Organizations usually pursue their employees’ desire of being synchronized, without diminishing their well-being. The following study attempts to identify how agreements in perceived organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) between employees and supervisors affect the levels of engagement. The participants were 608 employees and 86 supervisors from 7 different Ecuadorian companies. Four categories were created according to the agreement between the supervisor and the team’s perceived OCB using standard deviation. ANOVA analysis allowed to identify the engagement differences on each of the categories. The results demonstrated that engagement levels had their maximum values in low
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Penner’s (2002) conceptual framework further holds that the act of engaging in OCB causes one to develop an organizational citizen role identity, and it is this identity that sustains the behavior (Dávila & Finkelstein, 2010; Finkelstein & Penner, 2004; Finkelstein, 2006). The organizational citizen identity, like OCB itself, comprises two dimensions: role identity with relation to OCBO (RIO) and role identity with relation to OCBI (RII). Role identity theory (e.g., Callero, Howard, & Piliavin, 1987; Grube & Piliavin, 2000; Piliavin, Grube, & Callero, 2002) further postulates normative expectations as a precursor to OCB and to the formation of an organizational citizen self-concept. The social behavior of collectivists is best predicted by norms and perceived duties and obligation; among individualists, social behavior is best predicted from attitudes and other internal processes (Singelis et al., 1995). The difference suggests that collectivism will show a stronger correlation with role identity. Support for this assumption comes from the literature on volunteerism (Finkelstein, 2010).
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The purpose of this study is to explain the potential advantages that the three dimensions of workplace spirituality have on intention to leave and OCB among nurses. Hospital management should take workplace spirituality into account due to its positive impact on nurses’ performance, and by extension, the entire healthcare system. Findings from this study would allow managers to recognize the levels of meaningful work, sense of community and positive organizational purpose existing among their nurses. Moreover, this study also illustrates the magnitude of these factors’ impact on OCB and intention to leave. To improve these levels, interventions such as meetings and workshops should be conducted. Such activities foster stronger bonding between the managers and nurses whereby the latter could provide feedback from their perspectives on how to improve their perceptions of meaningful work, sense of community and positive organizational purpose with regards to nursing management. Healthcare service quality improves if the working environment encourages the involvement of spirituality. Therefore, meaningful work, sense of community and alignment with hospital values amongst nurses are important factors and should be taken into account by managers in their efforts to improve the bond between the nurses, their jobs, their colleagues and the respective health organizations.
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In addition to service quality and benefits sought, another factor that influences customer satisfaction and loyalty is Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), the behavior shown by employees who carry out not only their obligations and responsibilities, but also something more than those without any reward or anything from the organi- zation and solely for the sake of the organizational goals. The dimensions of OCB are customer facilitation, organiza- tional involvement, and sportsmanship. Kumar (2014), in his research, reveals that the employee’s OCB can increase customer satisfaction. Thus, from a marketing perspective, OCB is a special aspect that supports the marketing of services and plays a role in improving services to customers (Sabiote, 2005 and Kumar. 2014). The result of the study conducted by (Jain, Malhotra and Guan. 2012) shows that the behavior outside the role is Service-Oriented Citi- zenship Behavior (S-OCB) which contributes to the management of relationships between company and customers, shapes customer perceptions of excellent service quality and leads to customer loyalty.
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Currently, there is increasing interest in the forms of positive leadership because of the evidence that supports the idea that positivity increases well-being and job performance (Avolio et al., 2004; Fredrickson, 2009; Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007). Thus, diverse investigations show that the greater the authentic leadership, the greater the employees’ satisfaction with the supervisor, their organizational commitment, extra effort, and organizational citizenship behavior (hereafter, OCB) (Clapp-Smith, Vogelgesang, & Avey, 2009; Moriano, Molero, & Lévy-Mangin, 2011; Walumbwa et al., 2008; Walumbwa, Luthans, Avey, & Oke, 2009; Walumbwa, Wang, Wang, Schaubroeck, & Avolio, 2010). Taking into account the positive relation between the employees’ attitudes and business results such as, for example, productivity, benefi ts, or client satisfaction (Harter, Schmidt, & Hayes, 2002), the perceptions of authentic leadership not only positively affect employees’ work attitudes and happiness, but they can also—at least indirectly—have a favorable impact on the performance of any company (Clapp-Smith et al., 2009).
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Figure 2: Influence diagram for the extended bad debt problem. Specifically, the Fraud Behavior node expresses the probability of data corre- sponding to good or bad fraud behavior, which entails a more complex submodel which includes variables such as Credit History, Checking Status, Savings Status, Existing Credits, Other Payment Plans, Housing, Property Magnitude, Job, etc., as derived from using existing data mining technology to automate probability computations, based on the data provided.
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leadership across cultural contexts has arisen (Avolio et al., 2009). It is the objective of every organization and institution to be consistently productive. As a result, performance has become an important subject in the literature of organizational behavior and human resource development (Bommer, Johnson, Rich, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie, 1995; Wor- ley & Lawler, 2006). It remains a complex construct which is difficult to conceptualize and describe despite its importance to organizational performance (Al-alak & Tarabieh, 2011; Mansoor, Aslam, Barbu, Capusneanu, & Lodhi, 2012). Consequently, employers need to invest in their employees to raise their level of satisfaction so that they can become more productivity.
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According to Goleman (2001, p. 14), emotional intelligence (henceforth EI), at the most general level, refers to the abilities to recognize and regulate emotions in ourselves and in others. Salovey and Mayer (1990, p. 189) understand EI as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate between them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions. Publications from Salovey and Mayer (1990) and Goleman (1995) represent the beginning of the EI era in the academic and practitioner contexts, respectively. The construct of EI has received increasing attention in a variety of literature bases, such as competency management (Capaldo et al., 2006). Following this view, EI might be considered as a group of individual competencies essential for organizational performance.
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This reading of cultural citizenship is closely related to a more critical stance in the public domain on the multicultural society. This in its turn has different causes. Often the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and subsequent terrorist activities in Madrid and London are put forward as crucial in changing the mindset to more critical views. In the Netherlands the murder of a right wing populist politician and a polemic filmmaker—both notorious for their criticism on Islam—definitely played an important role in the hardening of the tone of the national debate on the multicultural society. The 2005 “banlieue” riots in Paris were put forward in the public debate as proof for the failure of the French model of integration. In popular discourse the term banlieue, which simply means suburb, quickly became shorthand for the discussion of the role of ethnic minorities and Islam in France. The paradox was that when Islam leaders were trying to calm down the riots, they failed because the rioters did not associate with Islam, yet precisely because these Islam leaders took this responsibility; this reinforced the image of the riots as “an Islam problem”, while in fact social economic conditions played an important role. 42 A study in 2009 demonstrated ethnic profiling in stops
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These are the conceptual resources that I will presently employ to discuss alienation. Again, the assumption is that such conceptual reflections will not impede the possibility of citizenship education in and for a modern social democracy, and to this I will return in the next phase of this project. I will thus insist on the necessity and possibility to make the subjects of education parts of genuinely human interactions, i.e. influencing them by social, cultural and political activities that stimulate the development of an equally genuine human consciousness, thus counter-acting the currently all to prevalent preoccupation with, and fetishization of, economy, technology and mere entertainment, all of the latter tending to reify both the producer and the consumer. Again, this may seem naïve, but a very good argument for not accepting prematurely the victory of capitalism, is the experiences of the 20 th century where capitalism was in fact kept in a very short leach by various forms of social democracy and authoritarian socialist regimes.
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Abstract: This research had three objectives: to know professional expectations of first ‑year students on the Bachelor’s degree in tourism, their main reasons for choosing the studies and what kind of jon they were interested in. Data was collected in a class assignment on the course of organizational behavior. Results suggest that students show few differences in either expectations or motivations. The vast majority of students consider hotel and travel agencies as their main outlet jobs after their studies. In addition, most of them chose their studies to speak foreign languages, travel and meet other people and cultures. When looking for a job, their motivations mainly include self ‑fulfilment, but also money and recognition. The implications of the study for tourism firms are discussed and future lines of research are highlighted. Keywords: Tourism firms; Tourism employees; Major tourism motivations; Tourism job expectations; Professional motivations.
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and gender presented a no significant correlation with OCB. Only age showed low correlation, therefore they were not included in the model. Main hypothesis that PsyCap should have a positive impact on COB was supported, finding that 38% of OCB total variance was explained by PsyCap. Article concludes with this implication, stating that PsyCap is a construct in which organizations can invest to develop their human resources. PsyCap may influence attitudes and behavior such as OCB which in turn is related with exceptional perfor- mance in organizations.
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Another ABM model [Dawson et al. (2011)] couples a hydrodynamic simulation with the human response to a flood incident. The hydrodynamic simulation uses simple continuity and momentum equations to represent a 2-D dynamic flow field. This approach is ultimately not that accurate to the more sophisticated and computationally expensive existing codes. An ABM is developed by Dawson et al. (2011) using the NetLogo ABM development plat- form [Wilensky (1999)], and the real topography of the site. Agent behavior, including their location and response to the flood event was characterized using empirical data. The ABM was also used to simulate the traffic on roads using the Nagel and Schreckenberg (N-S) cellu- lar automata pulse model [Dawson et al. (2011)]. A scenario manager, developed in Python [Sanner (1999)] programming language, facilitates batch running of multiple simulations and setting up the model to test different conditions. The case study site is centered on Towyn, North Wales, and parts of the town are built on areas of coastal lowland that were reclaimed to the sea during the eighteenth century. The results used to estimate the vulnerability of the system are the expected number of agents exposed to water depths higher than 25cm of flooding. This is calculated using fragility functions describing the probability of a breach in flood defenses.
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certain set of human capital attributes does not imply that identical competences appear in other organizational levels. As Kozlowski and Klein (2000) explain, complete isomorphism between levels is not common, but partially isomorphic cases normally manifest. These arguments lead us to consider the particular relevance of how organizations foster and manage individual ambidextrous capabilities before they are combined and amplified through organizational levels (Ployhart & Moliterno, 2011). In this sense, we introduce Lepak et al.’s (2006) arguments based on the AMO Theory, explaining that HR systems can be oriented to directly influence individuals’ abilities, motivation and opportunity to perform (Appelbaum et al., 2000). The logic of our argumentation posits that organizations need to engender proper ambidextrous human capital as the first step to finally achievingambidextrous intellectual capital. We, therefore, propose that ambidextrous human capital will be built on the basis of individual skills by implementing HRM subsystems with the specific objective of promoting employees’ abilities, motivation and contextual opportunity to simultaneously deploy exploration and exploitation (Figure 4).
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“The era of networks has reached the public sector.” Agranoff (2007:2) Traditional organizational models of governmental administration based on hierarchical relations, functional definition of boundaries, and bureaucratic authority, have been considered less appropriate structures to deal with contemporary public problems. The current demands for flexibility and adaptability of governmental structures associated to the informational era (Agranoff & McGuire 2003a, Alter & Hage 1993, Castells 1996); the pressures arising from budget constraints and administrative reforms (Kettl 2009, Salamon 2002); and, finally, the increasing complexity of public services and public problems (Innes & Booher 2010, Kicker, Klijn & Koppenjan 1997, Rittler & Webber 1974), have encouraged a transformation towards opening and managing organizational boundaries (Kettl 2006).
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The concept of organizational citizen behaviour (OCB) has grown in popularity in the literature, and has received a great deal of theoretical and empirical study. However, various authors have emphasized the need of gaining a greater understanding of the antecedents of each dimension that makes up this construct, as few authors have focused on these aspects (Podsakoff et al., 2000). Hence, this study aims at analyzing the individualized consideration of leadership, the innovative organizational climate and the proactive personality, as possible antecedents of change-oriented and altruist organizational citizenship behaviors, by means of a revision and extension of the main studies that have dealt with such constructs. In this sense, the present study develops various propositions, derived from a conceptual model, whose aim is to advance the understanding related with OCB antecedents, so that future research can test them from an empirical point of view, using qualitative or quantitative methods.
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Weyner et al. (2012) mention that organiza- tional culture and climate focus on how employees see, interpret, and give a meaning to their environ- ment by producing explanations to describe, sort, and analyze the facts inside the organization; it is worth noting that, historically, climate happens before culture. It is noticeable that climate and culture complement each other, therefore, their study is important because it allows to have a more accurate perception of the organizational behavior, with regard to their group and individual processes, their level of satisfaction, performance, eﬀ ective- ness, and achievement indicators, among others (Litwin & Stringer, 1968, as cited in Vicuña 2006). However, the climate is an experience based on what people see, and unveil, and involves also the perspective of employees and what the organiza- tion carries out in terms of practices and policies (Schneider, 2000).
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states that all the different species have evolved from simple life forms and that they first developed in the 4.5 billion-year-old Earth, more than 3 billion years ago. Contrary to Darwin’s evolution theory, the Bible teaches a 7 days’ creation by God, the architect and designer of everything. It also teaches that God created all life forms on earth, including humans. However, humans were the only creatures created in the image of God. As a result, Adam and his wife Eve were given dominion over all other creatures as well as the responsibility to manage planet earth and everything that is in it, including the management of God’s Church. Unlike evolution, creation puts God as the Creator and the head of the organizational structure, and man in the role of managing all that is His. However, observation and facts indicate that man has unfaithfully managed both the earth and the Church.
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This study discusses the concept of Positive Organizational Behavior as a tool to develop the skills of employees within an organization. From a theoretical perspective, the construct of engagement is analyzed as an element to generate a sense of commitment as well as a positive working environment. Going into deeper detail, this study analyzes the steps which, through proper implementation, will promote positive annual results and increased productivity. Engaged employees are synonymous with good business practice, success lies within the motivation rate of each member of the organization.
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Motivational processes are important in the work environments of companies, understanding that the worker is the soul of the same, and that directly influences their productivity and growth. That is why it is important to generate all the necessary tools to create the ideal working conditions for the worker to feel comfortable in their environment and generate the proposed results that is nothing more than creating work environments in harmony and that the value is recognized and human talent that workers have within organizations, for this it is essential to use important tools such as management skills and business coaching processes to determine the best way to take the administration and management of an organization around their human capital. The methodology used in the research is non-experimental documentary type. Some of the results that can be mentioned is that an enabling organizational climate will increase the initiatives to promote new businesses, undertake new projects and solve problems; improve internal communication; It will increase competitiveness and facilitate the governance of the organization. And among the most relevant conclusions is that in order for organizations to achieve a high degree of efficiency it is necessary to work in highly motivating, participatory environments with a highly motivated and identified staff with the organization.
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