i filisteus. Resulta sorprenent que no s'hagués utilitzat l'epigrafia gairebé com una manera d'enaltir Jahveh i d'expressar les lleis que es recordarien de forma permanent. Si la Bíblia esmenta prohibicions per a les imatges i ídols, en canvi, no prohibeix l'exhibició pública de textos. Per tant, sembla que es devien poder fer esteles commemoratives o divulgadores de lleis, cosa que, tanmateix, no devia ocórrer. Entre les excepcions epigràfiques que esmenta la Bíblia, la més famosa és la de les taules de la llei escrites, de pròpia mà, per Jahveh (Ex 24:12, 31:18, 32:15-16; Dt 4:13, 9:10, 10:4; etc.) i que Moisès va tirar a terra i trencar sense que fos vituperat per l'autor bíblic per aquesta evident acció sacrílega. Una altra excepció és el de la reproducció de les taules de la Llei en el territori conquerit per Josuè (Dt 27:2-8; Js 8:32). És obligació gravar els manaments en els muntants de les portes particulars i en els portals de les ciutats (Dt 6:9, 11:20), però no consta quin compliment tenia aquesta disposició. En alguna ocasió, es parla de gravació de textos damunt d'un suport dur com a metàfora de perennitat de la paraula (Is 30:8 ; Jr 8:8 , 17:1; Jb 19:23), però sempre en un àmbit íntim.

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La interpretació tipològica a les Consuetes mallorquines(Ms  1139, Biblioteca de Catalunya)

La interpretació tipològica a les Consuetes mallorquines(Ms 1139, Biblioteca de Catalunya)

tant, en sentit abstracte, «model», «imatge», «figura». El significat general de «model» es pot trobar a l’epistolari paulí, on l’autor es presenta com a exemple per a la seva comunitat (Fl 3, 17; 2 Tes 3, 9; cfr. també 1 Tes 1, 7, on lloa els tessalonicencs per l’exemplaritat de la seva fe). No obstant això, el mateix Pau sembla testificar, en termes lingüístics, la utilització de typos per designar la interpretació tipològica de l’Antic Testament. Així, en 1 Cor 10, 1-11 estableix una relació entre l’Èxode del poble hebreu i els sagraments del baptisme i l’eucaristia, en què el cas del baptisme, el núvol prefigurava l’Esperit i el mar l’aigua; i en el cas de l’eucaristia, el mannà i l’aigua s’inter- pretaven com a prefiguracions de les pa i del vi del Sant Sopar.

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New Challenges, New Focuses, and a New Generation of Designers

New Challenges, New Focuses, and a New Generation of Designers

From what I’ve seen in recent years, some universities in the United States and Europe are moving beyond aca- demic theory to incorporate design for social innovation into other disciplines. I’m thinking about designers who are taking people-centered design approaches to public health services, designing policies for senior citizens and services for the city, and other such initiatives. For me it’s very heartening to see that, over the course of the next decade, our universities may be able to also educate de- signers specializing in this area and, as you say, open up new spaces for change.

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The book of the twelve and the new form criticism

The book of the twelve and the new form criticism

Boda, Mark J., Michael H. Floyd and Colin M. Toffelmire, eds. The book of the twelve and the new form criticism [en línea]. Ancient Near East Monographs = Monografías sobre el Antiguo Cercano Oriente 10. Buenos Aires : Society of Biblical Literature ; Centro de Estudios de Historia del Antiguo Oriente, Universidad Católica Argentina, 2015. Disponible en:

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Mapping Judah's fate in Ezekiel's oracles against the nations

Mapping Judah's fate in Ezekiel's oracles against the nations

pointing me to many valuable references. The feedback of the editors and re- viewers of my articles at Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (on Ezek 25) and Journal for the Study of the Old Testament (on Ezek 28) has helped sharpen my argument in various sections of the book. Parts of those arti- cles are reused in chapters two and three with the permission of the editors. I am indebted to Prof. Herrie van Rooy and Prof. Hans van Deventer for accepting me as a postdoctoral research fellow at the North-West University in South Af- rica, where I completed the final editing before publication. I cannot express enough thanks to Prof. Alan Lenzi, the General Editor of the SBL Ancient Near Eastern Monograph Series, who graciously accepted the manuscript, went through it with efficiency and erudition, and drew my attention to various rele- vant ancient Near Eastern materials. The anonymous reviewers of my manu- script provided highly useful comments for the improvement of my arguments. Nicole Tilford, the Production Manager of the SBL Press, went to great lengths in supervising my preparation of the printer-ready manuscript. Participating in this innovative online open-access endeavour has brought me much satisfaction and joy.

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