Palmoil production in Colombia grew out of the need to stim- ulate national production of edible oils and fats. To achieve this, a shared risk strategy was introduced towards the end of the 1950s. This was a kind of productive alliance based around the planting of oil palms; it involved the consti- tution of mixed partnerships, in which the State parti- cipated as a capital investing partner and gave private partners the option of buying as soon as the business showed profitability; the State also conceded financial benefits and guarantees for marketing the product. These incentives did not last and were not far-reach- ing enough to satisfy the requirements of the oilpalm as a late-yielding product. For this reason, the deve- lopment and consolidation of the agro-industry relied mainly on the continued eﬀorts of private investors and their guild.The first generations of oilpalm producers had to pave the way through inhospitable lands, furnish them with infrastructure and services, train the workforce needed for the plantations, and above all, learn that the oilpalm requires busi- ness-style management and technological support. Between 1960
ABSTRACT: The establishment of new oilpalm plantations in Papua-Indonesia has greatly increased in the last years. The process of new plantation establishment involves land use change, which in many cases is directly related with the loss of primary climax forest. Papua has good climate conditions for oilpalm cultivation due to high precipitation and rich in nutrients soils, as well as a large amount of available land; but its remoteness and political situation involve higher risks and costs for investors. The palmoil industry generates employment opportunities, potential for development of rural areas, as well as revenue redistribution to society in the form of taxes. On the other hand, land use change can be responsible for the loss of ecosystem services, loss of natural habitats and carbon emissions. Papua-Indonesia holds very deep and ancient tribal traditions, and its population in general opposes change. This study presents the issues related to the establishment of new oilpalm plantations in Papua, Indonesia. The local and global consequences are reviewed. Factors that influence the decision-making process are identified in a strengths-weakness-opportunities-threats analysis.
Gutierrez Velez et al. (2011) assessed the area deforested by industrial-scale high-yield oilpalm expansion in the Peruvian Amazon from 2000 to 2010, finding that 72% of new plantations expanded into forested areas. However, studies made in Brazil on sugar cane (Goldemberg and Guardabassi, 2009; Martinelli et al., 2010) and Colombia on oilpalm expansion (Castiblanco et al., 2013) show that direct land use changes (LUC) had minor impacts on forests since most of plantations used for biofuels have mainly replaced pasturelands. Nevertheless, in terms of indirect land use changes (ILUC) produced by crop expansion could have an important impact on areas of natural and semi-natural ecosystems in tropical countries (Searchinger et al., 2008; Croezen, 2010; Achten and Verchot, 2011). In countries such as Colombia, the effects are confused by socioeconomic particularities that make the separation of their origins difficult, because: i) oilpalm areas may be highly dynamic due to their overlap with oil and mining zones, where important energy and infrastructure projects are take place (Galán, 2012; Tenthoff, 2012); ii) there is often the presence of illegal armed actors (paramilitary, guerrilla and narcotraffickers) who increase social tensions, and fights over land tenure (Posada, 2009; González et al., 2012); iii) oilpalm growing areas are adjacent to territories of indigenous communities, or lands owned by Afro-Colombian communities.
Much research has been carried out about the fabrication, processing conditions and characterisation of pellets made of residues from the processing of the oilpalm. For example, Nasrin et al. (2008) found that the mixture of residues such as EFB and palm kernel shells for pellet manufacture can improve the properties of these materials, as their energy content increases up to a 5% through the reduction of their moisture content. Razuan et al. (2011) studied the characteristics of the pelletisation process and determined the physical properties of pellets made from palm kernel shells and found good results regarding their properties. Lam et al. (2015) studied the effect of a steam treatment prior to pelletisation on the physical and mechanical properties of pellets made from EFB and palm kernel shells. However, despite many studies, most of these have focused on the use of residues such as empty fruit bunches and palm kernel shells, therefore information is limited concerning other types of residues, like the oilpalm fruit mesocarp (OPFM).
During the presidential terms of Álvaro Uribe Vélez (2002-2006 and 2006-2010), there was strong support for this agro-industrial project through the National Development Plans (in rural and agricultural areas), where the planting of crops was encouraged to produce fuels from organic matter, favoring sugarcane and palmoil for the biodiesel (INDEPAZ, 2013). This can be seen in the extension dedicated to the produc- tion of oilpalm in María La Baja between 2001 and 2012, with a registered increase of 1,358%, from a total of 570 hectares in 2001, to 8,310 hectares in 2012 (Ministry of Agriculture, 2012). In this way, between 1998 and 2015, the palm industry in María La Baja was consolidated through the so-called productive alliances. The business expansion of oilpalm cultivation is based on the integration of the peasant econ- omy to industrial development. In this case, the regional farmers had land and labor avail- able, and the business community supported the financing of the project (Ávila, 2015).
Local conflict and large-scale defor- estation are the most visible dark sides of oilpalm plantations. The oil extract- ed from the fruit of the plant (palmoil) is used for vegetable oils and fats (used for chips, chocolate and cooking oil, for example), cosmetics (soap, shampoo, body creams, etc.) and, more recently, biodiesel. The new and growing mar- ket for biodiesel from palmoil and its accompanying narrative of green energy captured my interest and had brought me to the plantations in the first place. Peru had recently passed biofuels regula- tions, and oilpalm plantations were rap- idly expanding in the Amazon. Facing the landscape of destruction, it was hard for me to remain enthusiastic about the envi- ronmental credentials of biofuels.
En la actualidad Maple Oil Tools S.A.S tiene dentro de su bodega principal áreas que no son aprovechadas en su totalidad, lo cual representa aprox. el 25% del área y el 69% del volumen total de la bodega, lo que hace necesario la re organización de sus sistemas de almacenamiento mediante el diseño de un nuevo y apropiado modelo de distribución física de acuerdo a las características del negocio, evaluando los diferentes métodos para el almacenamiento del producto terminado de la compañía y la implementación de un sistema de administración de inventarios adecuado que permita controlar de manera óptima el inventario de la organización.
unwind in a disruptive fashion remains a risk— particular for heavily indebted countries and those with close economic ties to the United States. A sec- ond risk is that a sharp supply shock might send oil prices even higher, with potentially serious conse- quences for the most energy-dependent developing economies. A fall in nonoil commodity prices could have similar consequences for some of the poorest countries, which have benefited from higher metals and mineral prices. There is also a possibility that the current glut of liquidity in global financial mar- kets may have caused investors to underprice the risk of emerging market assets (both debt and eq- uity). Political risk has reemerged as a key con- cern for investors in several emerging market economies, where elections could portend major changes in policy direction. Finally, there is a risk that avian influenza (bird flu) could mutate into a form that is easily transmitted between humans and for which the population has limited immu- nity. Depending on the severity of the eventual dis- ease, such a pandemic could kill between 14 mil- lion and 70 million people and lower global GDP by between 2 and 5 percent (with the latter num- ber implying a global recession).
Abstract: The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel) by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed trans- esterification of palmoil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids. Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1): 59-63. Epub 2006 Mar 31.
Con el fin de realizar un análisis cuidadoso de las posibles soluciones que podrían resolver los problemas encontrados, presentamos diferentes alternativas, cada una de ellas sustentada con sus ventajas y desventajas y enfocadas desde el punto de vista de una empresa de distribución. Dentro de las ventajas y desventajas de cada una de las alternativas se cubren tópicos tales como: tiempo de respuesta de la aplicación, costos de la solución (adquisición e implantación), impacto en el factor humano, movilidad y facilidad de uso para el usuario final (accesibilidad de la solución), posibilidad de escalabilidad y crecimiento de la solución, estabilidad y confiabilidad de la solución, infraestructura técnica en comunicaciones que tiene el mercado peruano, alcance de la solución a todos los tipos de clientes con los que trabaje la empresa y disminución de errores cometidos en el proceso por varios agentes humanos tales como personal de marketing, doble digitación del pedido, etc. El análisis de las alternativas lleva a la conclusión que el uso de una solución con dispositivos de mano y transmisión de datos en forma alámbrica y/o inalámbrica constituye la mejor opción para una empresa de distribución, siendo además una Palm el dispositivo de mano elegido por las ventajas que ofrece frente a otros similares. De esta manera la solución presenta un escenario donde un vendedor tendrá un dispositivo práctico para poder llevarlo a cualquier lugar y poder acceder a la información en el momento en que realiza la toma de pedidos y/o cobranza de documentos con el cliente. La información correspondiente al vendedor y la información de acceso continuo será cargada en estos dispositivos de mano, el vendedor podrá llevar esta información en el momento en que visite al cliente. Para esto el sistema le proporcionará información para todo su proceso de ventas, podrá trabajar con la aplicación en línea y fuera de línea, podrá realizar la toma de pedidos y enviar estos pedidos desde el mismo lugar donde los toma. comunicándose en forma inalámbrica con los sistemas de la empresa. De la misma manera como el vendedor envía información de pedidos a la empresa (para que el proceso de aprobación y atención del pedido al cliente se realice en el menor tiempo posible), envía la cobranza de los documentos pendientes de pago, el vendedor también recibirá información relevante, tales como modificaciones de datos de sus clientes, modificaciones a los precios de los productos e información del estado de sus pedidos.
groups in their chemical structure. It is logical to suspect that the pH of the surrounding medium will influence dissociation rates of the –OH groups in these polyphenol compounds, since previous studies have observed pH influencing the rate of dissociation of oxygen-containing chemical groups in hydroxyflavones and anthocyanins (Muzolf et al. 2008; Leman´ska et al. 2001; Borkowski et al. 2005). Free radical scavenging activity would also be expected to change with pH changes. This latter possibility is particularly interesting in the case of palm wine and palm vinegar polyphenol compounds. Palm wine and palm vinegar fermentation is a biological process involving microbes that produce secondary metabolites that are also affected by the pH of the fermenting medium. It is important to study the effects of pH on antioxidant activity in precise experimental settings because of the varying pH environments present during food consumption and digestion. Antioxidant activity could be expected to change as food materials pass through different human body fluids of different pH: pH 1 in the stomach, pH 5.3 in the small intestine, pH 6.8 in mouth saliva, pH 7.4 in blood and tissue fluid, pH 8 in the large intestine, pH 7–8.7 in pan- creas, and pH 8.3–9.3 in duodenum (Grzymisławski 2000). In this study, a new technique for the measurement of antioxidant activity, called Photochem antioxidant ana- lyzer, has been used. This technique is based on a combi- nation of photochemical generation of radicals and chemiluminometric detection. The working principle of this instrument is optical excitation of a photosensitizer substance and subsequent detection of superoxide anion radicals by means of a chemiluminogenic substance (luminol). Data from this antioxidant analyzer were com- pared with data collected from a conventional 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method.
Disputes over the mess created around Lago Agrio in Ecuador and other oil sites in Amazonian Latin America have been going on for decades. Pollution has been massive and undeniable. The Texaco case is certainly the best known and currently controversial. In both Ecuador and the United States, numerous legal suits have bounced back and forth since the early 1990s. In 1996, Texaco paid out about $40 million to clean up more than 100 well sites and seven spills, a remediation that it was supposed to share with its national oil company partner, Petroec- uador. Although the work, coordinated by Petroecuador, now the sole owner of the plots, won Texaco releases from com- munities and organizations, many areas remain severely polluted and unhealthy. Current efforts to revisit the case by suing the new owner of Texaco, Chevron, and truly remediating the sites and communi- ties where Petroecuador is the sole owner remain quite contentious. In a high-level battle now characterized more by large egos than environmental or social con- cerns, ambitious Chevron executives take on controversial class-action lawyers, an evasive national oil company, and ques- tionable Ecuadoran legal procedures and judges, with no likely settlement or clean- up on the horizon, leaving lots of hope- less, angry, abandoned, and impoverished people in northern Ecuador. (See Paul M. Barrett’s excellent recent account, Law of the Jungle.)
Inadequate bioavailability of the hydrocarbons to microorganisms due to low water solubility has been addressed as a limiting step in biodegradation. The use of biosurfactants to enhance the biodegradation rate has been well studied (Rahman et al., 2002; Bordoloi and Konwar, 2009; Ron and Rosenberg, 2002). Nikolopoulou and Kalogerakis showed that biostimulation using a N and P fertilizer together with biosurfactants enabled naturally occurring microbes to adapt better and faster to the oil spill contamination, ensuring a relatively shorter lag phase and faster degradation rates (Nikolopoulou and Kalogerakis, 2008). Apparently, the combination of bioaugmentation, biostimulation, and biosurfactant addition, depending on the characteristics of the contaminated site, might be a promising strategy to speed up bioremediation (Baek et al., 2007). However, any planned intervention must be followed by ecotoxicity and quality studies of the contaminated site to ascertain that it has regained its natural biological activity and integrity (Hamdi et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2010). These toxicity tests and biological activity measurements should be used as monitoring tools or bioindicators during and after bioremediation of contaminated sites.
Las materias primas utilizadas para la elaboración de Palm-Mixtex son raquis, cenizas, lodos deshidratados y cascarilla que son fuente de celulosa, hemicelulosa, lignina, grasas y proteínas los cuales son transformados en azúcares aminoácidos y ácidos grasos. Dada su composición, este material puede ser utilizado para satisfacer las carencias del suelo y de la planta en las prácticas agrícolas y de jardinería.
This study aimed to analyze physical and chemical characteristics of pollen got from male spathes varieties grown in Basrah, Iraq. Among the results, the length, width, weight and powder weight of spathes of grains were obtained in the range of 50.3-71.4 cm, 23.8-33.5 cm, 756.3-2314.7 mg and 20.8-40.7 mg, respectively. The composition of the pollen was as follows: moisture 40.94 %, protein 25.89 %, ash 5.19 %, oil 9.19 % and carbohydrates 18.76 %. The fatty acid compositions of the oil were analyzed by GC-MS, where a total of 11-13 fatty acids has been identified. The fatty acids in pollen grains are palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. The results indicated that the percentage of unsaturated and saturated acids were 79.27-76.69 % and 18.06-20.51% respectively. The pollens of male palm can be considered as a good source of protein and oil with having remarkable health nutritional values. *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tests were performed using neat palmoil biodiesel (POB) purchased from ODIN Energy Santa Marta S.A. and commercial grade No. 2 diesel fuel purchased from a local fuel station (Table 2). For each fuel, twenty operation modes, each one characterized by a certain effective torque and engine speed, were tested. The operation modes selected try to simulate representative engine conditions covering the whole load range (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum torque) at various speeds (Table 3). Four set of measurements (80 tests) were carried out with the reference fuel, while three set of measurements (60 tests) were performed with POB. The results presented correspond to average values, taking into account their standard deviations.
In our research feed intake (DMI), body condition score (BCS) and body weight was not affected by dietary treatments, which agrees with other studies focused in vegetal lipids supplementation (Altenhofer et al., 2014; Chamberlain and DePeters, 2017; Bougouin et al., 2018). The possible explanation of this result could be related to the proposed by Bayat et al. (2017), who indicated that fatty acid carbon length rather than the degree of unsaturation has a negative effect in DMI. Moreover, high levels of dietary oil supplements (≥50 g of oil/kg of DM) are typically associated with lower DMI, and the lipid inclusion in this study was only 30 g/kg DM of pail oil and olive oil in each treatment. Furthermore, Rabiee et al. (2012), found that a longer period of feeding fat resulted in a higher DMI. Finally, consequences of fat in DMI has been attributed to the adverse effects of unsaturated lipids on ruminal microbial communities, and therefore lower fiber digestion (Weld and Armentano, 2017).
In this study physicochemical properties of the palmoil and vegetable margarine were evaluated during storage at different thermal conditions. Refined palmoil bleached and deodorized was used (RBD) enhanced within citric acid as synergist agent and BHT as antioxidant agent. Vegetable margarine was used constituted by 50% of palmoil RBD, 34% of palm stearin, 8% of palm olein, and 8% of soy oil. Fatty acids identification was made (lipidic profile) in each one of the samples through gas chromatography, quantification of fatty solids by means of RMN at 10, 20, 30, and 40° Celsius grades as well as assessment of the physic- chemical properties at temperatures ranging from 4, 25, and 60° C, in a period of 180 days of storage. Results evidenced that main fatty acids found in palmoil RBD and in margarine were palmitic acid and oleic acid in percentages ranging from 45% and 39%, respectively. Temperature increasing presented a significant increment in peroxides and a diminishing in the content of fatty solids in each one of the temperature assessed. In relation to the storage conditions of the palmoil RBD and the vegetable margarine at 4° C , this temperature was the one which presented the better conditions preventing deterioration, crystallization, oxidation and hydrolysis in both fatty products. In the other hand, the palmoil RBD and the vegetable margarine presented a Trans fatty acids content below to 2%.
Tests were performed using palmoil biodiesel (BP100), commercial grade diesel fuel and three diesel biodiesel blends (BP5, BP20, BP50). The properties of fuels are presented in Table 2. For each fuel, twelve operation modes, each one characterized by an effective torque (20, 40, 60 and 80 Nm) and engine speed (2000, 2250 and 2500 rpm) were tested, with NO x emission measurements performed in
Sin embargo, todo aquello parecía insuficiente para los grandes especuladores de Palm Springs, que eran conscientes de que no todo el mundo podía permitirse comprar un terreno y encargarle una obra maestra a Richard Neutra o a Albert Frey. Con el fin de llegar a un espectro más amplio de la población, los promotores inmobiliarios construyeron condominios (bloques para diversos propietarios), cuya adquisición era más barata que el hasta entonces tradicional modelo unifamiliar. Lo mismo ocurría con los nuevos clubes de golf, como el Mission Hills Golf and Country Club o el Marrakesh Country Club, que ofrecían campos y enclaves igual de espectaculares que los anteriores, pero optaban por un modelo más denso a base de bloques de apartamentos y, por lo tanto, menos exclusivo. Esta democratización a la baja llevó a un puñado de artistas, entre los que se encontraba el omnipresente Bing Crosby, a inaugurar a mediados de los años cincuenta el Blue Skies Trailer Village, el primer parque de caravanas de Palm Springs, cuya inherente falta de encanto fue torpemente disfrazada con una maniobra tan ruin como ponerle a las calles nombres de actores de Hollywood. Palm Springs moría de su propio éxito. La ciudad dejaba de ser un bello oasis de relax en medio del desierto para convertirse en un destino turístico vulgar e superpoblado, en otro satélite más de la gran Los Ángeles. El progresivo incremento de su densidad no fue coordinado con un crecimiento urbano planificado a gran escala, por lo que el abastecimiento de agua comenzó a ser un problema, como también lo era el tráfico, cada vez más pesado e incómodo. La vista desde el Monte de San Jacinto, a 3.302 metros de altitud y calificada a finales del siglo XIX por el prominente naturalista y explorador John Muir como “el espectáculo más sublime del planeta” (Culver 2010: 140), se perdía en una alfombra de urbanizaciones y campos de golf coronada por una densa boina de contaminación producida por el humo de los coches. Poco quedaba de aquel aire puro promocionado años atrás.