Pistachio kernel characteristics are influenced by cultivar on a greater way than other tree nuts. Previous studies have focused on the analysis of chemical traits of pistachio cultivars, with little attention been paid to differences in their physical parameters. To solve this disregard, differences in the physical traits of twenty different cultivars from nine different countries are evaluated in this study. To identify the cultivar effect, all pistachio varieties were grown in the same plot to remove environmental and land management effects on kernel traits. Regarding kernel size, significant differences were found in the kernel length and width, but not in the relation length/width. Significant differences in the colour of pistachio by-products, pistachio oil and flour, were found. Colour parameter b* in oils and L* in flours allowed the differentiation of 25% and 40% of considered cultivars, respectively. The differences in the fatty acid profile of cultivars seems to affect oil viscosity, allowing the calculation of the content in oleic and linoleic acids with the viscosity data. Viscosity values ranged from 59.71 mPa·s in Kerman to 63.93 mPa·s in Avdat. By grouping the considered cultivars depending on their origin countries, significant differences were found in the kernel length and oil viscosity but not in the colour parameters (L*, a*, b*). This study certifies the usefulness of some physical parameters to confirm authenticity of kernels and pistachio by products depending on the cultivar and its origin.
While an instantaneous modernity (albeit it one modeled more after Abu Dhabi than New York) as well as assertions of global membership were both at work in Equatorial Guinea’s infrastructure boom, the Riggs report and beyond suggest that the rapid construction of conspicuous infrastructure also plays a central role in high-proﬁle international wrangling over what should be done with oil money in impoverished places. Pressure on oil-exporting state apparatuses to combat ‘cor- ruption’ and foment ‘social investment’ of oil monies has intensiﬁed over time as the social, environmental and political ravages of becoming an oil exporter grow clearer. New infrastructure in Malabo then becomes a site of visible investment (Apter, 2005), a site to which the government – accused of squandering or outright stealing oil money – can gesture to show where the money has gone. Just as the enclave oﬀers transnational oil companies a stage on which to negotiate responsi- bility through the performance of removal and superiority, oil-funded public infra- structure development oﬀers the Equatoguinean state a similar stage on which to negotiate their role in infrastructural violence. Stefa´n, a resident of the impover- ished Campo Yaounde settlement, explained, ‘What matters to the state is the outcome. There will be a time when people will ask questions and they need to be able to point to a stadium, a road.’
Traditionally, the extraction of corn germ oil has been done by physical and chemical methods. In these conventional methods, the oil is removed from the milled germ using a conditioning (heating) process, followed by mechanical expelling (prepress) and in some cases ending up with hexane extraction. Extrusion has been also employed to prepare the germ for solvent extraction leading a crude corn oil of high quality and high yield . After oilextraction, the bagasse obtained as raffinate is normally used for animal nutrition.
Samples of orange peel after essential oilextraction were used, 10 g of sample were treated with 100 mL of water (1:10) and heated at 80ºC for 10 min for inactivation of enzymes; then, the pH of the liquid phase was adjusted at 2 with HCl 0.5 mol.L -1 , the suspension was heated at 80°C and magnetically stirred at 200 rpm for 1 h. Then, the suspension was filtered and washed twice with acidified water. The pectin was precipitated with a 96% aqueous ethanol solution in a 1:1 ratio and it was stored for 2 h, then it was filtered and washed with ethanol 70% and 96%, dried at 40°C under vacuum and weighted (W ep , extracted pectin). The pectin extraction from peels at different maturity stages were carried out by triplicate to determine the reproducibility of the procedure extraction. The pectin yield extraction (Y p ) was calculated with Eq (2).
The total AR content of the oils obtained by SFE under the different extraction pressures and temperatures was evaluated using the colorimetric method described in Section 2.4. The results are shown in Figure 3 where it can be observed that the amount of AR in oil slightly increased with extraction temperature when extraction pressure was 40 and 55 MPa. However, at 25 MPa, there was not significantly effect of the extraction temperature on the AR oil content. This suggests a crossover behavior around 25 MPa for AR extraction, similar to that found for oilextraction in section 3.2. Higher temperatures seem to provide not only higher extraction yields but also oil with higher AR content.
Palabras clave: Biocombustibles, Extracción, microalgas
Third generation biofuels are produced from different sources of biomass than the biomass sources used for first and second generation biofuels production, third generation biofuels production are based in emerging techno- logies that ensures high fuel production per area unit and lower production costs. Microalgae oil appears as a promising biodiesel source due to their oil content is bigger than oil content of other vegetal sources currently used. Several extraction methods has been evaluated on microalgae biomass for make easy, efficient, cheap and environmentally friendly the oilextraction process.
residue, and sonicated for about 30 minutes. Finally, the red supernatant was separated and kept in a dark glass bot- tle for further purification. The extraction was repeated several times adding 24 mL portions of the above- men- tioned solvent on the plant residue till colorless or pale purple supernatant was obtained. All portions were mixed and the solvents were evaporated to dryness using nitro- gen gas. Then, dried residue was dissolved in 4 mL of HPLC mobile phase. The resulting solution was further purified by a procedure described below before injection to HPLC.
1. EXPLICACIÓN DEL KIT
El Speedtools Total RNA Extraction Kit ha sido diseñado para una eficiente extracción y purificación de ARN total a partir de cultivos celulares y tejidos animales. La tecnología desarrollada en la línea Speedtools se basa en fenómenos de absorción reversible de ácidos nucleicos a una membrana de sílica especialmente tratada para este fin en presencia de agentes caotrópicos.
Los bufferes incluidos (buffer de lavado de ADN y buffer de elución de ADN) han sido especialmente formulados para su uso en conjunto con el Speedtools Total RNA Extraction Kit, permitiendo una eficiente elución secuencial de ADN y ARN a partir de la misma columna de unión de ARN incluida en el Kit. Una vez que los ácidos nucleicos procedentes de la muestra se encuentran unidos a la columna de sílica y posterior al lavado de la misma con los buffers de lavado, el ADN se eluirá de la membrana con un
The aim of this study was to develop a DSS tool named DC-WAT, which linked with the already developed PRESUD tool, aims to optimize, in a holistic manner, the process of water extraction from an aquifer and its application in plot with a pressurized irrigation systems, obtaining the minimum total water application cost (CT) (operation (Cop) + investment (Ca)) per unit irrigated area improving water and energy management. This tool permits identifying the cost for transporting water from the source to the irrigation subunit inlet (Cws) and analyzing the irrigation system as a whole, from the water source to the emitter. An application to permanent sprinkler irrigation systems using groundwater of two types of aquifer (confined and unconfined aquifers) for corn crop in Spain is analyzed, evaluating the effects on CT of parameters such as the static water table in the aquifer (SWT), irrigated area (S), sprinklers and laterals spacing and average application rate (ARa). Results showed that Cws increased lineally with SWT and decreased exponentially with S. The timing of crops water requirements, the efficiency of the irrigation system, and the size of the irrigation subunit, among other factors, determine the optimal pumping flow rate and the cost of energy. For the aquifers studied, the Cws was mainly conditioned by the borehole investment cost, being the confined aquifer 30-60% more expensive than the unconfined for the studied cases. The Ce is the most important cost of CT (65-70 % in the studied cases). DC-WAT is a useful tool to optimize the design and sizing of water pumping facilities in irrigation systems, which considers the aquifer performance in a holistic manner.
Fattouh et al.’s (2013) survey of this literature concludes that “the co- movements between spot and futures prices reflect common economic fun- damentals rather than the financialization of oil futures markets.” Hamilton (2009), in addition, argues that ”a low price elasticity of demand and the failure of physical production to increase, rather than speculation per se, should be construed as the primary cause of the oil shock of 2007-08.” Fig- ure 3 displays data on global crude oil production and consumption. 11 It is evident that for most of the time supply and demand are very close to each other, with the two lines often crossing each other. This applies in particular to the period prior to 2004. There are only two periods where one of the two lines seems to be persistently above the other: demand is higher than supply prior to 2008 and supply is higher than demand after 2014. These periods coincide with extreme oil price episodes: the record high witnessed in 2008 as well as the 2014 oil price collapse. An important role in this context play, as briefly mentioned above, low short-run demand and supply elasticities. Baumeister and Peersman (2013) even provide evidence of declining short- run price elasticities of oil demand and of oil supply. Finally, Deaton and Laroque’s (1992, 1995, and 1996) point to another essential issue: storage of a commodity cannot become negative. It is the interaction of all these fun- damental factors that causes extreme crude oil price movements - captured in this paper using the concept of temporary explosiveness. The concept of explosiveness, in addition, allows one to capture commodity price behavior described by Deaton and Laroque using standard time series techniques.
LA LINEA TURBINE SINTETIC OIL ESTÁN ELABORADOS ESPECIALMENTE PARA PROPORCIONAR UNA VIDA PROLONGADA DE SERVICIO EN LAS TURBINAS DE GAS Y VAPOR, COMPRESORES DE AIRE Y SISTEMAS HIDRÁULICOS; YA QUE SON FABRICADOS CON BÁSICOS DEL GRUPO II DE UN ALTO INDICE DE VISCOSIDAD LIBRE DE AZUFRE Y CON UNA CADENA SINTETICA SATURADA, EL CUAL ESTA MEZCLADO CON UN PAQUETE DE ADITIVOS CONTRA LA OXIDACIÓN Y LA HERRUMBRE PROPORCIONANDO UN BALANCE PERFECTO DE LA SATURACION DE MOLECULAS DANDO COMO RESULTADO UNA EXCELENTE ESTABILIDAD TERMICA > A 35,000 HRS.
temperature (353K) and furfural/feed ratio (8), species undergo larger dissolution, and the yield of raffinate decreases. Thus, a yield of 62.6% was predicted, which again shows a good concordance with the 63.7% experimentally obtained. When predicting experiments carried out in conditions near the limit of application of the model, the obtained predictions show higher deviations. At lowest temperature (323K) and furfural/feed ratio (1), a value for raffinate yield of 96.3% was predicted whereas a value of 90.3% was experimentally determined. Likewise, extractions carried out at highest furfural/feed ratios could not be predicted. To determine the accuracy of the predictions of the extraction yields, absolute average deviation was calculated, obtaining a value of 3.1%.The comparison between predicted and experimental values for the furfural content shown in Figure 6 can be considered satisfactorily, with absolute average deviations of 2.5% and 1.9% for raffinates and extracts, respectively.
This subsection focuses on the process of translation of the formats presented in the previous section, performed by WebPicker. The main conclusion that will be extracted is that very similar processes can be applied for both standards and catalogues to extract their relevant information, no matter what their scope or functionality is. This shows that these processes are general enough to be used for almost any kind of information extraction from structured languages and integration into another common language.