ity of pasture silages (Ibáñez and Alomar, 2008; Restaino et al., 2009), as well as dried and fresh pastures (Cozzolino and Labandera, 2002; Alomar et al., 2009; Burns et al., 2013; Lobos-Ortega et al., 2013; Moscoso and Balocchi, 2016). It has also been used to evaluate how forage sample preparation affects nutrient composition analysis (Alomar et al., 2003), green forage intake and digestibility in ruminants (Decruyenaere et al., 2009), and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stolon samples of white clover (Inostroza et al., 2017). NIRS has also been used to characterize and quantify isoflavones and phenolic acid contents in red and white clover (Krähmer et al., 2013). Although NIRS is a quick and relatively low-cost technology, prediction equations for assessing nutritional quality have mostly been developed using leave-one-out cross validation (Garcia and Cozzolino, 2006; Ibáñez and Alomar, 2008; Alomar et al., 2009; Restaino et al., 2009; Burns et al., 2013). These equations do not typically utilize a independent test set to generate a robust model to predict an unknown pasture sample.
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In any case, the fact that the application of Quito- max at any of the concentrations used increased the soluble solid content and the antioxidant power of the fruit demonstrates improvement in the nutritional quality of this agricultural product. Among the main functions of vegetable consumption, vegetables such as pepper con- tribute antioxidant substances such as vitamin C, carotenes or polyphenols to humans. These substances eliminate or neutralize oxidants that occurs in vital processes such as photosynthesis
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Potatoes are the most widely cultivated tubers and also a valuable source of nutrients and non- nutrient health-promoting compounds. Cultivars with pigmented skin and flesh are of especial interest due to the presence of high concentrations of carotenoids, anthocyanins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Several investigations have focused on the characterization of native and wild potato accessions, particularly highly pigmented genotypes in order to broaden the overall genetic variation in terms of commercial and processing aptitude, pest resistance and nutritional quality. However, the incorporation of some of these traits into new breeding lines at the tetraploid level is hampered by the presence of detrimental traits as well as varying ploidy levels. Therefore, a set of ten highly-pigmented tetraploid cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) was selected and characterized on the basis of tuber morphology, pest resistance and nutritional related traits in order to select parental lines for breeding. Attractive colors and color patterns with potential for the potato snack industry have been identified. Varying degrees of resistance to Globodera spp. and Phythophora infestans, which are considered major threats for the crop, have been found among the collection of pigmented cultivars. Nutritional quality related parameters including significantly higher levels of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, carotenoids, vitamin C and micronutrients (Zn and Fe) were found when compared with the commercial cultivars used as checks. These findings could assist in the selection of parents (progenitors) towards the introduction of interesting traits into new potato advanced clones at the tetraploid level, without the problems derived from ploidy levels and non-commercial characteristics.
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A. Velásquez, P. Marnet, and R. Arias. 2015. Improvement in nutritional quality of fibrous food via in vitro digestion by Aspergillus niger. Cien. Inv. Agr. 42(1): 45-55. In a first experiment, the effect of in vitro incubation with Aspergillus niger (An) on the chemical composition of different fibrous substrates was studied. In a second experiment, the effect of incubation time (0, 72 and 144 h) on in vitro digestion with An of dry matter (IVDMD), neutral detergent fiber (DVNDF) and acid detergent fiber (DVADF) was evaluated for different substrates. Wheat straw, WS; barley straw, BS; oat hulls, OH; dehydrated alfalfa, DA; and dehydrated ryegrass, DB substrates were evaluated. In both experiments, incubations were performed in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks; 2 g of substrate was added to a culture medium (pH = 6), and incubated at 28 °C with constant ventilation. The An dose consisted of 3 mL of a solution of 5.3 × 10 6 spores mL -1 per flask. Incubation time for the first experiment was 144
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The industrial manufacturing of fruits and vegetables generates approximately 50% by- product waste, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. Nevertheless, fruit and vegetable by-products (FVB) are rich nutrients and extranutritional compounds that contribute to bowel health, weight management, lower blood cholesterol levels and improved control of glycemic and insulin responses. Due to the positive influence of FVB fibers and bioactive compounds during the digestion of glycemic carbohydrates, such as starch, baked goods are ideal food systems to accommodate FVB, since most of them have a high glycemic index. Therefore, this is an area of recent interest with critical environmental, economic and health implications worldwide. However, the utilization of FVB in baked goods leads to the loss of acceptability, in many cases caused by a lack of understanding of the physical structure and composition of FVB and their effects on food quality. The objective of this review is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the impact of the physical structure and composition of FVB on common baked goods and their influence on the nutritional and physical quality of the resulting product. This review will support the use of FVB as ideal ingredients while improving the added value of waste streams.
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As meagre is considered an emerging species in European aquaculture (Monfort 2010), numerous stud- ies related to rearing conditions and growth have been conducted in recent years with a view to improving production (Piccolo et al. 2008, Roo et al. 2010, Es- tévez et al. 2011, Vargas-Chacoff et al. 2014, Velazco- Vargas et al. 2014). In contrast, the main objective of this study was to determine the optimal rearing pro- tocol for obtaining juveniles suitable for restocking, considering both biological and economic aspects. To this end, growth, physiological quality (body condition indices), nutritional quality (tissue composition) and cost of seven different diets were compared to identify the optimal diet for producing juveniles of a desired re- lease size at the lowest cost, thus facilitating the release of the greatest number of specimens.
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Our study did not detect any overall trade-off between chemical and structural traits in Z. noltei plants, which contrasts with predictions based on the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis. Our data show that the breaking force of Z. noltei leaves positively correlates to phenolic content, thus supporting the link between phenolics and structural defences also found by Read et al.  in terrestrial systems. According to the defence syndrome hypothesis against herbivory , the syndrome of low vulnerability plants corresponds to high defences (structural and phenolics) and low nutritional quality. However, in our study, the role of Z. nol- tei phenolics as feeding deterrents was not evidenced for mesograzers. This ambiguous deter- rence efficacy of total phenolics is in agreement with previous studies in seagrasses reporting either a preference for seagrass tissues with higher levels of total phenolics by herbivorous urchins  and fishes  or no effect of increased levels of total phenolics in response to simulated or direct grazing in consumption by isopods or urchins [57, 80]. Furthermore, co- variation of high nitrogen content and low phenolics often found in seagrasses, may confound their effects in mediating herbivore preferences . The relationship between structural defences and phenolics that we observed can be understood at the light of other defensive roles of phenolics. In fact, phenolic compounds are wide-spectrum chemical defences that may act as feeding deterrents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and UV screens [16, 81, 82], but they can also be incorporated into the lignin of cell walls acting as precursors of structural defences [83, 84]. Our data support a positive association rather than a trade-off between multiple chemical and structural traits across meadows, which has also been found in terrestrial systems [72, 85]. Previous studies suggest that most traits involved in defence have more than one function, which constraints
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Likewise, it is very important to consider the patient’s unintended weight loss over a given time period as part of the initial nutritional assessment and monitor- ing. A percentage of weight loss (% WL) that is cons (NRS) 10, significant at 3 months is 7.5%, and severe if >7.5%. Dietary intake must be simultaneously eval- uated 13 . Level of evidence B, strength of recommen-
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9. Ensure all recommendations are incorporated into the plan/proposal package 10. Input actual finish date (PPMS Task No. 3870) into the appropriate data system. 11. Complete and forward a copy of the Submission of Final Plan/Proposal Package to Quality Assurance and Lettings to verify an OEC Meeting has been held and the project has been completed (shelf projects only).
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abdominal muscle tissue was selected because previous studies conducted on crustaceans have shown only small differences in nitrogen isotopic ratios between muscle and whole body samples (Stenroth et al., 2006; Gamboa-Delgado and Le Vay, 2009b; Gamboa- Delgado et al., 2011). Such similarity also indicates that isotopic routing effects were not significant (e.g. dietary elements were not differently allocated to muscle tissue). At the end of the experiment, ∆ 15 N and ∆ 13 C values between shrimp and their respective experimental diets were very contrasting and ranged from 0.3 to 5.8‰ for nitrogen and from -0.1 to 2.7‰ for carbon. Even though the ∆ 15 N and ∆ 13 C values are necessary to apply correction factors in the mixing models, these isotopic discrimination factors are frequently unknown or difficult to estimate when conducting nutritional or ecological studies. Under these situations, average values are taken from the literature despite the fact that wide variations in the ∆ 15 N and ∆ 13 C values have been reported (Caut et al., 2009). There is an ongoing discussion about what causes these isotopic discrimination factors, and although increasing evidence indicates that high ∆ 15 N values are related to a higher demand for specific
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FM and TY showed very contrasting δ 15 N values (16.9 ±0.1 and 1.1 ±0.1 ‰, respectively). This significant difference allowed formulating isotopically contrasting diets that elicited a wide range of trends in the isotopic changes occurring in shrimps under the different treatments (Fig. 1). The high range of isotopic values in diets and ingredients facilitated both, assessment of nitrogen metabolic turnover rate and estimation of dietary contributions to growth. All diets exerted a rapid influence on the isotopic values of muscle tissue and by day 22, shrimps in all treatments reached isotopic equilibrium with their respective diets. δ 15 N values in muscle of shrimps reared on mixed compound diets closely matched the isotopic values of the experimental diets. ∆ 15 N values between animals and their respective diets were very contrasting but correlated (r 2 = 0.94) to the increasing dietary inclusion levels of TY. Average ∆ 15 N values reported in the literature are close to 3.0 ‰ (McCutchan et al. 2003, Caut et al. 2009) and are frequently applied to correct for ∆ 15 N values when estimating nutritional contributions in a wide range of animal taxa.
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customer’s point of connection. Moreover, a guaranteed high quality of voltage supply requires large investments in the network. Among various PQ problems, mainly harmonics in the network often interact adversely with the network components and cause inconveniences to the network operators. The operations of power electronic devices produce harmonic currents that lead to additional harmonic power flow and increase network’s total apparent power demand while decrease true power factor of the network. Large harmonic current can also cause overloading and extra power losses in the network components. In extreme cases, it can lead to high thermal stresses and early ageing of the network devices. Imposing penalties to the harmonic producing customers is not presently feasible because of the lack of proper measuring devices. Harmonic currents when combined with high grid impedance increases voltage distortions in the network and in extreme situation can shift zero-crossing points of the supply voltage waveform. This increases noise and electromagnetic interference in the network. Transformers, cables and power-factor correction (PFC) capacitors are the network components that mainly get affected by PQ disturbances and are discussed briefly in the following sub-sections.
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Usability can be related to the IQ and EQ focuses, while UX to the QinU focus . We have defined in  the Usability, Actual Usability (Usability in use) and UX concepts that are included in the 2Q2U v2.0 quality models , which are basically an extension of the ISO 25010 models. Usability is the “degree to which the product or system has attributes that enable it to be understood, learned, operated, error protected, attractive and accessible to the user, when used under specified conditions”. This definition considers Product and System entity super-categories so Usability and its sub-characteristics (i.e. Understandability, Learnability, Operability, User error protection, UI aesthetics and Accessibility) are related to the IQ and EQ focuses respectively. On the other side, we have defined Actual UX as “degree to which a system in use enable specified users to meet their needs to achieve specific goals with satisfaction, actual usability, and freedom from risk in specified contexts of use.” . This definition considers the System-in-Use entity super-category so UX and its sub-characteristics (i.e. Satisfaction, and Actual Usability, etc.) are related to the QinU focus. As a consequence, Usability and UX are linked mainly to the three yellow-colored quality views represented in Fig. 2. That is, Usability is a characteristic related to the Product and System Quality views, and UX to the System- in-Use Quality view. This clear separation of concerns between Usability concepts and quality views and their relationships foster a more robust evaluation and improvement approach, as we discuss later on.
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Abstract: This study investigated faculty members’ perceptions of quality assurance and accreditation (QAA) in Afghanistan. The study aimed to examine how familiar faculty members were with QAA policy, quality concepts, QAA processes, and whether QAA process has improved the status quo. Through a sequential, exploratory mixed-methods design, the investigators interviewed seven faculty members at four universities and subsequently conducted a self- administered survey questionnaire at six universities (two public and four private). A response rate of 54 percent (N = 42) was obtained from the survey. The study findings suggest that faculty members had mixed impressions about QAA implementation. For instance, an overall sum of mean scores shows that faculty members have a positive view about QAA processes M = 3.5 (SD = .75); however, interview participants were less satisfied with QAA outcomes. Lastly, one important implication of the study is that successful implementation of QAA processes in Afghanistan is contingent on: (a) establishment of a quality culture wherein universities own the processes and outcomes, and (b) engagement of key stakeholders including faculty, staff, and administrators, who must internalize QAA processes to improve the status quo.
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a person responsible for its management, and confirmation to customer about the initiation of the resolution process, the customer is more likely to perceive that the company diligently attempting to solve the problem. Homburg & Fürst (2005, 2010) show that the quality of the norms established by the company for the complaint management process positively affect customers’ evaluations. Accordingly, we posit that the existence of a well-defined protocol of action by the organization, with an adequate allocation of tasks and responsible personnel for its implementation, can improve customers’ perception of justice to the extent that a competent and user-friendly complaint management system conveys a sense of security and confidence to customers. Conversely, procedures that are inconsistent or arbitrary, especially those that cause disruption to the customer, can contribute to a higher cost for customers and lower their assessment of justice (Tax et al. 1998). Given this discussion, we state our next hypothesis:
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Introduction the stage of adolescence is a vital process to become adults, where physiologically many changes are going to occur and eating habits will significantly influence this process. Pregnant women should maintain a balanced, varied and sufficient diet to avoid future nutritional complications related to inadequate intake, producing imperfections in fetal growth and development. Objective to assess the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents and identify the socio-psycho-cultural and intrafamilial factors that influence it. Materials and methods Quantitative, descriptive and transversal. Technique: Observation and Direct Survey. Instrument: Questions questionnaire and direct observation matrix directed to pregnant teenagers. Results pregnant adolescents between 17 to 19 years of age who were in the second trimester of pregnancy, with complications characterized by low weight, anemia, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Discussion they live in precarious conditions or in an environment of violence, so that the maintenance of pregnancy or the growth of the infant will become difficult. Conclusions The pregnant adolescent is considered high risk due to the complications involved from the anato-physiological structure.
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Dietary intake assessment, which is a key part of nutritional status analysis for both individuals and populations, is complicated for several reasons. Firstly, it is difficult to define appropriate samples representing various strata of the older population, e.g. free-living, homebound, institutionalized, healthy and sick. Secondly, the accuracy of nutrient-intake data is poor, especially in free-living older populations, because of limitations related to food-intake assessment methods and the completeness and accuracy of food composition tables. Thirdly, only a very limited number of controlled metabolic studies have been performed on older people to define requirements for several nutrients. Nevertheless, information on dietary intake is crucial and every effort should continue to be made to gather it. There are numerous methods including diet histories and recalls, diet records (kept by study participants or observed by research staff), and food-frequency question- naires. Choice of method depends on the goal of the study or survey, available personnel and funds, the literacy of the target population and cultural factors.
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Para evaluar el estado nutricional se utilizó el Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Esta es una herramienta que consiste en 18 preguntas, divididas en cuatro bloques. El primer bloque hace referencia a la condición antropométrica (circunferencia braquial, circunferencia de pantorrilla, índice de masa corporal y pérdida de peso); el segundo bloque, con seis pre- guntas, está dedicado a la evaluación global; el tercer bloque se encarga de la valoración de los hábitos die- téticos, y el cuarto bloque contiene la evaluación sub- jetiva de la calidad de salud y nutrición del paciente. 8,9
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López (2010) proposes a causal model that identifies some factors that affect the management of school organizations and the relationships between these factors, as well as the effect that management has on the quality of education of these organizations, integrating key factors such as educational leadership, planning and strategy, resource manage- ment, processes, people management, satisfaction, and results. It manages to identify key relationships among them, highlighting how school administration is fundamental for the development of educational institutions and in general points out that the factors that associate the dimensions of leadership, resources and processes, have a significant statis- tical effect on the variable results. The importance of the proposed model lies on the fact, that in addition to identifying the factors that affect the quality of education, the existing relationships within these are shown, which helps principals and governments to make better decisions related with the improvement of the quality of education of the system in general and of the institutions in particular.
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A second challenge is that quality is a multidimensional concept (Green, 1994; Vlăsceanu et al., 2007; Westerheijden, et al., 2007). Therefore, reducing the concept to a one- sentence definition is problematic. In some cases, such definitions are one-dimensional, lack meaning and specificity, or are too general to be operationalized (Eagle & Brennan, 2007). For example, the following definition of quality is written so broadly that it is difficult to decipher its meaning or how it could be consistently applied in higher education: “the embodiment of the essential nature of a person, collective, object, action, process or organization” (Harvey, 2014, “Quality”). A third challenge is that quality is not a static but rather a dynamic, ever-changing pursuit of excellence that must be considered in the context of the larger educational, economic, political, and social landscape (Bobby, 2014; Ewell, 2010; Harvey, 2005; Harvey & Williams, 2010; Opre & Opre, 2006; Singh, 2010). For example, dwindling public trust in higher education has prompted institutions to refocus efforts on producing concrete evidence of student learning to funding bodies and customers rather than focusing on achieving prestige (Amaral & Rosa, 2010; Ewell, 2010). Given the challenges of defining quality, there are a number of disparate definitions in the literature. In the next section, themes across definitions and strategies used to define quality are examined.
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