Regarding the ranking of performance measures, from the bottom sample we obtained the same ranking regardless of the measure used, except for the Jensen and Treynor measures, which also show a high rank correlation. However, for the top data set, the ranking is not the same. If we consider rankings from the modified Sharpe index calculated with the Cornish-Fisher VaR and EVT-VaR, more accurate measures in the presence of non-normal distribution, both are highly correlated and present a lower correlation with the other measures. So we recommend employing when trying to rank the performance of different funds, especially in the presence of non-normal data, such as returns from hedge funds or more frequently sampled returns.
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58 Performance measures of covariance matrix and MOO The optimization of these metrics was suggested as future work by [Yang et al., 2012], but the effect that a solution that optimizes only one criterion can have on the other was never shown. Analyzing the Pareto front in both spaces (decision variables and objectives) we have a total overview of the solutions together with the values of the objectives, as we can see in the fig- ures of Section 4.4. The other approaches that obtain a single solution would have needed to apply some weights to compute a single objective function, losing all the information that we have with the Pareto front. Regarding the application field of this proposal, it can be applied to any localization system based on range-difference measurements. Adapting the method to other kind of measurements should be easy. The strengths of the proposed methods can be summarized as follows: We have proposed a sensor placement method that is based on a well known multi-objective optimization algorithm, hence it can be easily implemented since it is included in most open and commercial software for numerical analysis. We have already stated how optimizing a single accuracy criterion may lead to sub-optimal solutions, e.g. minimizing the volume of the error ellipsoids may lead to elongated ellipsoids with an unacceptable error in the major axis direction. On the other hand, focusing only on finding solutions whose er- ror ellipsoids axes are equal may lead to a higher MSE than optimizing the length of the axis. Combining the two objectives and obtaining the Pareto front we can get a full set of Pareto effi- cient solutions. The human expert can check these solutions and select one of them according to the current needs of the system. We avoid computing derivatives of the objective functions by using a genetic algorithm, thus we do not need to simplify the problem finding tractable mathematical expressions. Finally, we do not limit our final solutions to a subset of grid points that were decided before solving the problem.
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plained according to the remaining set of measures classified as basic or input measures. A multiple linear regression anal- ysis is used to interpret the relations between input measures and their effect on each strategic measure. To the strategic measures, it is also possible to add a third group of meas- ures, known as derivative measures, which are not obtained through linear regression equations, but as formulae prede- fined by the decision maker (DM), and can involve both ba - sic and other strategic measures. Lastly, a fourth set of met- rics, known as ratios, is established to measure the ratios of change among the strategic measures in terms of time or any input measure. Modeling these groups of measures can be done by system dynamics, and in such a way that a sensitiv- ity analysis of the strategic measures can be done with the changes made in the input measures, or by predictive studies on the optimum values of the input measures to accomplish the levels expected in the strategic measure. To illustrate the proposed methodology, a generic analysis of the operations in a supermarket of retail product sales was done using the ratios among the performance measures that resulted from this operation.
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6 fund managers can beat the market based on superior selectivity and market timing skills (Lee & Rahman, 1990). This has open an interesting body of literature concerning the role of active managers that can outperform the market based on two distinct abilities which are “timing” and “selectivity”. The ability of “timing” is related with the skill of knowing when is the right moment to sell or to buy a specific security. On the other hand, the “selectivity” skill can be explained by the manager’s ability on how to predict a specific stock future return (Admati, Bhattachayra, Pfleiderer, & Ross, 1986). Therefore, if in theory a manager has superior information than improve his “selectivity” and “timing” skills, this manager can outperform his competitors and would probably beat the market in a consistent basis. However, there is evidence that proves that if the investor cannot identify which managers really can outperform the market it would be in the best interest of this investor to stay in passive managed index funds (Bogle, 1998). The main reasons of why many fund managers are unable to outperform the market are explained by the fact that most of the mutual fund’s manager compensation schemes are tied to benchmark performance return measures. These compensation schemes are biased, in the sense that the performance measures used are (Admati & Pfleiderer, 1997):
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When it comes to providing healthcare to PWID, the distinction between physical and mental health needs is an artiﬁcial one as far as the individual is concerned. There is a constant interface which needs to be recog- nised, whether it is the impact of physical health on an individual’s mental health or vice versa, whether it is as a result of drugs or treatments given, or whether it is a co-existing or co-morbid condition. PWID have the same right to access healthcare systems as the rest of the community and they expect provision to be made to support and address their special needs if required. Many of these ‘special needs’ are in fact needs all people have if they are to come away with a good experience of healthcare. Standards and performance measures used to monitor quality and outcome need to be applicable to PWID too, but care needs to be given in order to avoid widening the health disparity that already exists by simply extrapolating public health strategies for the general population.
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In this paper we consider the problem of designing a GI/M/c queueing system. Given arrival and service data, our objective is to choose the optimal number of servers so as to minimize an expected cost function which depends on quantities, such as the number of customers in the queue. A semiparametric approach based on Erlang mixture distributions is used to model the general interarrival time distribution. Given the sample data, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used to estimate the system parameters and the predictive distributions of the usual performance measures. We can then use these estimates to minimize the steady-state expected total cost rate as a function of the control parameter c . We provide a numerical example based on real data obtained from a bank in Madrid.
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Despite the high marginal costs estimated, the modal transference from truck or other motor vehicles to railway for freight transport and interurban passenger transport is a key factor in a country with long distances, in the light of a sustainable development programme over a period of 25 years. The application of this measure would not only produce a profitable return on investment but it would also imply important externalities for the emerging social development, especially, in the less prosperous areas of the country. The same holds true when it comes to applying these measures in cities. This assertion is verified in a new technologies’ incorporation project carried out in one of the analyzed cities.
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In the Figure the ray through the origin has a slope determined by the observed price vector w*. All firms will lie on that ray; firms with lower average costs will be placed outwards and the efficient point D on the efficiency frontier (the geometric locus of all points where the elasticity of scale is unity). Then a descriptive view of the above measures is given in the Figure. They are radial measures that explain the aspects of inefficiency in which we are interested:
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The above measures respectively provide, were the production unit to use the best practice technology, and index of the maximum increase in output that could be achieved, given the observed normalized prices, and an index of the maximum increase in normalized prices that could be obtained, given the observed level of output. 3
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Intranasal administration of neuropeptides is a popular method to study their central effects because, despite a poor understanding of their mechanisms of action (Leng and Lugwig 2016), increased levels of neuropeptides can be found in brain dialysates (Neumann et al. 2013) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (Born et al. 2002; Dal Monte et al. 2014; Rault 2016; Striepens et al. 2013) following administration. In humans, intranasally administered oxytocin increases the salience of social cues (see review by Bartz et al. 2011), as well as causing an increase in gaze towards the eye region of other human faces (Guastella et al. 2008) (also observed in monkeys (Dal Monte et al. 2014)). Furthermore, variations in the oxytocin receptor gene have been associated with human infant attachment (Chen et al. 2011) and interact with internal working models of attachment in adulthood in assessing risk and in feelings of closeness (Denes 2015). Variations in this gene have also been associated with non-verbal intelligence (Lucht et al. 2009), amygdala activation during the processing of emotionally-salient human faces (Tost et al. 2010), performance on the “reading the mind in the eyes” test (Rodrigues et al. 2009) and autism (Wu et al. 2005), a syndrome characterized by social deficits (for a review see, Volkmar 2011). In dogs variations in the oxytocin receptor gene have been associated with proximity seeking towards humans and friendliness towards strangers (Kis et al. 2014). Intranasal oxytocin in dogs has been shown to increase positive expectations (Kis et al. 2015), decrease friendliness in response to a threatening person (Hernádi et al. 2015), and increase mutual gaze with their owners (Nagasawa et al. 2015).
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Let us present a result that relates supplementary measures to other types of measures by antonyms. We refer to incompatibility measures that determine to what extent the intersection of two fuzzy sets is empty. Obviously, the intersection is modeled by a t-norm T (that is, [1, 6, 7, 8] a commutative, associative and monotonic increasing function T : I → [0, 1] such that T(a, 1) = a for all a ∈ [0, 1]). Definition 2.6. () Given X 6= ∅ and a t-norm T, a function I : I X → [0, 1] is said to be a T-
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5 La centralidad del cuerpo como objeto y medio de investigación prevalece, siempre y cuando podamos incorporar nuestras experiencias de estudio e investigación a las experiencias de la práctica. Una investigación sobre la práctica corporal (doblemente práctica – en cuanto a su trabajo de campo y su objeto práctico) como la performance abordada, asume la centralidad de la autoetnografía como herramienta metodológica y epistemológica reflexiva. Desde esta perspectiva, el antropólogo norteamericano Michael Jackson (1989) aborda sus estudios etnográficos desde la perspectiva de embodiment, estudiando al cuerpo como sujeto, donde el sujeto es un sujeto corporizado. Estudia las prácticas sociales desde la práctica misma; realizando una fenomenología de la experiencia corporizada, nos propone un entendimiento práctico paralelo a la comprensión discursiva, en contextos de etnografías:
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If a group of experts is asked about these proximities, they may have differ- ent opinions and different metrizable ordinal proximity measures may therefore emerge. In these situations, it is advisable to find a collective metrizable ordinal proximity measure that represents individual opinions as faithfully as possible. Therefore, an appropriate aggregation procedure is needed. This aggregation problem is not trivial, and different procedures can generate different outcomes
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Course is theoretical-practical, belongs to the area of science. The course covers the fundamental tools and features for descriptive statistics, probability and statistical inference, and demonstrate real world applications, particularly such linked to the field of Education. It covers the following topics: Data gathering, organization and presentation of data, measures of central tendency and measures of variability; Probability and Probability Distribution, Discrete probability distributions: Bernoulli, Binomial, Hypergeometric and Poisson distributions, and continuous distributions of random variables: the Family of Uniform Probability Distribution, Normal Distribution and Standard Normal Probability Distribution. Estimation, Margins of Error and Estimates, confidence intervals and hypothesis testing. Analyze dataset using Window Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS v 25.
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La palabra ‘performance’ remite a una multiplicidad de significados. Quizá el más cercano para cualquiera sea el de ‘rendimiento’. La incorporamos desde la cultura de habla inglesa en la que significa también simp lemente ‘actuación’. Pero los que de algún modo estamos relacionados con el arte sabemos que performance significa otra cosa: la palabra ‘performance’ alude a una diversidad de manifestaciones culturales. La palabra conserva una ambigüedad, una apertura, una especie de indefinición. Ahora bien, hay un núcleo de significados en esa palabra que sería bueno que nosotros, los que actuamos de algún modo en el arte, conociéramos y reflexionáramos centrados en nudos o núcleos pregnantes, que podrían ser algunos de los siguientes: los límites, los umbrales, las fronteras (el más allá del escenario, tanto en un sentido real como ficcional); el más allá de la convención teatral, del pacto entre público y actores; la profundización de las problemáticas básicas de las artes espacio-temporales (danza, mímica y teatro), relacionada con la relación compleja entre el tiempo y el espacio; un cuestionamiento de lo que quiere decir ‘espectacular’ y del servicio prestado a distintas causas políticas, sociales, económicas; una transición entre la política y el arte; una reflexión sobre la vida cotidiana (una reflexión-fractal sobre nuestras costumbres y hábitos, una especie de ‘descripción densa’); un reclamo del espacio público y un reflexionar sobre el tema del espacio, sus significados y las relaciones de poder que trasuntan; por último, una transición entre las experiencias perceptivas y la intervención pública.
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Competitiveness, on the other hand, is in the literature and here measured in different ways: by an individual’s reaction to incentives through either willingness to compete by self- selection into environments with competitive or piece-rate payment schemes, or through the performance change as a response to a competitive payment scheme in comparison to a piece-rate payment scheme. Competitiveness could explain why certain individuals are attracted to specific educational tracks and job environments, and also why certain individuals are more likely to be promoted – because they apply more for competitive promotions (see for example Bertrand, 2010, for a discussion on this and Zhang 2012 and Buser et al. 2014 for direct evidence). Since it has previously been shown that competitiveness, and in particular gender differences in competitiveness, may depend on the task, we explore competitiveness in four different tasks. Competitiveness is thus measured as performance change in running, skipping rope, math and a verbal task. In math and the verbal task we also measure competitiveness from subjects’ willingness to compete, after they have experienced both payment settings. The two physical tasks are performed in a physical education class with only intrinsic motivation, whereas the two other tasks are performed in a classroom with extrinsic incentives.
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We could not confirm our prediction of unaffected cognition in this middle-aged, asymptomatic sample of O-LOAD patients. Whereas performance in all participants fell in the range considered normal, delayed recall, learning in the 5th trial, and recuperation on the RAVLT were lower in O-LOAD than in CS. This finding was unexpected given that average age was around 53 years, i.e., approximately a decade prior to the age of expected onset of symptoms. This lends support to the hypothesis that significant AD pathology may be present in at- risk individuals several years prior to cognitive symptom onset (Braak et al., 2011). Such structural changes could affect limbic functions as suggested by the associations between cognition and sleep–wake cycle abnormalities described herein. However, brain anatomical and functional correlates of these findings will have to be confirmed in future studies addressing brain volume and indicators of amyloid deposition in regions known to bear the early impact of AD pathology.
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This aim of this work is to address the fi rst analysis of the internal structure of the BRIEF scores, and also to obtain evidence of their reliability and the degree of its association with other behavioral measures, specifi cally the scale “Evaluación del Défi cit de Atención con Hiperactividad” (EDAH; Farré & Narbona, 1997; in English, Attention Defi cit with Hyperactivity Assessment). For this purpose, we conducted a non normative study with a heterogeneous clinical sample of 125 Spanish children and adolescents, aged from 5 to 18 years, whose families completed the translated scale. The results obtained were contrasted with those of the original validation study in a clinical sample (Goia et al., 2000).
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Early studies of CSR engagement in SMAE identified the introduction of simple measures, usually related to cost savings, which not needed a system of innovation and environmental management. These report implementing environmental actions ad hoc, with pioneering examples of CSR management systems or policies. Different authors (Donovan & McElligott, 2000; Kirk, 1995; Knowles et al., 1999) report eco-savings driven environmental actions while Tzschentke et al. (2004) report the importance of ethical and social reasons alongside economic ones, agreeing that cost savings is not a motivation for SMEs in the long term (Petts, 1998; Revell, Stokes, & Chen, 2010). They continue reporting that the scarcity of resources or the pursuit of competitive advantage played a role in their decisions, while legislative measures (particularly green tax incentives or subsidies) influenced developing new policies or practices (Bonilla-Priego et al., 2011). Both Tzschentke et al. (2004) and Sampaio (2009) found substantial savings made in energy, recycling and water management, that most (environmentally certified) respondents were not aware or able to identify because they did not have methods of monitoring or because they were introduced for altruistic reasons. And yet when restaurants were confronted with potential business benefits from sustainable change, they were reluctant to accept that the benefits promoted would be achievable (Revell & Blackburn, 2007). In a subsequent study, Tzschentke et al. (2008b) report that the decision to become environmentally was a value-driven journey, influenced primarily by the development of environmental consciousness and personal, socio- cultural and situational factors of the individual business-owners. The fact that the values and beliefs were a powerful motivator to implement CSR meant that if the most frequent barriers (usually budget) were largely eliminated affirmative action was likely. Sampaio (2009) also found that owners’ worldviews, higher self-efficacy beliefs and mastery goal orientation were critical in guiding the level and type of environmental practices chosen for adoption. Finally, Revel and Blackburn’s (2007) study shows how it would be these worldviews and values, and not a business case, that changes behavior.
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Remark 1.4 It is easy to check that, in the list above, just the range is a stable absolute dispersion measure. On the other hand, according to computer simulations, the variance, standard deviation and mean deviation behave as contractive absolute dispersion measures. Obviously, an open problem consists on providing formal proofs of these facts. In the case of the absolute Gini index, its contractivity can be formally guaranteed in the next section under a multidistance approach.
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