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Public policies of integration of immigrants. Successes and failures in Venezuela

Public policies of integration of immigrants. Successes and failures in Venezuela

This article is a product of a literature review - documentary. Its objective is to make an outline and analysis of immigrant care policies in Venezuela from 1989 to 2019. It is structured in four sections: the first shows a synchronous route of the migratory phenomenon towards Venezuela since the 20th century, with the main features of the time; in the second, the policies aimed at immigrants are theoretically known, from 1989 to 1999, later the governmental moment of President Hugo Chávez is charac- terized, which has distinctive features in relation to the rest of the presidential periods. Similarly, the policies called missions are included and contrasted with the support of some authors (Montero, 2000; Gómez, 2006; Lastre, 2006.) In the third section, the legal framework for migrants in Venezuela and the current situation of immigrants in Venezuelan territory are detailed. In addition, a fourth section, which indicates the method, which had a qualitative approach, under a documentary - bibliographic level. The fifth and last section, dedicated to the conclusions details, by way of discussion and analysis, the significant elements respective to the evaluation of public policies dedicated to migration, the current situation of human mobility in Venezuela, together with the reiteration that New mechanisms must be created to facilitate the reception of foreigners to the country, such as public policies in the area of migrants.

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Evaluation of the Relational Integration of Immigrants in Mixed Unions Based on an Analysis of their Personal Networks

Evaluation of the Relational Integration of Immigrants in Mixed Unions Based on an Analysis of their Personal Networks

endogamous couples, although the diffe- rence does not come from the partner’s fa- mily but rather, from that of the respondent. That is, the interviewed individuals paired with others of the same ethnic origin men- tion, on average, a higher number of actors from their own families (particularly in the case of women), but there is no clearly de- fined pattern for the mixed unions. In family ties, there is a pattern that is more linked to gender, since women tend to name a higher percentage of their partner's relatives (more pronounced in the endogamous unions). Friendships, on the other hand, tend to be more popular in the networks of immigrants in mixed unions, with more than half of the ties (53%) being found between men. This first perspective is completed with the den- sity values (Table 2), higher in the groups of endogamous couples, suggesting that the personal networks of men, but even more so for endogamous women, gravitate towards a family environment, forming a network of more compact relations than those formed by the mixed couples. In terms of integration, this type of more den- se networks tends to be symptomatic of a decreased opening to heterogeneous worlds, unlinked to some degree, which could, eventually, increase the number of available resources. In some way, the mean number of network components, higher amongst the women in the mixed couples (Table 2), reinforces the previous com- ments.

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Value contribution of immigrants to society through entrepreneurship

Value contribution of immigrants to society through entrepreneurship

The immigrant entrepreneurship is a response to situations of precarious wage& income conditions (Dieng, 2002; cited by Abussi & García-Quero, 2012), employment discrimination, unemployment or reduced social mobility (Ward & Jenkins, 1984; Aldrich & Waldinger, 1990, Sassen, 1995; Hones ... [et al], 2000, cited by Abussi & Garcia-Quero, 2012). Blanco (2000) notes that sometimes, the mere fact of being an immigrant, can lead to rejection in the host society. However, we have observed that besides undertaking start-up businesses as the unique labor option, many immigrants assume this path because they essentially prefer running their own business (Osorio & Lopez -Estrada, 2010).

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Heritage Language Bilingualism and Self-identity: The Case of Children of Immigrants in Spain

Heritage Language Bilingualism and Self-identity: The Case of Children of Immigrants in Spain

El artículo de Elizabeth Peal y Wallace Lam- bert «The Relation of Bilingualism to Intelligen- ce», publicado en 1962, es conocido sobre todo por desafiar los argumentos sobre el efecto perjudicial del bilingüismo y por intro- ducir la noción de la ventaja intelectual de los bilingües. Nuestro propósito aquí es, sin em- bargo, tratar su otro hallazgo, uno sobre las actitudes sociales de los bilingües. Este estu- dio mostró que los bilingües en inglés-francés tendían a identificarse más con los canadien- ses anglófonos que con los canadienses fran- cófonos, mientras los monolingües francófo- nos tendían a preferir a los canadienses francófonos. Si bien las disposiciones de los monolingües eran comprensibles, el resultado para el grupo bilingüe requería más interpre- tación. Peal y Lambert (1962) cuestionaron particularmente si las actitudes más favora- bles de los bilingües hacia los canadienses anglófonos implicaban necesariamente unas actitudes menos favorables hacia los cana- dienses francófonos. Su respuesta, aunque es conjetural, merece nuestra atención.

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Evaluacin de la integracin relacional de los inmigrantes en uniones mixtas a partir del anlisis de redes personales

Evaluacin de la integracin relacional de los inmigrantes en uniones mixtas a partir del anlisis de redes personales

endogamous couples, although the diffe- rence does not come from the partner’s fa- mily but rather, from that of the respondent. That is, the interviewed individuals paired with others of the same ethnic origin men- tion, on average, a higher number of actors from their own families (particularly in the case of women), but there is no clearly de- fined pattern for the mixed unions. In family ties, there is a pattern that is more linked to gender, since women tend to name a higher percentage of their partner's relatives (more pronounced in the endogamous unions). Friendships, on the other hand, tend to be more popular in the networks of immigrants in mixed unions, with more than half of the ties (53%) being found between men. This first perspective is completed with the den- sity values (Table 2), higher in the groups of endogamous couples, suggesting that the personal networks of men, but even more so for endogamous women, gravitate towards a family environment, forming a network of more compact relations than those formed by the mixed couples. In terms of integration, this type of more den- se networks tends to be symptomatic of a decreased opening to heterogeneous worlds, unlinked to some degree, which could, eventually, increase the number of available resources. In some way, the mean number of network components, higher amongst the women in the mixed couples (Table 2), reinforces the previous com- ments.

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Monográfico Migraciones internacionales: procesos de incorporación en Iberoamérica

Monográfico Migraciones internacionales: procesos de incorporación en Iberoamérica

country of arrival for Latin Americans, the same as Portugal in the case of Brazilians (Padilla, 2009.) This new socio-spatial reality, dynamic and complex, raises multiple challenges, lectures and valuations around multicultural coexistence and social development in the receiving cities, calling the interest of the social sciences in Ibero-America, which has translated into a greater number of research projects, specialization courses, study centers and national and international interregional and transatlantic collaboration that reflect on migration, coexistence and social integration. These changes have led former emigration countries to become migration desti- nations (Spain and Portugal; Mexico), and conversely, that old immigration destinations (Ve- nezuela) have become expellers of immigrants (Gissi, Ghio and Silva, 2019), or that host both emigration and immigration, reality that became evident in the Iberian Peninsula during the last world crisis (Padilla and Ortiz 2012) or in the new migratory context in Latin America (Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil), currently very marked by the Venezuelan exodus. Inclusively, it has become evident how political and electoral processes increasingly influence immigration (França and Padilla, 2018), for example, in the last two years, the growth of Brazilian migration to Portugal has accelerated, reaching an increase in 43% from 2018 to 2019.

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INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OUTLOOK 2009: SPECIAL FOCUS: MANAGING LABOUR MIGRATION BEYOND THE CRISIS

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OUTLOOK 2009: SPECIAL FOCUS: MANAGING LABOUR MIGRATION BEYOND THE CRISIS

In Australia, some states have established programmes to overcome the problem of overqualification among recent skilled independent migrants, that is, the tendency for them to be working in jobs for which they are formally overqualified. In Victoria, for example, the Overseas Qualified Professionals Program (OQPP) provides recently arrived professionals who acquired their skills abroad with a work-experience placement, to enhance their opportunities for employment in their profession. The participants must be either unemployed or employed in low-skilled jobs. The programme consists of an initial six-week training period to develop job- search skills, followed by a four to six-week work-experience placement in their field or in a closely related occupation. The work-placement component is generally not remunerated. The programme includes mentoring elements and industry-specific networking sessions with employers and professional associations to provide further orientation and networking opportunities. Six months after completing the programme, more than 60% of participants were in paid employment in a field corresponding to their skills and experience. In Sweden, a “Trial opportunity” programme was launched in 2004 for individuals who lacked work experience in Sweden. The purpose of the programme was to give immigrants an opportunity, at an early stage, to demonstrate their knowledge and competence in an authentic working atmosphere at a private company, public institution or non-profit organisation. If the trial opportunity is not followed by an actual job offer, the individual receives a certificate from the employer. The scheme can be combined with an assessment of professional skills. The programme was initiated by the Confederation of Swedish Enterprises and the Swedish authorities to improve the labour market participation of immigrants. About 40% of the participating immigrants had a job three months after the scheme. More recently, the Government has assigned a number of universities and colleges to arrange supplementary courses for people with a foreign university degree in law, education, health and public administration. The programme was introduced to provide an opportunity to adjust foreign credentials to the Swedish labour market and thereby facilitate access to employment for highly-skilled immigrants in their field of study.

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Salud mental y estrategias de aculturación en inmigrantes colombianos y peruanos en el norte de Chile

Salud mental y estrategias de aculturación en inmigrantes colombianos y peruanos en el norte de Chile

Migration is understood as the movement of a group of people from one territory or state to another, or within it, whatever its size, composition or causes (IOM, 2006). In recent years, given the perception of Chile’s economic stability and security, this country has become a migration destination for individuals and families seeking opportu- nities and conditions not found in their homeland, mainly from neighboring South American countries, that is to say, from Peru, Ecuador and Colombia (ECLAC / CELADE, 2006; Stefoni, 2011). This immigration is characterized for coming from the border, since approximately 57% of the total migrant population during the period of 2005-2014, came from countries like Peru (31,7%), Argentina,(16,3% ) and Bolivia (8,8%). Additional sources of immigrants from other South American countries amount to 73% if Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil are added (DEM 2016).

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Hepatitis C Virus Infection Outcomes Among Immigrants to Canada: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis

Hepatitis C Virus Infection Outcomes Among Immigrants to Canada: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis

Introduction and aim. HCV-infected immigrants contribute to the total prevalence in Canada and other developed nations. Little is known about engagement in care, access to service, and treatment outcomes in recipients of Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) HCV therapies among immigrants living with HCV. Material and methods. Material and methods. Material and methods. Material and methods. Material and methods. HCV patients assessed at The Ottawa Hospital Viral Hep- atitis Clinic between 2000-2016 were identified. Immigration history, race, socioeconomic status, HCV work-up, treatment and out- come data were evaluated. HCV fibrosis assessment, treatment and sustained virologic response (SVR) were compared using logistic regression. Results. Results. Results. Results. Results. 2,335 HCV-infected patients were analyzed with 91% (2114) having data on immigration (23% immi- grants). A median 16 years (Quartiles: 5, 29) passed from immigration to referral. Access to diagnostic procedures (Fibroscan/liver biopsy) was greater among immigrants compared to Canadian-born (78% vs. 68%, p = 0.001) and immigrants had an odds ratio of 1.72 (95% CI: 1.18-2.51) of receiving a FibroScan compared to Canadians after adjustment for demographic characteristics, HCV risk factors, and socioeconomic status. No differences in SVR were found between immigrants for IFN recipients. Among DAA re- cipients, rates of SVR were > 94% among all patients, 93% in Canadian-born and 98% among immigrants (p = 0.14). Conclusion. Conclusion. Conclusion. Conclusion. Conclusion. Nearly 80% of immigrants in this setting had access to fibrosis assessment which was higher than Canadian-born patients. Under half of both groups had initiated HCV therapy. Delays in accessing HCV care represent a missed opportunity to engage, treat and cure HCV patients. HCV screening and health care engagement at the time of immigration would optimize HCV care and therapeutic outcomes.

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Medellin: an atractive city of destination for Venezuelan immigrants

Medellin: an atractive city of destination for Venezuelan immigrants

This article aims to provide a road map to generate novel and useful insights for future studies of Latin migration by analyzing the specific case of Venezuelan immigrants living in the city of Medellin in Colombia. Medellin is currently Colombia’s second largest city which has recently attracted migrants with different profiles due to an amazing process of social and economic transformation that has made of it the host of international events as the World Urban Forum 2014 (Rodin, 2014) and awarded in 2013 as the most innovative city of the world (El Tiempo, 2013). Namur (2013) connects that transformation with the high levels of investment done on integration and infrastructure, also related with the role of big companies linked with the region. During the first decade of 2000, approximately 16% of the city’s economically active population was composed by immigrants: 29.7% of those were international migrants (Robbins & Salinas, 2006). In 2014, consular procedures and services to foreigners in Medellin were around 7.200, which represented a 19% growth rate compared with 2013 (El Tiempo, 2014) and meaning biggest presence of immigrants in the city.

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Guidance in the diversity: a glance from Latin America

Guidance in the diversity: a glance from Latin America

Definitively one of the most favorable options for the boarding of the diversity constitutes an action from the Education, and concretely from the School, like institution of the State. “the best way to take care of the diversity will be to elaborate projects and programming that favor those habitual changes that the teaching staff introduces in his even education to give answers to the individual differences in learning styles, interests or learning difficulties transitory” (Peña and Lopez, 2005, p.32) In this sense is right to recognize that in many receiving societies of immigrants of Latin America important efforts for the attention to the cultural diversity have become, but have apparently not been sufficient. Perhaps the idea that needs to be reinforced is that Guidance has to be for all, and also displays characteristics that allow including characteristics of a Guidance adapted to the ethnic characteristics (Ethnic Guidance) of each specific group. We lived in a global society, but that exists thanks to that we recognize the particularities. The global thing exists because the local exists.

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Job search, social interactions and labor market performance of low-skilled immigrants

Job search, social interactions and labor market performance of low-skilled immigrants

In the last two decades, economists have recognized that immigrants make extensive use of their immigrant networks when deciding to migrate and during their stay in the host country. A way in which immigrants utilize their networks is to find information on potential employers during their job search. It thus seems natural to question what the consequences of using the immigrants' networks as a job search strategy are, and whether the size of the network matters. In this paper we develop an on-the-job search model in which immigrants may look for a job using formal and informal channels (i.e. their networks). In order to account for differences in the quality of job offers, we assume that the distributions of wage offers of the network and the formal channels are different. Moreover, the probability of receiving a wage offer through the informal channels depends in a non- linear fashion on the network size, both while employed and while unemployed. Our model predicts that under certain conditions, an immigrant looking for a job through a large network may hurt his/her labor market outcomes. The model also predicts that an increase in the network size could lead to clustering into the network jobs if some restrictions hold.

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A newspaper for immigrants: Spanish-Italian interference in Expreso Latino

A newspaper for immigrants: Spanish-Italian interference in Expreso Latino

These media are normally – although sometimes not exclusively –, organized by migrants and oriented toward migrants; they can be addressed to a specific nationality or, in a wider sense, to migrants that share some circumstances (such as language), but not necessarily their country of origin. According once again to Gómez Escalonilla (2008), these media allow migrants to keep some links with their country of origin (which could be especially important for the second generation migrants), while at the same time help migrants to establish links with the culture of their new place of residence. These media can also help to put different groups of migrants in contact, who could share some common interests. This is the context in which we should examine the newspaper Expreso Latino.

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Framing immigrants as seekers of social benefits: the impact of the Great Recession at the family level and the development of anti immigrant anxieties

Framing immigrants as seekers of social benefits: the impact of the Great Recession at the family level and the development of anti immigrant anxieties

We conceived the variable characterization of immigrants as seekers of social benefits based on a categorical survey question formulated as “In your opinion, what do you think is the most common reason for immigrants [from other countries] to come to [country name]?” Respondents were offered five different choices namely 1=to be united with family members, 2=to seek asylum, 3=to seek social benefits, 4=to work, and 5=to study. Additionally, the survey included three specific categories to place spontaneous responses like none of the above, don‟t know and refusal. We re-coded such survey question to create the dichotomous variable characterization of immigrants as seekers of social benefits, which was measured as 1=respondent meets the condition of expressing that the most common reason for immigrants to come was to seek social benefits versus 0=respondent does not meet the condition (i.e., all the categories but to seek social benefits, including none of the above, and don´t know). The current study used characterization of immigrants as seekers of social benefits as the dependent variable to assess the association between framing immigrants and the personal impact of the Great Recession. Descriptive statistics is provided in table 2.

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Ultimate attainment of Spanish rhotics by native English speaking immigrants to Spain

Ultimate attainment of Spanish rhotics by native English speaking immigrants to Spain

broadly. Two directions for future study emerge from the present study. First, given the large degree of individual variation among the immigrant learners in this study, future studies need to consider what speaker variables correlate with differences in performance. The limited number of participants and the nature of the information collected through the questionnaire did not permit a variationist study of the factors affecting rhotic pronunciation in this study, and this leaves questions unanswered with respect to the factors that correlate with more native-like pronunciation. Are there certain personal, experiential or other characteristics that correlate to higher level performance? This knowledge would allow for determining which of the correlating factors could be manipulated by learners in order to facilitate advancement in their second language phonological development. Second, future studies should investigate the degree to which the differences found between learners and native speakers matter in the perception of foreign accent. That is, how close to native-like must a learner get in producing rhotics for the difference to be inconsequential in contributing to a foreign accent? At what point does the difference become imperceptible? If the differences contribute to the perception of a foreign accent, this would have implications for the identity of the learner interacting with those in the culture. If, however, the differences do not contribute to the learner being perceived as having a foreign accent, then these differences may be interesting to linguistics scholars but have no consequence to the learner from a practical perspective. Teasing apart the effects of different aspects of learner pronunciation on foreign accent will be a challenging task, but it is an important area for future studies to consider.

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Proyecto fin de master: Spanish inmigration and Salaam

Proyecto fin de master: Spanish inmigration and Salaam

fees. The CM ultimately saves on costs through our programs by avoiding the beauracy it would take to roll out extra language classes and getting funding for every school in Madrid, making this a mutually beneficial partnership. Because we operate in the most densely populated immigrant communities we achieve their integration needs and objectives without them having to make drastic changes and additions in every school. Individual Schools in Each Neighborhood: Though our partnerships with these schools works on an individual level there is an open dialogue between all of us. In addition one school sends a representative to our Board of Directors each year. We rotate the different neighborhoods to give each a chance in voicing their needs and opinions (though this representive is charged with speaking for all the schools as a whole.) This partnership obviously grants us with a direct connection to our target beneficiaries. Because schools have recently been so overwhelmed with the high enrollment of immigrant students one of their first acts when enrolling the student is contacting us. Schools and teacher do not yet have the training, capacity, or resources to carry out regular scholasic functions and integrate these children through extra tutoring sessions and language courses so they depend on us to fill these needs for them. In order to help us carry out our much needed programs they provide us with access to teachers, coaches, volunteers, resources, classrooms, and a variety of other necesities. Teachers have given us positive feedback in regards to students who have learned the Spanish language relatively quickly, the decrease seen in bad behavior from previously disengaged kids, and the speed at which students with no former education are catching up to Spanish peers. They´ve noticed a positive change in their immigrant students who now seem happier, more attentive, and eager for the future. Most importantly these institutions serve as a support network and recommendation when it comes time to apply for government funds. Through their testimonials, officials are able to see the cost effective added value we provide to their school board and the great pressure we take off their schools and teachers. Thanks to our programs vandalism, drug use, and violence are at record lows in the six neighborhoods we operate in.

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Enfermedades infecciosas importadas en inmigrantes internacionales  Dos décadas de experiencia

Enfermedades infecciosas importadas en inmigrantes internacionales Dos décadas de experiencia

Once NTDs are imported into non-endemic areas, the possibility of transmission and the resulting impact should be considered. In general, the epidemiology of infectious diseases will be influenced by the interactions between pathogen, host (human, animal or vector) and the environment [24], and most of these infections will have only limited transmission as the required vector may be absent and the environmental conditions unfavorable. However, there have been rising concerns regarding the emergence of some pathogens due to infectious agents being imported into novel non-endemic areas and the possibility of accidental spread of disease vectors between areas which may act as drivers for the emergence of infections [24]. Local vectors may become infected with imported infectious agents resulting in local cases as occurred in the first outbreak of chikungunya virus infection in a temperate country which was registered in Italy, where the vector, Aedes albopictus is already established [25]. Similar outbreaks could theoretically occur in other non-tropical countries and involving other vectors and other imported infectious pathogens. The prospect of possible future spread of some of the NTDs outside their usual geographical areas should therefore not be dismissed. Global changes in climate and temperatures may affect the distribution of vectors and trigger disease outbreaks and the possibility of non-vectorial transmission also emerges [24,26]. Chagas disease, paradoxically, is an NTD with a reported decreasing health and economic impact in endemic countries due to the success of multi-national control programs aimed principally at the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission [27], but the disease now appears to be emerging outside these areas [28]. In Europe, and especially in Spain, cases of Chagas disease have been increasing due to the recent increase in immigration from Latin America and the disease may become an important cause of cardiomyopathy in the near future [28]. Tainted donor blood or organ grafts and vertical transmission would be the main modes of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi imported by immigrants in countries where vectorial transmission does not occur. This growth in immigration has had sufficient impact to warrant changes in national legislation with respect to the screening of blood donations [29], and yet pregnant Latin American women

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L'ensenyament de la llengua als immigrants : les aules d'acollida

L'ensenyament de la llengua als immigrants : les aules d'acollida

En el cas de la immersió lingüística al català d’alumnes castellanoparlants el sistema educatiu garanteix el bilingüisme del professorat, de manera que tot i que a l’escola la llengua vehicular sigui el català, els alumnes poden utilitzar sempre que vulguin el castellà per fer-se entendre sense que això suposi un problema de comunicació a l’aula. Això pot motivar en certa manera l’aprenentatge del català ja que aquests alumnes no es senten obligats a aprendre català per comunicar-se i això permet una sèrie d’actituds positives cap a l’aprenentatge de la llengua. En relació amb la resta d’alumnat immigrant això no és possible i estan obligats a aprendre el català per poder-se comunicar amb els professors i alumnes de l’escola. Com millorar aquesta situació a les escoles? No ens podem plantejar el tenir professorat que parli les diferents llengües dels alumnes immigrants, ja que el nombre de nacionalitats és molt gran. Però potser si caldria un traductor/mediador que de forma rotatòria anés per les diferents escoles on hi ha alumnes no castellanoparlants per tal de setmanalment poder establir vincles de comunicació amb el professorat de l’aula d’acollida i la resta de personal docent del centre. Només així es resoldrien els dubtes que de ben segur, per una part i l’altra, es tenen al llarg del curs.

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El català i els immigrants del primer món

El català i els immigrants del primer món

1.5. OBJECTIUS I HIPÒTESIS . Pot semblar que els immigrants d’un nivell intel·lectual alt (directius de multinacionals, professionals liberals, etc.) comprenen més ràpidament la necessitat de parlar el català un cop es troben entre nosaltres, ja que el seu nivell cultural alt i la seva visió més oberta del món gràcies als seus viatges i contactes amb molt diverses cultures (al contrari de molts immigrants del tercer món que arriben a Catalunya desprès d’haver vist únicament la seva petita comarca) fa que s’obrin més al coneixement de noves llengües i noves cultures i que facin l’esforç d’entendre el fet català. La meva experiència, però, em demostra el contrari i crec que aquests immigrants del primer món rebutgen l’aprenentatge del català ja que tenen una visió global del món on no entra aprendre un idioma parlat per uns pocs milions de persones davant idiomes com l’anglès o el castellà.

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Informe sobre el dret a vot per als immigrants

Informe sobre el dret a vot per als immigrants

L’última xifra de població de Barcelona a 1 de gener 2003 aprovada per l’INE és de 1.582.738 habitants, i hores d’ara els immigrants suposen un 12.8% d’aquest total amb un total de 202.489 estrangers residents a Barcelona. La incoherència radica en que hores d’ara els immigrants computen per fixar el nombre de Regidors del Ple, que ve determinat pel número d’habitants a la ciutat, però no per elegir-los. 1. Respecte als “estrangers comunitaris” (membres de la UE)

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