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The cycle of competitive intelligence as a tool to strengthen the cooperation in the Spanish pharmaceutical industry

The cycle of competitive intelligence as a tool to strengthen the cooperation in the Spanish pharmaceutical industry

The Medical College Organisation report (OMC) on the pharmaceutical sector (OMC, 2014) some actions are recommended to increase the competitiveness of the sector. The OMC says that it would be reasonable to expect a process of con- centration and restructuring that promotes partnerships, joint ventures or mergers to créate solvent and innovative pharmaceutical companies. It is noteworthy that the research model of the pharmaceutical industry continúes to evolve over the last decade, from the classic pattern of R&D to prototype called R&C (cooperation and / or collaboration).
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8 Lee mas

Essays on the pharmaceutical industry

Essays on the pharmaceutical industry

Prescription drugs and the pharmaceutical industry play a very important role in health eco- nomics. Drug therapies have usually supplemented medical care, nutrition and sanitation as methods for preserving health. However, during the last decades, both budgetary prob- lems and rising health care expenditures have led countries to implement cost containment policies in the health sector. As an example, health care represented, in 1997, 6.7% of GDP for the U.K., 8.5% for Netherlands, 10.4% in Germany and 14% in the U.S. (PhRMA 1999). For the case of Spain, it represented 6.2% in 1995 (Murillo 1998). For pharma- ceuticals its share represents the 0.9% of GDP in Netherlands, 1.1% in the U.S., 1.2% in the U.K. and 1.3% in Germany (PhRMA 1999). In Spain, cost of pharmaceuticals repre- sent 18% of total health costs (Murillo 1998), which corresponds to 1.1% of GDP. Drugs are widely used to treat many diseases and conditions, and usually either represent alterna- tives to more invasive surgical procedures, or are used in conjunction with these treatments. Despite these successes, the pharmaceutical industry has come under intensive medic and legislative scrutiny. Furthermore, most industrialised countries are targeting the pharma- ceutical sector as a preferred area for cost-containment. One of the reasons is the fact that for example, in the US, pharmaceutical firms are among the largest and most profitable.
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146 Lee mas

ELISA validation in the pharmaceutical industry: a mixed effects models approach with R

ELISA validation in the pharmaceutical industry: a mixed effects models approach with R

Evaluate the significance of either fixed or random effects through p-values in mixed effects mod- elling context is a controversial topic among statisticians and an active research area nowadays [39]. The controversy is of such magnitude that even Douglas Bates, one of the authors of two of the most used R packages devoted to mixed models, the older nlme and the newer lme4 [43, 8], has been pushed to give explanations as to why the lme4::lmer function output does not provide any kind of p-values [4]. The lack of consensus is again demonstrated by the fact that PROC MIXED routine, SAS alternative to the aforementioned R packages and one of the most important commer- cial statistical packages in use, do report p-values using several methodologies [48]. Nevertheless due to the commented concerns those p-values should not be understood as an absolute truth. Despite this statistical debate, the use of p-values as a method to express the relevance of findings is nearly unavoidable in the vast majority of scientific fields and this include pharmaceutical reporting. This is generally accepted and even the lme4 package authors included some guidance on how to externally obtain the desired p-values; type ?lme4::pvalues in R console [8].
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88 Lee mas

Wastewater management in the pharmaceutical industry: towards the development of new electrochemical reactors for wastewater treatment

Wastewater management in the pharmaceutical industry: towards the development of new electrochemical reactors for wastewater treatment

A recent source of concern regarding wastewater in the pharmaceutical plants is the presence of the APIs themselves or the intermediates (some of them often referred to as persistent organic pollutants, POPs) produced in those facilities, since those compounds may exhibit biological activity and/or persistence in the environment [38-40]. Back in 1981, this study [41] identified in the river Lee traces of pharmaceuticals by-products including metabolites of the benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone, ethinyl estradiol, clofibric and salicylic acids [15]. Small quantities (1-2 ng dm -3 ) of Clofibric acid, a high-volume pharmaceutical used as blood lipid regulator, were also found in Swiss lakes and the North Sea [42]. In fact, the recent improvement in the analytics tools has revealed its ubiquity in surface, ground and drinking water [43-45].
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331 Lee mas

Endogenous innovations in the pharmaceutical industry

Endogenous innovations in the pharmaceutical industry

Thus, the literature links inventions on the pharmaceutical sector with dif- ferent measures of the rate of return—including market size—and there is also some initial evidence of the positive impact of drugs on life expectancy. Notice that, in general, these studies (1) do not consider the interaction between drugs and population and (2) use only time-series evidence or cross-section evidence with a small data set. This paper will specifically link population and drugs and will provide evidence of those effects in its empirical section. This section uses a panel data on 15 therapeutic categories of drugs over the period 1950–1997 to provide evidence of the effect of market size on the introduction of drugs. It also uses instrumental variables to control for the simultaneity problem, as indicated above. When considering the effect of drugs over the mortality rate, we use a similar panel to disentangle the effects.
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43 Lee mas

Gifts and Conflicts of Interest: In Shades of Gray?

Gifts and Conflicts of Interest: In Shades of Gray?

Abstract: Gifts are a regular practice within the relationships established by business world stakeholders with the professionals that may be instrumental in promoting their sales. Consequently, gifts are a potential source of conflicts of interest. This article is the result of a bibliographic study of papers addressing gifts, published in scientific journals which was carried out with the aim of identifying what kinds of professions address the issue and in what ways, in order to reach conclusions that may enhance reflection and contribute to professional training. The research was carried out using the SciELO, PsychNet, IEEE, and Proquest databases and yielded 59 publications that span the period between 1998 and 2015. Results show a remarkable concentration in health-related professions, mainly in their relationships with the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, an emerging presence is being observed in other professional fields. Starting from a philosophical conceptualization of the gift as a present, the results suggest that it is not this conception of gift but rather the exchange rationality that is reflected in these practices, thus becoming an ethically gray, i.e., uncertain area, that cannot be disregarded when it comes to training in professional ethics.
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10 Lee mas

Design Form Cluster Analysis OECD

Design Form Cluster Analysis OECD

Cluster analysis represents only a portion of the overall tip programme. Figure 1 tries to sum up the major cluster-related studies and the intended logic of the programme design. In the beginning, the lack of current IO tables forced us to concentrate on the detection of general patterns and “dense locations” within certain dimensions of technological and economic performance. The overall goal of this screening for relevant clusters was to draw a map, which helped to define priority areas for the following case studies. In the subsequent periods, important areas of economic or technological activity were selected for individual cluster case studies. Beginning with a study on industries related to wood and paper as common resource, the telecommunications sector, the pharmaceutical industry and currently the potential cluster at the interface of multimedia and cultural content have been analysed. With regard to the cluster case studies on “wood & paper” and telecommunications a policy review workshop was organised as well. Finally, tip participation within the OECD NIS project can be regarded as an activity which extends the cluster related research agenda.
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22 Lee mas

Ionic liquids based active pharmaceutical ingredients

Ionic liquids based active pharmaceutical ingredients

Pharmaceutical industry focus is the development of salts of the targeted active compounds in order to fulfil the desired requirements of solubility, bioavailability and stability. The arrival of ionic liquids into the pharmaceutical world offers another design option in addition to co-crystals, amorphous forms, and polymer embedded pharmaceuticals. The physiochemical properties of the ionic liquid salts tuned Figure 3. a) Commonly used cations for ionic liquids: I-Imidazolium; II-Pyridinium; III-Tetraalkylammonium; IVTetraalkylphosphonium; b) Commonly used anions for ionic liquids: V- Tetrafluoroborate (BH 4 - ); VI-Hexafluorophosphate(PF
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8 Lee mas

Ocurrencia y efectos de compuestos activos farmacéuticos y de higiene personal: nuevas contribuciones en modelos predictivos, evaluación de riesgos potenciales y clasificaciones de peligro

Ocurrencia y efectos de compuestos activos farmacéuticos y de higiene personal: nuevas contribuciones en modelos predictivos, evaluación de riesgos potenciales y clasificaciones de peligro

A wide range of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are present in the environment, and many of their adverse effects are unknown. The emergence of new compounds or changes in regulations have led to dynamical studies of occurrence, impact and treatment, which consider geographical areas and trends in consumption and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. A Quantitative study of StructureeActivity Relationship ((Q)SAR) was performed to assess the possible adverse effects of ninety six PPCPs and metabolites with negligible experimental data and establish a ranking of concern, which was supported by the EPA EPI SuiteÔ interface. The environmental and toxicological indexes, the persistence (P), the bioaccumulation (B), the toxicity (T) (extensive) and the occurrence in Spanish aquatic environments (O) (intensive) were evaluated. The most hazardous characteristics in the largest number of compounds were generated by the P index, followed by the T and B indexes. A high number of metabolites has a concern score equal to or greater than their parent compounds. Three PBT and OPBT rankings of concern were proposed using the total and partial ranking method (supported by a Hasse diagram) by the Decision Analysis by Ranking Techniques (DART) tool, which was recently recommended by the European Commission. An analysis of the sensibility of the relative weights of these indexes has been conducted. Hormones, antidepressants (and their metabolites), blood lipid regulators and all of the personal care products considered in this study were at the highest levels of risk according to the PBT and OPBT total rankings. Furthermore, when the OPBT partial ranking was performed, X-ray contrast media, H 2 blockers and some antibiotics were included at the highest level of concern. It is important to improve and incorporate useful indexes for the predicted environmental impact of PPCPs and metabolites and thus focus experimental analysis on the compounds that require urgent attention.
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223 Lee mas

CE as orthogonal technique to HPLC for alprazolam degradation product identification / Coral Barbas    [et al ]

CE as orthogonal technique to HPLC for alprazolam degradation product identification / Coral Barbas [et al ]

The control of degradation products is currently a critical issue to the pharmaceutical industry. A degradation product that appeared in alprazolam tablets during their sta- bility assay, 7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinolin-4-amine, also named triazolaminoquinoline, was tested as possible candidate in the HPLC method employed for the study. The impurity showed the same retention time and spectra as the degradation product; but as all these compounds are very closely related, a con- firmation with an independent technique was necessary, and CE was chosen for that purpose. Problems related to the adsorption of the analytes to the negatively charged silica surface were solved by employing a new polymeric capillary coating consisting of poly(3-aminopropylmethylsiloxane). The polymer provided EOF towards the anode, and the two compounds were separated in less than 8 min in a 60 cm total-length capillary, 75 mm id capillary with a BGE containing 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.0 with 20% ACN. When the sample containing the degradation product was injected, the presence of triazolaminoquinoline was confirmed.
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8 Lee mas

Revista Contaduría y Administración

Revista Contaduría y Administración

This research proposes the following hypothesis: “The valuation method of real options is a methodology of valuation of investment projects that allows top management to know the different options related to the same investment project and the cost of various alternatives that they can analyze and consider in their decision-making, each of them represents an excellent alternative in the process of evaluation and acceptance of the initiatives presented to the authority, with the objective of developing projects in the pharmaceutical industry, during a specific period. So, with additional knowledge to incorporate into its analysis the fuzzy logic, the evaluation is strengthened with its verification or corroboration presented in results and discussion section. It is important to note that the classic net present value of the investment project is also calculated, but it is a deterministic model in that managers cannot properly capture management´s flexibility to adapt and revise later decisions in response to market development and unexpected economic environment; while the real options give the executive the right, but not the obligation, to conduct certain business initiatives.” Thus, to obtain a set of results that will allow you to have different contributions and benefits in the pharmaceutical industry, showing its limitations and scope, including recommendations from experts in several periods of valuation of the pharmaceutical industry. We use information from Economatica (2016).
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30 Lee mas

Financial and non-financial conflicts of interests in psychiatry

Financial and non-financial conflicts of interests in psychiatry

The third argument is that drug companies are today, in many countries, the only accessible source of financial support for drug trials, the organization of large scien- tific meetings and CME events, so that it is practically unavoidable for a professional who wants to implement one of those activities to look for the support of the in- dustry. This is most probably true. However, again, the fact that a partnership is unavoidable does not imply that such a partnership should not have rules. The fourth argument is that the relationship with drug companies is not the only source of financial conflicts of interests for physicians and researchers, although it is by large the most visible. This is certainly a good point. There are indeed financial conflicts of interests in psychiatric practice and research which do not involve the pharmaceutical industry. For instance, public health sponsors usually have an interest to avoid spending money on the most expensive drugs(25). This may affect the conduct and the outcome of the studies they fund (e.g., comparisons between old- and new-generation drugs), especially if the report of re- sults in line with the public sponsor’s interest involves a better chance for researchers to be funded again by that sponsor.
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7 Lee mas

CMR312 PDF ENG  Blue Ocean Strategy pdf

CMR312 PDF ENG Blue Ocean Strategy pdf

In the case of the U.S. wine industry, the problem the industry focused on was how to create a more sophisticated wine for special occasions. The two strategic groups—premium wines and budget wines—both strove to better answer this question; the only difference was that the premium wines strove |to create a more sophisticated wine for special occasions for those able to spend significant money, while budget wines strove to do the same but for people on tight budgets. In essence, conventional wisdom caused wineries to focus on over-delivering on prestige and the quality of wine at its price point. Over-deliv- ery meant adding complexity to the wine based on taste profiles shared by wine- makers and reinforced by the wine show judging system. Winemakers, show judges, and knowledgeable drinkers concur that complexity—layered personal- ity and characteristics that reflect the uniqueness of the soil, season, and wine- maker’s skill in tannins, oak, and aging processes—equates with quality.
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18 Lee mas

http://www2.itif.org/2012-american-manufacturing-decline.pdf

http://www2.itif.org/2012-american-manufacturing-decline.pdf

On the industry level, the enormous disparity between the productivity numbers has been reduced. (See Figure 36) Even after adjustment, the computer and electronic products industry still had the highest rate of productivity growth from 2000 to 2010, but it is now a respectable 114 percent growth, instead of the incredible 764 percent growth indicated by the official statistics. Much of this growth was driven by labor force reductions: 2010 hours worked in the computer and electronic products industry was just 59 percent of its year 2000 level. Miscellaneous manufacturing (mostly medical instruments manufacturing) is the second highest performing industry in terms of productivity growth, with an adjusted rate of 75 percent. The productivity of the petroleum and coal products industry has been reduced to 14 percent over the period, down from the officially-reported 101 percent increase. Two industries—motor vehicles and other transportation equipment—actually experienced negative productivity growth from 2000 to 2010 (-6.1 percent each). This occurred despite significant reductions in the hours worked for both: hours in the other transportation equipment industry fell by -13 percent over the period, while hours in the motor vehicles industry fell by -48 percent—behind only the textiles industry (-59 percent) and the paper industry (-62 percent).
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78 Lee mas

Challenges of ceramic industry

Challenges of ceramic industry

The ceramic sector is making great efforts to adapt to this new digital era, for which the TECEM project was created in 2014. This project is being jointly developed by the Technological Institute of Energy (ITE) and the Technological Institute of Ceramics (ITC). Among its main objective is to improve the energy efficiency of all the productive processes of the ceramic industry with the help of renewable energies. In 2019, we can say that TECEM has successfully implemented new energy analysis and optimization technologies in the ceramic tile manufacturing processes while respecting the environment. In particular, it has been possible to develop membranes that are installed in the chimneys of the factories and capture the CO2 which they emit, transforming it later into electricity, which has optimized the use of energy resources and reduce energy losses. (ITE, 2019)
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57 Lee mas

Pharmaceutical innovation, reference pricing and therapeutic classes

Pharmaceutical innovation, reference pricing and therapeutic classes

Time is continuous from 0 to in fi nity. The three actors of the model are pharmaceutical fi rms (research laboratories and drugs producers), consumers and the regulator of the industry. These actors intervene differently at the two stages of the game. At the upstream stage, innovators invest in R&D and introduce new molecules or treatments. At the downstream stage, the regulatory agency and the producers negotiate to determine the price (the negotiation is modeled using the Nash bargaining solution concept where the status-quo corresponds to not introducing the new drug); knowing the prices, patients and doctors jointly determine the consumption of drugs. All this is done under the legal rules that have been set by the legislator, in particular the reference pricing system. We shall consider here an extreme form that represents the Italian version of RP.
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38 Lee mas

TítuloCharacterization of Pharmaceutical Materials by Thermal Analysis

TítuloCharacterization of Pharmaceutical Materials by Thermal Analysis

Actual drug dosage forms are seldom just the pure drug or protein. Instead, they are usually composed of multiple ingredients that aid in the manufacture, storage or delivery of the active ingredient. Because the dosage form must be stored over a period of time at some temperature and relative humidity, there is a need to confirm that the efficacy of a drug formulation will not change with time. Two ways used by pharmaceutical companies to improve storage stability are to keep the sample below the glass transition temperature of any ingredient (minimizes molecular mobility and, therefore, possible chemical interaction) and to use crystalline drugs that are more thermally stable than amorphous drugs.
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39 Lee mas

Effectiveness the pharmaceutical care in diabetic patients

Effectiveness the pharmaceutical care in diabetic patients

Two cases were eliminated to diminish bias due to extreme values; the average direct cost per patient from the intervened group was $976,397 CP and $1’371,879 CP for the control group, during the study. It was noted that the mean ratio (average per patient) for the patients in the control group was 1.4 times greater than in the intervention group, suggesting that medical costs of patients from the intervention group were lower. Analysis per healthcare insurance carrier revealed that the difference in the mean ratio of the direct cost was in the range of 1.1 times to 2.5 times greater in patients from the control group, in relation to the intervention group; leading us to interpret that conducting pharmaceutical intervention is a more effective option in diminishing medical costs. It must be stated that the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring was carried out by the drug dispensing entity and not by the healthcare provider, for this reason the cost was not charged to the direct costs of patient healthcare.
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9 Lee mas

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients 2C 6th Edition

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients 2C 6th Edition

The first edition of the Handbook was published in 1986 and contained 145 monographs. This was followed by the second edition in 1994 containing 203 monographs, the third edition in 2000 containing 210 monographs and the fourth edition in 2003 containing 249 monographs. Since 2000, the data has also been available on CD-ROM, updated annually, and from 2004 online. The fifth edition with its companion CD-ROM, Pharmaceutical Excipients 5, contained 300 monographs and was published in 2006. This new edition contains 340 excipient monographs with a new text design and enhanced online features, compiled by over 140 experts in pharmaceutical formulation or excipient manufacture from Australia, Europe, India, Japan, and the USA. All the monographs have been reviewed and revised in the light of current knowledge. There has been a greater emphasis on including published data from primary sources although some data from laboratory projects included in previous editions have been retained where relevant. Variations in test methodology can have significant effects on the data generated (especially in the case of the compactability of an excipient), and thus cause confusion. As a consequence, the editors have been more selective in including data relating to the physical properties of an excipient. However, comparative data that show differences between either source or
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917 Lee mas

Pharmaceutical co crystals   a review

Pharmaceutical co crystals a review

Co-crystallization alters the molecular interactions and composition of pharmaceutical materials, and is considered better alternatives to optimize drug properties. Co-crystals consists of API and a stoichiometric amount of a pharmaceutically acceptable co-crystal former. Pharmaceutical co-crystals are nonionic supramolecular complexes and can be used to address physical property issues such as solubility, stability and bioavailability in pharmaceutical development without changing the chemical composition of the API. Co- crystals can be constructed through several types of interaction, including hydrogen bonding, pi-stacking, and van der Waals forces. Co-crystals High Throughput provides information on relationship between formation and chemical structure of the API and conformer. Factors affecting co-crystal stability are reported and a co-crystal is only expected to form if it is thermodynamically more stable than the crystals of its components. Phase transformations induced during processing/storage affects the mechanisms of conversion of crystalline drugs to co-crystals. Pharmaceutical co-crystals could play a major part in the future of API formulation and can be employed for chiral resolution.
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19 Lee mas

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