The tax rules on the sector again changed in a major transformation carried out in 1985. With the establishment of the neoliberal “New Economic Policy” and the concurrent crisis in the mining sector, the state decided to increase the tax burden on the hydrocarbon sector through various new additional taxes. These fiscal reforms not only resulted in the major growth in hydrocarbon taxes, but also saw tax collections exceed pre-crisis levels. It is striking, however, that tax revenues hardly changed from then until 2003. This fiscal revenue stability was due to various legislative changes and occurred despite a major increase in gasproduction levels and in profits for the oil companies. This stability allows us to understand the recurrence of complaints about the shortcomings of the taxation schemes associated with these laws that opened up the sector to private investment. These complaints, in turn, were what prompted the formulation of the new Hydrocarbons Law of 2005. With this new law, the hydrocarbon tax again grew considerably. These levels were maintained through the “nationalization” of 2006. Thanks to this increase in hydrocarbon taxes, Bolivia state income has reached levels never before seen in its history.
BRAZIL: PETROESTADO NOVO? Even though Brazil is still a net importer of oil, it has increased its pro- duction more than fourfold over the last two decades, catching up to the produc- tion levels of Mexico and Venezuela. That success is in large part the result of the liberalization of the oil industry in the 1990s, when Petrobras, the national oil company, was partially privatized and the petroleum sector opened to foreign investment. As a net importer, the country was eager to maximize its productionand, until recently, did not focus on extracting iscal rents. How- ever, the discovery of massive deep offshore reserves began to change gov- ernmental incentives. In contrast to its South American counterparts, Brazil did not nationalize or force contract renegotiations. However, it did increase the government take for future offshore projects. It required Petrobras to be the operator, established an ambitious policy of increasing the local content of investments, and increasingly sub- sidized the domestic gasoline market. Moreover, the participation of private shareholders of Petrobras was diluted when the government exchanged oil reserves for equity in the company, in a move that many analysts considered a form of expropriation.
The production of oiland natural gas in Argentina has been declining since 1998 and 2005 respectively. Given this situation and facing a sustained growth of energy demand, the country has become an importer of natural gasandoil products. Recent international publications indicate that Argentina would have 802 Tcf of technically recoverable unproved shale gas resources (equivalent to 21,654 billion m3) and 27,000 million barrels of shale oil (equivalent to 4.293 million m3). These would represent respectively 67 and 11 times the current proven reserves of conventional hydrocarbons. This information has installed high expectations for the future development of these resources, and is presented as the solution to the current problems of hydrocarbons shortage. In the present work the latest information on resources and reserves has been systematized and analyzed, and prospective exploratory scenarios on oiland natural gas supply and demand are presented. Based on this analysis it is concluded that the development of unconventional oiland natural gas is feasible, but this requires more information based on local data, which will provide better and more reliable estimates of volumes of recoverable hydrocarbons, initial well productivity, extraction and decline rates, well water production, potential environmental impacts, among other aspects, allowing to generate more knowledge on the management of this resource. According to the scenarios, a period of at least 5 to 10 years will be required to recover self- sufficiency based only on unconventional resources, thus diversifying the expansion of hydrocarbons supply in order to avoid depending exclusively on unconventional resources is one of the ways forward.
Accordingly, the Government may take a greater interest in technology transfer, preparing for the eventual turning over of the resources to its hands. Further, unlike the concession, which grants the company rights over the resource for a specified period of time, the PSA grants the company an interest in the resource that is tied to the recouping of sunk costs and, then of course, to the garnering of a profit. It may be useful for a host Government that is keen to encourage a company to undertake the risk of exploration. The company might find it more useful than a modern concession, for instance, in the situation in which a company is uncertain about its ability to recoup its sunk costs within the strictly definite time period provided for by the modern concession. Dzienkowski identifies the three key issues that PSAs must address: “(1) the existence of a work program or minimum dollar contribution towards development; (2) the duration of the exploration and development phase; and (3) the sharing of benefits of production between the multinational and state oil company if production is achieved” (Smith et al,, 2000, p. 454). Importantly, during a successful post-discovery phase of cost recoup and profit garnering, the Government does take a share of the financial largess through taxation and royalty.
I was waiting for the ship to come in. In fact, so was everyone else in Nicaragua. Gas lines stretched around the block. The supermarket shelves were nearly bare. Lights went out again and again, plunging the country into frequent darkness. Telex machines couldn’t work, and we reporters had to depend on the few places with generators to file our stories (for younger readers, this was pre-computer and smart phones). U.S. President Ronald Reagan had imposed a trade blockade on Nicaragua in May 1985. The Soviets were sending oil, dodging the blockade.
With the highest load, 150 N, the critical load was clearly reached, and film spallation could be observed in the PVD coated sample, at both sides of the tracks, as it can be observed in Fig. 9(a), taken with the optical microscope. In Fig. 9(b) the traditional coating can be also observed. In this case, the damage level increased, the film is deformed and broken all along the track. The failure has been induced at a very unusual high load, and these pictures and profiles of the scratch tests tracks show that the PVD film, besides a very superior performance in the abrasion test, remained almost without damage or any deformation during the tests at loads until 130 N. In this case, plasma nitriding as pre treatment could also have influenced in the good adhesion, as other authors pointed out previously, Pujante et al. (2014).
In the European Union (EU) Directive 2003/30/EC, biodiesel is defined as a methyl-ester produced from vegetable or animal oil, of diesel quality, to be used as biofuel. In turn, this directive establishes a minimum content of 2 and 5.75 % of biofuel for all petrol and diesel used in transport by 31 December 2005 and by 31 December 2010, respectively. These figures are calculated on the basis of energy content. In addition, another EU Directive (2003/96/EC) allows the Member States exemptions or reductions on excise duties so as to promote biofuels. As a consequence and also taking into account the recent petroleum price rises, there is a growing interest in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as an alternative diesel fuel in Europe. Thus, the production of this biofuel has already increased significantly in the EU in recent years, achieving a production of 5.71 million tonnes in 2007. The production of biodiesel in Spain has also increased significantly, reaching a level of 0.15 million tonnes in the same year. In this country, the biodiesel production will continue increasing in the following years, because there are many biodiesel plants under construction or in a project stage.
El análisis cualitativo de la investigación determinó que entre los principales actores de la industrial de oil&gas existe una preocupación real de la gestión de residuos y su impacto, por ello en todos los casos tienen un plan de gestión de residuos implementado en sus organizaciones, pero considera básicamente el retiro recurrente de residuos peligrosos (en mayor proporción) y no peligrosos, sin considerar proyectos como abandonos y de comisionado de activos, donde inclusive no hay conocimiento directo de su ejecución ni un plan previsto para poder implementarlo, en base a las condiciones actuales de operación. Otro dato relevante es que la mayoría de empresas contratan servicios especializados para el soporte de estrategias asociadas a temas operativos, pero hay poco conocimiento en la interacción de la cadena de suministros y la gestión de residuos, como es el caso de la logística inversa aplicada.
El producto final del proceso de nucleación es un tama- ño inicial de gota, que sería la información de entrada para calcular el perfil de crecimiento de gota en función de Kn. Se recomienda utilizar el modelo de Young (Young 1991) cuando Kn < 1 y el modelo de Gyarmathy (1982) cuan- do Kn > 1. Teniendo un tamaño de gota en equilibrio, es posible simular numéricamente la coalescencia por medio de balances de población, PB (Population Balance) donde el sistema se divide en “poblaciones” de gotas dentro de un entorno continuo. Una población se describe como la den- sidad de una variable extensiva (número, masa o volumen de gotas). Kharoua, Khezzar, y Saadawi (2013), realizaron la simulación utilizando CFD del proceso de separación de las fases de gas natural utilizando el modelo de balance pobla- cional para el análisis del comportamiento de las gotas de líquido dentro de un separador ya existente en Abu Dhabi, argumentando que el modelo multifase Euleriano que uti- liza el software comercial ANSYS-FLUENT asume las fases secundarias (aceite-agua) como mono-dispersas y por lo tanto excluye del análisis los fenómenos de coalescencia y ruptura; también argumentan que a falta de información de campo acerca de la distribución de tamaño de gota a la entrada del separador, utilizaron 3 distribuciones de tamaño de gota para cada fase discreta (aceite-agua), denominadas distribución fina, media y gruesa (Figura 15).
Abstract— The liberalization of energy markets and, as a consequence, the openness of retail energy markets, has allowed consumers to sign new types of energy contracts which are subject to uncertainty. To evaluate these con- tracts, consumers need easily implementable and reliable tools for the forecast of energy prices. With this purpose in mind, we propose an original method for the forecast and scenario generation of natural gasand fuel oil monthly av- erage prices with an annual scope in Spain. The algorithm is based on the strong linear correlations existing between crude oil Brent spot prices and the energy prices to be es- timated. Thus, the algorithm ﬁrst generates future Brent spot price scenarios by sampling from probability distribu- tions constructed with historical data of Brent futures and spot prices. An example of the capabilities of the algorithm is presented for the natural gasand fuel oil price forecast of 2003.
Si bien el sector Oil & Gas es encargado de la explotación de recursos primarios y tiene un alto grado de integración vertical, en su interior existen ventajas absolutas o comparativas dentro de las empresas que permiten su diferenciación como por ejemplo, la mejor en el manejo ambiental, la mejor en exploración offshore, la mejor en el índice de sostenibilidad del Dow Jones, la mejor en netback operativo, la mejor en tasa de éxitos en hallazgos, etc. Es por ello que centran sus esfuerzos para pertenecer al top de las compañías clase mundo en algún campo de la industria, creando de este modo un mercado que se encarga del desarrollo de benchmarking.
The addition of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LC PUFA’s to enrich products have gained considerable importance due to their significant properties for human health. The main sources of n-3 and n-6 of PUFA’s are marine and fish oils. These oils are highly sensitive to oxidation given the degree of insaturation of LC PUFA’s causing unfavorable sensorial characteristics to the enriched products. This study aims to assess lipid oxidation of LC PUFA’s finding out the effect of several α-tocopherol concentrations andproduction process on final product stability. Two experiments were carried out. The first one had the purpose of getting an understanding about the effect of production process on lipid oxidation. The second one aimed to evaluate antioxidative effect of five concentrations of α- tocopherol added to a product. The experiments used tuna oil enriched milk emulsion as a model system. Primary and secondary oxidation products were quantified by peroxide value AOCS Cd 8b-90 and aniside value AOCS Cd 18-90. Vitamin E (∞, β, δ- tocopherol) and ascorbic acid content were monitored to evaluate the relation of their decomposition with lipid oxidation. Particle size and pH were also measured. The most important finding was the high sensitiveness of the lipids to heating process. During sterilization peroxide value diminished while, aniside value increased. This means that primary and secondary oxidation of LC PUFA´s took place when the product was elaborated. One-way ANOVA test was run to test differences in variance in storage time. No significant differences (α=0.05) were found in the increase or decrease of peroxide value and anisidine value over the studied storage time. These results suggest the need to carry out more research about this topic to find out processes more suitable for preserving LC PUFA’s properties in fish oil enriched milk emulsion products.
Organophosphorus pesticides in samples of commercial avocado oil were determined using atmospheric pressure microwave-assisted liquid–liquid extraction (APMAE), with solid-phase extraction or low-temperature precipitation, as the clean-up step. The analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-flame photometric detection andgas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Chlorpyrifos residues were detected in one of four samples of commercially packaged avocado oil, produced in Chile . While spectroscopic techniques have focused on determining the adulteration of avocado oil with the presence of other types of vegetable oil, according to the literature reviewed here, there is a research deficiency related to the modification of the composition of avocado oil, including the study of its major components, such as triacylglycerides and/or fatty acids, in addition to its minority components, such as phytosterols, alkanes, aliphatic alcohols, polyphenols, and others. This could provide information for detecting the contamination of avocado oil with other oils of a different quality.
in this catalytic system. A methanol to oil molar ratio of ca. 20 and a temperature of 140ºC seems to be the optimal values to achieve a high yield of FAME without damaging the catalyst. Upper values of these parameters are detrimental in terms of FAME productionand catalyst reusability. However, ongoing work is being carried out over this catalyst using response surface methodology to understand the simultaneous influence of critical reaction parameters (temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio) on the activity and stability of the catalyst. These sulfonic acid-based mesostructured catalysts have shown potential for biodiesel production from low quality feedstocks containing high free fatty acids. Stability of acid sites and the control of surface properties to favour the diffusion of oily feedstock and to promote the expelling off of the polar compounds (glycerol and water, etc.) are important challenges to be further studied in the future.
No separate acidogenic and solventogenic phase was observed for C. autoethanogenum during these bioreactor studies using the reported media compositions and fermentation conditions. The conversion of acetic acid to ethanol in the late phase of the study was also not observed, although we observed such type of conversion of acetate to ethanol under different operating conditions (manuscript in preparation). Acetic acid was the predominant metabolite formed during CO fermentation in each of the three experiments described here (Figure 4b). As mentioned above, changing the experimental conditions would allow a shift to ethanol accumulation rather than acetate. A maximum acetic acid concentration of 2.1 g/L was obtained after 137 h in EXP1, which is about 294% and 95% higher than the maximum amounts produced in EXP2 and EXP3, respectively. It is interesting to note that both experiments, EXP1 and EXP3,that were performed at high pH, produced more acetic acid than in studies at lower pH, irrespective of the YE concentrations used. A previous study using C. ragsdalei at two different pH values similarly reported a higher acetic acid production at high pH .
Una gran parte de los costes de los desarrollos submarinos de petró- leo y gas proviene del coste de las tuberías. Esto se debe a que las líneas de transporte de la producción desde la cabeza de pozo hasta las instalaciones de procesado o almacenamiento suelen estar cons- truidas para resistir las altas presiones de cierre total en la cabeza de pozo, incluso aunque la presión en las tuberías sea mucho más baja en condiciones normales de funcionamiento. La integración de estos 'amortiguadores' de presión en el sistema puede ser muy costosa y comprometer la factibilidad económica de estos desarrollos.