Such local but nevertheless allochthonous deposits are a function of weather rather than climate. Winnowing of fines and concentra- tion of coarse stones by wind and water play a part in their development, and soil churning is significant for the in situ formation of stone layers on exposures of hydrophilic clays in areas with alternations or wet and dry weather. Gilgai-based stone layers can be regarded as autochthonous and are found in a considerable range of climates from the hyperarid areas of central Australia to Mediterranean semiarid southern areas and monsoonal northern Australia (see map in HUBBLE et al., 1983, p. 29 - which presents a conservative picture of gilgai distribution in Australia). Soil composi- tion (heterogeneity, type of clay) and thick- ness, plus alternations of wet and dry condi- tions, determine the associated formation of stone layers.
professionals, educational and political factors. As it has been analyzed by A. G. Watts (1999), the development of the guidance is uneven, in the international plane, because of varied factors. lndustrial and "postindustrial" expansion, for example, promotes the development of this practice promoting of individual election; pre-industrial communities, with their manpower scarce division and their tradition of prescribed roles usually allow themselves the absence of the service. Democratic systems, at the same time, and not the totalitarian ones, conform the ground where vocational guidance germinates and expands. In them it is also conceivable a type of social mobility that doesn't obey only to structural factors but to values and beliefs, as those that social actors "building their own destination" hold. The professional corporations also impact, according to Watts, in guidance's destinations. Thus, its developers'conditions as educators, psychologists or managers mark defined biases to the chore, sometimes incorporating it to school services, other times linking it with the labor market or with the persons's self-fulfillment (p. 208). ln any case, it should be recognized that this discipline, on the contrary of others as "personal-social" counseling, social work or human relationships (RRHH), possesses a plurality of axes of interest, definitions often antagonic and diverse expectations from governments.
the pools of water from time to time accu- mulated there (Blank 1951, p. 825). Rock basins have formed wherever and for wha- tever reason water has accumulated. Frac- tures are favoured. Also, the country rock varies in mineralogy and texture at the site scale. For instance, Ferris et al. (1998) no- ted that granite exposed in Little Wudinna Hill, located some 10 km northeast of the town of Wudinna, on north western Eyre Peninsula, includes blebs or pods of plagio- clase, which is more susceptible to chemical weathering than other contained minerals and thus constitute potential sites for ba- sin development (see also e.g. Bourne and Twidale 2002, p. 95). However, in most ins- tances it is difficult to demonstrate initia- tion in this manner, for where composition has played a part in initiating weathering and erosion the evidence is likely been eli- minated. In any event basins and pools are a common feature of granite surfaces, but, as Blank pointed out (1951, p. 825), there are far more basins and pools than there are rock doughnuts, implying that other factors have intervened.
One of the most interesting recent attempts to ground very long-term development in geographical and ecological considerations comes from ecologist Jared Diamond (1997), who asks why Eurasians (and peoples of Eurasian origin in the Americas and Australasia) “dominate the modern world in wealth anddevelopment” (p. 15). He disposes of racialist explanations not just on moral grounds but on rigorous findings of the shared genetic inheritance of all human societies. His explanation rests instead on the long-term advantages of Eurasia in agglomeration economies and the diffusion of technologies. Human populations in the Americas and Australasia were cut off by oceans from the vast majority of human populations in Eurasia and Africa. They therefore could not share, through trade and diffusion, in technological advances in agriculture, communications, transport, and the like. Additionally, Diamond argues that technological diffusion naturally works most effectively within ecological zones, and therefore in an East-West direction along a common latitude, rather than in a North-South direction, which almost invariably crosses ecological zones. This is because plant species and domesticated animals appropriate to one ecological zone may be completely inappropriate elsewhere. Eurasia, claims Diamond, therefore enjoyed the benefit of its vast East-West axis heavily situated in temperate ecological zones, while Africa was disadvantaged by its North-South axis which cut across the Mediterranean climate in the far North, the Saharan Desert, the equatorial tropics, and the Southernmost sub-tropical regions. Diamond argues that these advantages, in addition to more contingent (i.e. accidental) advantages in indigenous plant and animal species, gave Eurasia a fundamental long-term advantage over the rest of the world.
In such an environment unforeseen shocks can occur and macroeconomic prices like the nominal and the real exchange rates can go fun- damentally wrong, with entire countries losing competitiveness and suffering dire consequences for growth and jobs. Hence, deficits or surpluses in the current account may not just be the result of voluntary decisions by well-informed agents or groups of agents; those imbalances may indi- cate overall policy errors or pathological devel- opments in the broadest sense. Based on this view, under the Bretton Woods regime of fixed but adjustable exchange rates, long-lasting current- account deficits were considered as indicating “fundamental disequilibria” in international trade pointing to the need to depreciate the nominal exchange rate and thereby improve the interna- tional competitiveness of the country concerned. A radical change in the perception of balance- of-payments imbalances occurred by the mid-1980s. Accordingly, the developing world’s domestic fi- nancial liberalization was increasingly accompa- nied by capital-account liberalization so as to allow for maximum efficiency in the international allocation of resources through unfettered market forces. Obviously the free flow of capital, even if precipitating long-lasting net flows into one coun- try associated with current-account deficits, would not indicate any pathological phenomenon accord- ing to this perspective. By the early 1990s, the view that put capital flows first and recommended a hands-off approach by governments concerning Figure 1.2
23. ALSO URGES Contracting Parties anddevelopment sectors, including mining, other extractive industries, infrastructure development, water and sanitation, energy, agriculture, transport and others, to take all possible steps to avoid direct or indirect effects of their activities on wetlands that would impact negatively on those ecosystem services of wetlands that support human health and well-being;
Dairy is a traditional consumer product in Kosovo. In the 1990s, the command production system broke down and cooperatives dis- solved. Many families became self-suﬃ cient units, producing to meet their own consumption needs and trading surplus for other goods and services. The conﬂ ict of 1998–99 destroyed much of the production base, damaged infrastructure, displaced people, wid- ened ethnic divisions, and eroded Kosovars’ trust in each other and their government. Shortly after agricultural production and eco- nomic activity resumed in Kosovo, donors began working with value chain participants to upgrade the dairy industry. Value chain implementers worked ﬁ rst with individual farmers to make no- or low-cost changes to improve yields and quality, then expanded their reach by working with larger groups and associations. Thereafter, they steered farmers toward commercial channels, helping them fur- ther upgrade their processes to improve productivity and quality and to rebuild links with processors. In parallel, they worked with pro- cessors to orient them to end markets and, based on demand, to upgrade their processes and products to improve quality, expand production, and increase market share. By working from the micro to the macro as Kosovo moved from relief to development, donors and implementers supported upgrading and sustained growth in the dairy sector. In just over three years, for example, the Kosovo Dairy Value Chain project boosted domestic sales by €36 million and added 624 new jobs following an investment of €3.9 million. The impact on social cohesion is unclear. While a dairy board was set up that explicitly included both ethnic Albanians and Serbs, there was no evidence as to whether the board had a direct impact on participation of diﬀ erent ethnic groups or increased cooperation between ethnic groups.
Mejorar el funcionamiento de los mercados de crédito resolviendo los problemas de información causados por la falta de experiencia con mujeres prestatarias puede ayudar a corregir las disparidades de productividad entre mujeres y hombres en la agricultura y la actividad empresarial. Los planes de microcrédito han sido la forma más habitual de abordar estos problemas, al ayudar a las mujeres a acceder a préstamos en pequeña escala y a generar un historial de crédito. Esto suele adoptar la forma de planes de crédito colectivo, como el Banco Grameen en Bangladesh y FINCA en Perú. Pero hoy en día el microcrédito va más allá de los préstamos colectivos y ahora incluye planes como los del Banco Sol en Bolivia y el Bank Rakyat en Indonesia, que conceden créditos personales de mayor volumen y se basan en incentivos al reembolso más que en la supervisión por parte de los otros prestatarios. La falta de acceso a las vías oficiales de crédito también puede superarse mediante la innovación financiera y la adaptación de un modelo de crédito que responda a las necesidades de las pequeñas empresas, como han hecho el Access Bank en Nigeria, DFCU en Uganda y Sero Lease and Finance en Tanzanía. A partir del reconocimiento de que las mujeres tienen menos probabilidades que los hombres de haber establecido un historial de crédito, y que tendrán bases de activos inferiores a las que recurrir como garantía, estos grandes bancos comerciales se asociaron con la Corporación Financiera Internacional a fin de elaborar nuevos instrumentos para apoyar y ampliar los servicios de crédito a empresas de propiedad de mujeres y a mujeres empresarias. Las intervenciones consistieron en elaborar nuevos productos, como préstamos para los cuales se utiliza el equipamiento o el flujo de efectivo como garantía, y también en impartir capacitación a los empleados de las instituciones financieras y prestar apoyo estratégico para ayudar a los bancos a aumentar el número de mujeres entre sus clientes. La experiencia inicial con estas intervenciones pone de manifiesto un incremento de la proporción de mujeres que utilizan servicios financieros y contraen préstamos de mayor volumen con tasas de reembolso superiores a la media (capítulo 7).
such as Grameen Bank in Bangladesh and FINCA in Peru. Microcredit has now evolved beyond group lending to such schemes as Banco Sol in Bolivia and Bank Rakyat Indonesia that offer larger individual loans and rely on repay- ment incentives rather than peer monitoring. Lack of access to formal credit can also be sur- mounted through fi nancial innovation and by adapting a credit model that addresses the needs of small businesses, as Access Bank in Nigeria, DFCU in Uganda, and Sero Lease and Finance in Tanzania have done. Recognizing that women are less likely to have established credit records than men, and lower asset bases on which to draw for collateral, these large commercial banks partnered with the International Finance Corporation to develop new instruments to support and extend credit services to female- owned businesses and female entrepreneurs. In- terventions included developing new products such as loans that are collateralized with equip- ment or based on cash fl ow as well as training for the staff of fi nancial institutions and strate- gic support to help banks increase their number of female clients. Initial experience with these interventions shows an increase in the shares of female clients using fi nancial services and taking out larger loans with better-than-average repay- ment (chapter 7).
Table 4 shows the distribution of selected studies by country. Research conducted in the UK, India, and the US represents 34 per cent of the selected studies, which evidences the interest in and importance of financial inclusion, financial exclusion, social innovation, and social entrepreneurship in these countries. The item “Others” is composed of the sum of each of the countries that represented less than 2 per cent of the selected studies, consisting of: Belgium, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Denmark, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Laos, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Maldives, Mexico, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Thailand, Tonga, Uganda, Vanuatu, and Vietnam.
Grinberg, L., & Grinberg, R. (1984). Psicoanálisis de la migración y el exilio. Madrid: Alianza. Gurak, D., & Caces, F. (1992). Migration networks and the shaping of migration systems. En M. Kritz, L. L. Lim, & H. Zlotnik, International Migration Systems: A Global Approach (págs. 150-176). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Abstract As part of the ﬁ rst accelerated pavement tests completed in Costa Rica, laboratory permanent deformation tests were performed on asphalt mixture, gran- ular base and soil samples from the test sections. The objective of this study was to calibrate prediction models using measured rutting data collected from instru- mented fl exible pavements. For the asphalt concrete the laboratory test was per- formed using uncon ﬁ ned cyclic loading at three different temperatures. Permanent deformation was found to be a function of the resilient strain, temperature and number of loading cycles. For the granular base and soil samples, the test was performed under repeated axial cyclic stress at different magnitudes and different con ﬁ ning stresses. Permanent deformation was found to be a function of the con- ﬁ ning stress, deviator stress, moisture content, and number of loading cycles. Four instrumented fl exible pavements were subjected to heavy vehicle simulator testing. Backcalculated moduli from multi depth de fl ectometers were introduced into an elastic multilayer system to obtain pavement responses. The number of equivalent standard axle load repetitions, the effective asphalt concrete mean temperature, and the in-place moisture content along with computed responses were used to calculate permanent deformation for the different layers. By comparing the measured rut depths with the predicted values from laboratory based models, the optimum combination of ﬁ eld calibration factors was determined so that the coef ﬁ cient of variation was minimal by means of ordinary least squares.
24. FURTHER URGES Parties to make the interrelationship between wetland ecosystems and human health a key component of national and international policies, plans and strategies, including by definition of specific wetland targets and indicators that link sustainable wetland management to the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD, Johannesburg, 2002) targets for water, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity (“WEHAB”) and to the Millennium Development Goals, notably goals 1 (“eradicate extreme poverty and hunger”), 4 (“reduce child mortality”), 5 (“improve maternal health”) and 6 (“combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases”);
(OCDE/ INCAF), Adyline Waafas Ofusu-Amaah, Patti O’Neill, Robert Orr, Marina Ottaway, Phil Oxhorn, Kiran Pandey, Andrew Parker, Martin Parry, Borany Penh, Nadia Piff aretti, Nicola Pontara, Rae Porter, Ben Powis, Giovanna Prennushi, Gérard Prunier, Vikram Raghavan, Bassam Ramadan, Peter Reuter, Joey Reyes, Dena Ringold, David Robalino, Michael Ross, Mustapha Rouis, Jordan Ryan, Joseph Saba, Abdi Samatar, Nicholas Sambanis, Kirsti Samuels, Jane Sansbury, Mark Schneider, Colin Scott, John Sender, Yasmine Sherif, Janmejay Singh, David Sislen, Eduardo Somensatto, Radhika Srinivasan, Scott Straus, Camilla Sudgen, Vivek Suri, la Agencia Suiza para el Desarrollo y la Cooperación (COSUDE), Almamy Sylla, Stefanie Teggemann, Th omas John Th omsen, Martin Tisné, Alexandra Trzeciak-Duval, Anne Tully, Carolyn Turk, Oliver Ulich, the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID), Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional (USAID), Peter Uvin, Manuel Vargas, Antonius Verheijen, Th ierry Vircoulon, M. Willem van Eeghen, Axel van Trotsenburg, Juergen Voegele, Femke Vos, Tjip Walker, John Wallis, El Ghassim Wane, Dewen Wang, Achim Wennmann, Alys Willman, Andreas Wimmer, Susan Wong, Rob Wrobel, Tevfi k Yaprak y Philip Zelikow.
Meanwhile, all four emerging economies are facing increasing changes and challenges, being in the midst of policy formulation and evaluation. South Africa’s government is undergoing land reform, whereas India and China are rethinking their own four-year national development plans, in which rural policies play a key role for guiding developmentand sustaining future growth, with an impact that goes beyond their national frontiers. Thus, there are intermittent policy opportunities available in the countries, which offer specific opportunities for South-South collaboration and assistance.
In this action research project, I argue that L2 learners in content- areas at university level require explicit vocabulary instruction. My claims are also in favor of those scholars who have taken the position that input, in this study vocabulary, actually requires to be comprehended by students so that learning takes place. I do not think it is enough to list key vocabulary for students to memorize or to talk about words as part of reading comprehension sessions in content area classrooms. On the one hand, teachers working in content in L2 need to make vocabulary part of their lesson plans and instructional conversations (Cazden, 1988) so that students actually have opportunities to encounter concepts in their contexts. On the other hand, students learning content need to develop a very good command of the concepts they are learning because many of them are not just words they need to recognize to guarantee their successful reading comprehension; they are notions they need to know so that they can develop further elaborations on a concept or a network of concepts to really grasp the theoretical foundation of a particular subject. I address the issue of explicit vocabulary instruction in an L2 content-based course with a group of student teachers at Institución Universitaria Colombo-Americana, Única in Bogotá, Colombia. First, I briefly describe the background to the study and my area of focus in order to help readers establish an idea of the context where I conducted my research. Next, I review some empirical studies on the nature of both L2 vocabulary acquisition and learning. The theoretical tenets for my study stem from social interactionism, sociocultural theory, activity theory, and theories of second language vocabulary acquisition. In the following section of the article, I deal with the action research methodology displayed in this specific classroom exploration, the data collection procedures and the data analyses. I offer some findings on the role of explicit vocabulary instruction and learning in L2 a content- based area. I end the article by establishing both the limitations and the conclusions of the study.
Once we have made the general analysis of Balance Sheet and Income Statement, it is interesting to analyse the Cash Flow Statement. The term of cash flow makes reference to the cash entering or leaving in the treasury, making far away from accrual basis. That is to say, as many economists claim, the cash movements of the company are a measure of the value of the richness of the company which in some occasions can be more valid than the benefit. This is due to the base of cash receipts and payments can be the main indicator for an economic and financial health in a company instead of using the benefits since they can be altered in different ways as José Ignacio Llorente Oliver (2010:316) claims. These ways are the accountancy of incomes and payments in different exercises than the exercises done, exaggerated provisions, high charges in bad years, buying and selling of supposed fictitious prices with affiliated companies which are not consolidated, fictitious sales, making the value of goods higher, etc. The Free Cash Flows starts in an order of the flows in three categories. -Cash Flow from operating activities: these are the ones made by activities which are the main source of incomes of the company. They make the Income Statement until the operating result on the one hand and the current assets and current liabilities on the other hand.
13. At the 14th meeting, on 3 September, statements were made by Leo A. Falcam, President of the Federated States of Micronesia; Natsagiyn Bagabandi, President of Mongolia; Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan; Jan Peter Balkenende, Prime Minister of the Netherlands; Zhu Rongji, Premier of the State Council of China; Aleksander Kwasniewski, President of Poland; Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, President of Maldives; Leonid Danilovich Kuchma, President of Ukraine; Mathieu Kérékou, President of Benin (on behalf of the least developed countries); Lyonpo Kinzang Dorji, Prime Minister of Bhutan; Göran Persson, Prime Minister of Sweden; Mikhail M. Kasyanov, Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation; Fatos Nano, Prime Minister of Albania; Jean-Bertrand Aristide, President of Haiti; Laisenia Qarase, Prime Minister of Fiji; Bernard Makuza, Prime Minister of Rwanda; Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires, President of Cape Verde; Isaias Afwerki, President of Eritrea; Vicente Fox, President of Mexico; Joaquim Alberto Chissano, President of Mozambique; Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya, President of Mauritania; Gustavo Noboa Bejarano, Constitutional President of Ecuador; José Rizo Castellón, Vice-President of Nicaragua; Arturo Vallarino, Vice-President of Panama; Juan Carlos Maqueda, Vice-President of Argentina; Charles Goerens, Minister of Environment, Minister for Cooperation and Humanitarian Action of Luxembourg; Shahida Jamil, Minister for Environment, Local Government and Rural Development of Pakistan; Shivaji Rukman Senanayaka, Minister of Environment and Natural Resources of Sri Lanka; Irakli Menagarishvili, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Georgia; Sayyid Assaad bin Tariq Al-Said, representative of the Sultan of Oman; Denis Kalume Numbi, Minister of Planning and Reconstruction of the Democratic Republic of the Congo; Timothy Harris, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Education of Saint Kitts and Nevis; Abdallah Abdillahi Miguil, Minister of Housing, Urbanization, Environment and Country Planning of Djibouti; and Abbas Yusuf, Head of the delegation of Somalia.