transform the projection of preventive work that until now was done in the university and direct it towards concrete goals as defined in the documents that govern educational policy is inferred. In our university we work and intend this issue currently from the chair of school health and the anti-drug commission, with an explicit diagnosis of this situation, where there is a systematic work of preparation with teachers or group guides, heads of age groups and students health promoters in the different faculties, also provided that the content of the subjects promotes this action should be intended in the debates in different spaces with the students. It has achieved a deepening and approach to the subject in a generalized and concrete but still need to change and contribute to the achievement of awareness and awareness on the perception of risk with respect to smoking from students who present addictive behaviors towards consumption or are next to consume, where it is stated in the characterization of the school that their family is a smoker and therefore they already present direct risks when using that drug. Despite these efforts it is necessary to particularize and deepen more from the science in this phenomenon because it is still considered insufficient the used action where it is necessary to take it to the year and student that needs the help in order to achieve in it a better quality of life. This situation has been verified as a result of the different tasks that have been developed in the University of Villa Clara, especially in the initial diagnosis of the first year students of the different races and it is noticeable that both in them, their families and in the community where they live is the presence and use of this habit. There are methods in general sense for the teacher which can be used from their context as tools for the treatment of this topic but it is still necessary to know from the branch that we investigate to influence more in this action based on the particularities that these students have. Therefore, evaluating all the elements previously exposed, based on the needs, possibilities and strengths that we have, we determine the need to develop an Educational Program to achieve an adequate perception of the risk towards smoking in first-year students who study at the Central University "Marta Abreu" of the Villas
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Currently, the impact of technology on soci- ety is undeniable, from access to new com- munication contexts to the immediate ex- change of information from any location in the world. This has had a major impact on our everyday activities and in our economic, political, social, educational, psychological and personal spaces (Castro and Ponce de León, 2018). Above all other technology, the mobile phone stands out as a novel means of communication through portable terminals that permit instant messaging (Castro and Ponce de León, 2018; Chair of Social Devel- opment, 2018; Chacón-López, et al., 2015; García and Monferrer, 2009; Luengo, 2012). Its technological evolution has been ongoing and dizzying, especially given the possibility of browsing the Internet. This has increased its offerings which range from the download- ing of files to the use of Apps, video confer- ences, etc. (Castro and Ponce de León, 2018; García and Monferrer, 2009). Of the entire general population, adolescents and children are the sector in which the use of mobile telephones has had the greatest im- pact (the so-called heavy users) (Jiménez and Ramos, 2007). In Spain and other coun- tries, mobile phone use forms a part of the juvenile culture in which children grow up “between screens” (computer, television, mobile, etc.), although the mobile phone is clearly the preferred technology (Chacón- López, 2015; Luengo, 2012; Pedrero et al., 2012). According to García and Monferrer (2009), mobile phones form a part of the lives of the youngest of our population, represent- ing modern instruments of socialization and becoming a common tool of communication.
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Currently, the studies mentioned do not indicate the joint link between the factors reviewed and drug consumption, or the way the perception of risk of marijuana use has evolved, nor its relationship in probabilistic and representative sam- ples. This study is therefore designed to expand knowledge of marijuana use and its link with various contextual factors (ur- banization, availability of the substance, exposure to opportu- nity for use, risk perception and social tolerance). In order to analyze these elements, we present the results of the surveys on the school population of Mexico City in order to illustrate trends in marijuana use, risk perception and social approval in relation to drug use. In order to deepen the analysis of these two factors, in addition to those indicated in the main objec- tive, data were drawn from the 2014 Encuesta Nacional de Consumo de Drogas en Estudiantes [National Survey of Drug Use in Students] (Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz (INPRFM [National Institute of Psychiatry]), Consejo Nacional contra las Adicciones (CONADIC [Nation- al Council against Drugs]), Consejo Nacional contra las Adic- ciones (CONADIC [National Council against Drugs]), Secre- taría de Salud (SSA [Ministry of Health]), 2015).
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This study seeks to link risk perception with personal involvement and coping strategies to face the flood threat, comparing people exposed with people not exposed to this risk. We found that people exposed to flooding have a better knowledge of risk, more fear of being affected and develop more coping strategies than unexposed people. Within the risk exposed people’s category, we can find a difference between those who have been actually affected by floods and those who are living in a risky place but not have been affected yet, in the way that first of them present a higher level of risk perception and personal involvement. Finally, the mediating role of the personal involvement variable between perception of risk and active coping strategy has been confirmed.
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In particular, the health belief model classifies beliefs into the following categories: a) perception of risk and vulnera- bility, which refers to the person’s perception of how likely it is to contract a disease or health problem (alcohol abuse). b) Barriers and benefits related to consumption, which refer to expectations about the benefits obtained from performing risk behavior (consuming alcohol) and barriers to change (moderating or abandoning consumption). c) Keys to action, which are discriminative stimuli that trigger the behavior or increase the motivation to perform it (environmental or social stimuli triggering the desire to consume) (Rosentock, Strecher, & Becker, 1994; Sheeran & Abraham, 1996). These affirmations function as mediators of impulsive personality traits that have been associated with alcohol abuse. They are acquired thanks to a certain disposition and are maintained from the creation of a belief system in favor of consumption, where a relative importance is given to the consumption of alcohol during school life (college / university) (Osberg et al., 2010; Osberg et al., 2012; Pearson & Hustad, 2014).
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We reviewed the ictal clinical semiology in the videos of seizures (video-EEG recordings) of the patients. For the purpose of this study, two experts trained and experienced in video-EEG interpretation reviewed all video-EEG recordings. Each seizure was reviewed 3 to 4 times in its entirety to identify every pathological sign. Seizure onset was defined as the first electrographic change in the background or any clinical sign indicating seizure onset orwhen a patient indicated either verbally or gesturally that he or she was experiencing an aura. End of the seizure was identified when rhythmic activity finished, the EEG showed a diffused attenuation or slowing, or more than 90% of the EEG channels were slow and the patient's stereotyped behavior ended, and/or the patient began to interactwith his or her surroundings in a way different from that during the seizure. We used systematic patient assessment during the ictal and postictal period; the assessment was performed by a qualified staff member (i.e., a technician, nurse, or physician). The patients were instructed to promptly inform the staff whenever they experienced an aura. Postictally, after the patients regained consciousness and were able to follow commands, they were again interviewed to verify whether they recalled having an aura prior to the seizure and could describe it and whether they had any memory of what happened during the seizure. We evaluated postseizure language deficits by asking the patients to name various objects. The definition of an EZ was based on our diagnostic protocol including anamnesis and results of video-EEG and MRI [11,15,16].
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Abstract: This article reviews some of the topics, ideas and basic concepts about governance as an emergent way of understanding relations between state and society and also Public administration and management. It clarifies the main features of governance in relation to two books published by INAP in Spanish language in this year. First and second section approaches the typical features of governance notion and the reasons of governance appearance on research agenda. The third one presents the principal areas of application of the governance approach, and the fourth one indicates some of the requirements of democratic governance. Social capital and public leadership are cited here as specific determinants of the success of democratic governance. The fifth section reviews the specific notion of governance as management of networks comprising a multiplicity of public and private actors that interact in a com- plex way. The last section attends to discussion about positive and negative aspects of governance, and especially about tensions that affect governance systems.
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From a marketing perspective, OCB is a special aspect that supports the marketing of services and plays a role in improving services to customers (Sabiote. 2005; Kumar. 2014). The results of previous research (Jain et al., 2012) show that the behavior outside the role is Service-Oriented Citizenship Behavior (S-OCB) which contributes to the management of the relationships between company and customers, shapes customer perceptions of excellent service quality and can lead to customer loyalty. Subsequent research conducted by (Jain, et al., 2014) concludes that there are three dimensions of S-OCB, namely employee loyalty, service, and participation that can shape customer lo- yalty. Research on OCB from the perspective of the customers, particularly bank customers, was carried out by (Sabio- te and Roman, 2005) by developing the OCB instrument from the perspective of customers. The dimensions of OCB in this study are customer facilitation, organizational involvement, and sportsmanship. Referring to the background of the problem and theory, the hypothesis proposed in this study are: Hypotesis 1: Employees’ perception of S-OOCBs has a higher average than perceptions of banking customers. Hypotesis 2: Employee perceptions of service quality have a higher average than perceptions of banking customers. Hypotesis 3: There is a balance between employee perceptions and customers of banking S-OOCBs. Hypotesis 4: There is a gap between employee and customer per- ceptions of the quality of banking services. Hypotesis 5: S-OOCBs has a significant positive effect on service quality from the perspective of Indonesia employees and banking customers.
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This paper reported the results of psycho- acoustic experiments where we extracted some F0 fluctuations in singing voices and sustained vowels and demonstrated how much the F0 fluctuations influence voice quality. The results show that F0 fluctuations, especially overshoot, vibrato, preparation, and fine-fluctuation, affect the naturalness of singing voices, and that the fine-fluctuation influences the quality of sustained vowels. These fluctuations are important to the synthesis of natural speech.
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Environment and health are inextricably inter- linked. In this sense, drinking water, sanitation, hous- ing, and air, have considerable effects on the health and wellbeing of people (Irfan 2010). Exposure to environmental pollution remains a major source of health risk throughout the world. This risk is gener- ally greater in developing countries, where poverty, lack of investment in modern technology, and weak environmental legislation cause high pollution levels. Associations between environmental pollution and health outcome are, however, complex and often poorly characterized (Briggs 2003).
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The left FEF was localized in the 3D MRI reconstruction and labeled, so that the coil and the perpendicular projection of the esti- mated magnetic ﬁ eld accurately coincided with the center of such area. All participants received stimulation at suprathreshold levels with respect to their individual motor thresholds. We initially aimed to use a TMS intensity around 65% maximum stimulator output throughout all the participants, a level of stimulation around intensity levels (±10% variability) that have demonstrated in prior similar studies an effective impact of the FEF region (Ruff et al. 2006; Silvanto et al. 2005, 2006; Chanes et al. 2012). Nevertheless, as done else- where (Chica, Bartolomeo, et al. 2011; Chanes et al. 2012), stimu- lation was adapted in those individuals in which TMS induced facial or tongue sensations, involuntary blinks, jaw activations, or motor activations in the contralateral hand, until those events were no longer induced. The ﬁ nal mean stimulation intensity was 55% (SD = 6), a level that corresponded on average to 89% (SD = 6) of each individual motor threshold. A second coil was placed near the actively stimulated site, with its edge as close as possible to that location, and positioned at 90° with its surface pointing away from the skull. In our group of TMS naïve participants, and as demonstrated previously (Chanes et al. 2012), this procedure was effective in mimicking the clicking noise associated with the delivery of TMS pulses, while effec- tively preventing the magnetic ﬁ eld from signi ﬁ cantly reaching and stimulating the brain. This sham procedure allows to optimally deliver left lateralized sham TMS pulses in a randomized manner, on a very similar scalp area. Sham pulses could be anticipated by participants, because they were embedded within the same exper- imental block as active pulses. Given the technical limitations of commercially available coils, scalp tapping sensation could only be incompletely mimicked in our experiment. Nevertheless, all our par- ticipants were naïve about TMS and due to the high dif ﬁ culty of the behavioral paradigm, they had to be deeply focused on performing the visual task. Hence, any anticipation or discrimination of online sham or active bursts, which were randomly interleaved, was highly unlikely.
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Cardona (2001) developed a conceptual framework and a model for seismic risk analysis of a city from a holistic perspective. It considers both “hard” and “soft” risk variables of the urban centre, taking into account exposure, socio-economic characteristics of the different localities (units) of the city and their disaster coping capacity or degree of resilience. The model was made to guide the decision-making in risk management, helping to identify the critical zones of the city and their vulnerability from different professional disciplines 2 . Figure 1 shows the theoretical framework of the holistic approach.
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In Mexico, as in others countries, the use of MM was prohibited; however, in December 2016, the Senate approved the legaliza- tion of MM and sent the bill to the Chamber of Representatives for ratification, which occurred on April 28, 2017. The next steps for its appropriate use include the publication of laws, regulations, and guidelines by the Health Ministry, medical schools, and medi- cal associations. While this continues, it is important that health professionals be updated on this topic, so that they can ration- ally recommend the use of MM. To achieve this, a first approach would be to know the attitudes and willingness to recommend the use of MM, and the risk perceived by physicians. In this study, we evaluate the risk perception of MM in medical students from northeast Mexico and determine associated factors.
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Methods: Epidemiological cross-sectional population-based household study. The study included 316 elderly resident of a city in Brazil's northeast Region. Data were collected in January 2011. The depressive symptoms were evaluated by means of a Geriatric Depression Scale (15-item version). The independent variable included socio-demographic factors, health state, functional limitation and life style. Crude and adjusted Poisson regression models were used in the statistical analyses. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20 %. The adjusted
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Data were collected from two complementary modalities - a paper and a digital version - to obtain a heterogeneous sample. For the paper version, institutions and people were contacted and invited to participate voluntarily. The principal researcher contacted public institutions (e.g., Police Station, Ministry of Labor, University) and private ones (e.g., Universities, firms and commercial shops) to collect the information. For the digital version, a document was designed in google.doc to be shared on the Internet. The principal researcher contact different colleagues from different province of Argentina and gave them the link to invite participants to complete the survey. Also, the snowball technique was used to reach a bigger and diverse sample. In the paper version, 375 questionnaires were collected, whereas 133 questionnaires were collected in the digital version. Although this method has been incorporated in recent times, it is recognized as a method equal to or better than in-person gathering self-administered data (Lyons, Cude, Lawrence, & Gutter, 2005), because it increases the speed of data collection, the diversity of the sample, and reduces costs (Weber & Bradley, 2006), diminishes social desirability, the corresponding data loading and procedural errors among other advantages (Lyons et al., 2005).
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He came to CapMAC in 1989 from Kidder, Peabody, where he was Director of the Market Analysis and Product Development Group in the Asset Finance Department. Mr. Kotecha led Kidder into the UK mortgage backed securities markets, structured the first public Collateralized Bond Obligation (CBO), and advised International Finance Corporation (IFC) and Turkey on capital markets issues. Previously, Mr. Kotecha worked for eight years at Standard & Poor's, where he was responsible for all ratings based on non-US collateral: mortgage and non-mortgage. Earlier, Mr. Kotecha worked for four years at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and for three years at the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA).
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We have found psychoacoustic descriptors that explain a significant portion of the variance in the perception of the sounds of the auto horns. The descriptor (roughness) matching the first dimension characterizes the classification between monophonic and multiphonic sounds. It should be noted that the sounds were distributed continuously along this dimension. Subjects did not categorize in binary fashion the sounds between monophonic and multiphonic, but rather performed a continuous rating from pure periodic sounds (one single harmonic series) to sounds made of the addition of two periodic sounds. The spectral analysis of the intermediate sounds reveals that they are made of harmonic series based on the fundamental frequency, added to a second attenuated sub- harmonic series, which progressivly increases the perceived roughness.
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Prior research shows that perceptions influence attitudes (Wei et al., 2011), behaviors (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999), decision-making (Sitkin & Weingart, 1995), and overconfidence (Fast et al., 2012). Perception influences beliefs (Saberwal, 1996; Smith, 2001; Swartz, 1965), and thus, estimations. We theorize perceived difficulty also influences overconfidence. We draw on studies on perceived easiness, also known as fluency, which show perceived easiness increases estimated performance (Alter et al., 2007). In consequence, perceived difficulty, should decrease estimated performance, and thus, overconfidence. We hypothesize that when a task is perceived as more difficult, people exhibit less overconfidence. The rationale is the following. A decision maker who perceive a given task as easy (A) will to make accurate predictions (or will expect to perform well) and thus be highly confident. In contrast, decision makers who believe a task to be difficult (B) will expect to make less accurate predictions (or will expect to perform poorly) and thus be less confident. If the actual accuracy levels of both decision makers are similar, decision maker A will be more overconfident than decision maker B. For example, consider the prototypical entrepreneur who often finds ventures easy but tend to be unhappy with their performance. We argue that what lead them to be overconfident are their perceptions of how difficult the tasks are.
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The factor dealing with the coercive context in rela- tions with sexual partners is a pertinent condition for risky behavior by women with SMI. Prevalence of sexual abuse of people with SMI varies between 14% and 40% (Col- lins et al., 2008; Coverdale et al., 1994; Coverdale et al., 2000; Randolph et al., 2007). Besides the inherent risk in sexual abuse that the perpetrators may be infected, studies made with United States adults and adolescents report that sexual abuse during the childhood of people with SMI is associated with a greater number of risky sexual practices and a greater probability of substance use (Brown, Houck, Hadley & Lescano, 2005; Brown, Lourie, Zlotnick & Cohn, 2000; Dévieux et al., 2007). In Uganda it was reported that women with SMI had more sexual risk behavior and more sexual violence exposure than women in the general popu- lation. Sexual risk behavior was associated with HIV infec- tion in men, but not women (Lundberg, Nakasujja, Musisi, Thorson, Cantor-Graae & Allebeck, 2015).
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This paper is aimed at understanding how risk attitudes modulate the individual mechanisms of decision-making, in our case, in the field of health. Certain expe- rimental results indicate that most people do not make decisions incorporating and evaluating all the available data, but rather using certain “mental shortcuts” (termed “heuristic” decisions in cognitive psycho- logy), which allow making assessments based on partial data. These “heuristic” de- cisions are often sophisticated in the sense that individuals reach valuations very close to the ones obtained by the process of the expected value. It is possible that decision rules that have been treated as “heuristic” in the literature were built as a function both of the expected value and the individual risk attitude, controlled by other cognitive processes at the same time (11) . We therefore
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