Philosophy and theory

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Tras la Virtud de MacIntyre y el desacuerdo sobre el desacuerdo

Tras la Virtud de MacIntyre y el desacuerdo sobre el desacuerdo

But what motivated the modern critique of teleology? Although MacIntyre insists that the history of political and social change cannot be dissociated from the history of philosophy and that, hence, “the transition into modernity was a transition both in theory and practice and a single transition at that” (ibidem: 61), the fact is that when it comes to explain the historical grounds for the disruption of the teleological conception of man and for the parallel emer- gence of the modern self, he just focuses on the conceptual side of this development. But even on this level MacIntyre fails to make a clear distinction between what in his account is to be taken as a primal cause of the disrup- tion or already as a certain consequence of it. One has even the impression that MacIntyre is exclusively concerned in pointing out the con- sequences of the disruption and not at all in- terested in a detailed explanation of the causes of the disruption itself. And just because he as a theoretician omits any account in this respect we cannot obviously conclude that the process itself was ultimately unmotivated 25 . So what 25 This issue has important consequences for MacIntyre’s conception of modern moral philosophy as a mistake. For modern moral philo- sophy can obviously be interpreted by its defenders as an attempt to correct the shortcomings of pre-modern morality for which MacIntyre could be charged of being symptomatically blind. Couldn’t one count as Macintyre’s failure his reluctance to view the origin of modernity as something emerging also from an “historically extended, socially imbedded argument” (ibidem: 222)?

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Althusser – Lenin and Philosophy and

Althusser – Lenin and Philosophy and

difficulty of the theory: to get used to the practice of abstraction. This apprenticeship, for it really is an apprenticeship (comparable with the apprenticeship in any other practice, e.g. as a lock-smith), is primarily provided, in our education system, by mathematics and philosophy. Even in the Preface to Capital Volume One, Marx warns us that abstraction is not just the existence of theory, but also the method of his analysis. The experimental sciences have the 'microscope', Marxist science has no 'microscope': it has to use abstraction to 'replace' it. Beware: scientific abstraction is not at all 'abstract', quite the contrary. E.g., when Marx speaks of the total social capital, no one can 'touch it with his hands'; when Marx speaks of the 'total surplus-value', no one can touch it with his hands or count it: and yet these two abstract concepts designate actually existing realities. What makes abstraction scientific is precisely the fact that it designates a concrete reality which certainly exists but which it is impossible to 'touch with one's hands' or 'see with one's eyes'. Every abstract concept therefore provides knowledge of a reality whose existence it reveals: an 'abstract concept' then means a formula which is apparently abstract but really terribly concrete, because of the object it designates. This object is terribly concrete in that it is infinitely more concrete, more effective than the objects one can 'touch with one's hands' or 'see with one's eyes' -- and yet one cannot touch it with one's hands or see it with one's eyes. Thus the concept of exchange value, the concept of the total social capital, the concept of socially necessary labour, etc. All this is easy to explain. The second point: the basic concepts exist in the form of a system, and that is what makes them a theory. A theory is indeed a rigorous system of basic scientific concepts. In a scientific theory, the basic concepts do not exist in any

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Althusser – Philosophy and the spontaneous philosophy of the scientists

Althusser – Philosophy and the spontaneous philosophy of the scientists

In both cases it is a question of reorganizing, dismembering, recomposing and unifying, according to a precise orientation, a whole series of social practices and their corresponding ideologies, in order to make sovereign, over all the subordinate elements, a particular Truth that imposes on them a particular orientation, guaranteeing this orientation with that Truth. If the correspondence is exact, we may infer that philosophy, which continues the class struggle as befits it, in theory, responds to a fundamental political necessity. The task which it is assigned and delegated by the class struggle in general, and more directly by the ideological class struggle, is that of contributing to the unification of the ideologies within a dominant ideology and of guaranteeing this dominant ideology as Truth. How does it contribute? Precisely by proposing to think the theoretical conditions of possibility of reducing existing contradictions, and therefore of unifying the social practices and their ideology. This involves an abstract labour, a labour of pure thought, of pure and, hence, a priori theorization. And its result is to think, under the unity and guarantee of an identical orientation, the diversity of the different practices and their ideologies. In responding to this exigency, which it lives as an internal necessity but which derives from the major class conflicts and historical events, what does philosophy do? It produces a whole apparatus of categories which serve to think and position the different social practices in a determinate location under the ideologies - that is, in the place they must necessarily occupy in order to play the role expected of them in the constitution of the dominant ideology. Philosophy produces a general problematic: that is, a manner of posing, and hence resolving, the problems which may arise. In short, philosophy produces theoretical schemas, theoretical fgures that serve as mediators for surmounting contradictions and as links for reconnecting the different elements of ideology. Moreover, it guarantees (by dominating the social practices thus reordered) the Truth of this order, enunciated in the form of the guarantee of a rational discourse.

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Articulo 2

Articulo 2

CR is a movement in the philosophy of science, starting with the British philosopher Bhaskar’s (1978, 1979) writings. It has later been developed for and employed in social theory by Bhaskar (1989) and many others, most notably by Archer (1995, 1996, 2000), Sayer (1992, 1999), Layder (1994) and Collier (1994, 1998). In information systems research, defined as an applied field that is heavily oriented towards the applications of information systems in business, and in many adjacent fields of social science, like organisation research and economics, the philosophical approach of CR has been an object of growing interest (Dobson, 2002; Spasser, 2002; Willmott, 1997; Reed, 2001; Mingers, 2004), although it has also been subject to severe criticism (e.g. Klein, 2004). Mutch (1999, 2002) has suggested that Archer’s realist social theory could be a suitable framework for the examination of the use of information in organisations. In these studies there is expressed the need of a greater awareness of structure and process, and of the human being acting as a person, a collective agent, and as a social actor.

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Charles Darwin and modern moral philosophy

Charles Darwin and modern moral philosophy

As natural selection acts solely by accumulating slight, successive, favourable variations, it can produce no great or sudden modifications; it can act only by short and slow steps. Hence, the canon of “Natura non facit saltum,” which every fresh addition to our knowledge tends to confirm, is on this theory intelligible. We can see why throughout nature the same general end is gained by an almost infinite diversity of means, for every peculiarity when once acquired is long inherited, and structures already modified in many different ways have to be adapted for the same general purpose (Darwin 1959 [1958, p. 435]). These lines show that Darwin put strong emphasis on adaptation and tended to believe that adaptation leads to improvement. When he conclu- ded that natural selection operates on random variations, he—of course— abandoned any idea of plan and purpose in nature, but continued to think that progress was rather inevitable (see also Ospovat 1981).

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Scepticism and analytic philosophy: G  E  Moore

Scepticism and analytic philosophy: G E Moore

. His importance rests in understanding that the habitual strategy of looking for an apodictic justification of our beliefs through the search for a reason to support them, does not lead us very far. He was the first analytic philosopher to realize that the only way to defeat scepticism is to approach it from a new perspective. It is a perspective that finds a firm ground in daily beliefs and builds from them a theory of knowledge with deeply anti-sceptical features. Moore's epistemological position presented enormous advantages. Taking everyday beliefs as inviolable, prevents the epistemologist from falling into a pyrrhonic trap. We do not need to argue the confidence we have in our beliefs. We know that the world exists, and we do not need to prove it. Our only worry should be to understand what knowledge is, not whether it is possible. This approach interested many epistemologists who came after him.

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Philosophy and Its Relation to Religion and Arts

Philosophy and Its Relation to Religion and Arts

One should not forget that speaking about “philosophy ingeneral” in this article, we make a very crude reduction, by abstracting from the multiplicity of forms of existence of philosophy both in history and at the present time. In reality, most likely, there is no single “philosophy in general”, but there is a fairly largecorpus of different “philosophies”, each of which can be located closer or further to science, religion and art.The purpose of our study was to reveal those bridges that cross spiritual chasms that separate the phenome- na under discussion and make it possible for philosophy to approach a particular cultural form, never coinciding with it until it is indis- tinguishable. Ultimately, each concrete form of philosophy can be represented as a point between these cultural poles - art, religion and science.

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'Hybrid Practices' between Art, Scholarly Writing and Documentary – The Digital Future of the Essay?

'Hybrid Practices' between Art, Scholarly Writing and Documentary – The Digital Future of the Essay?

This contribution explores in how far emerging Questo contributo indaga no a che punto le emer- interactive con gurations can be regarded as iso- genti con gurazioni interattive possono essere con- morphisms of essayistic writing in the digital. siderate come isomor smi della scrittura saggistica The framework of thought is based on considera- nell’ambito del digitale. La cornice teorica del lavoro tions on essayistic writing (Montaigne, Benjamin, si basa su considerazioni riguardanti la scrittura sag- Adorno), ‘new media’ (Manovich) as well as dig- gistica (Montaigne, Benjamin, Adorno), i “nuovi me- ital storytelling, remediation (Bolter and Grusin) dia” (Manovich), nonché lo storytelling digitale, la ri- and practices of ‘interactive factuals’ (Miles). All mediazione (Bolter and Grusin) e la pratica dei “fatti this feeds into a transdisciplinary understanding of interattivi” (Miles). Tutto ciò alimenta una compren- interactive digitext and serves as a point of depar- sione transdisciplinare del digitext interattivo e funge ture for a discussion of database documentary as da punto di partenza per un esame del database docu- a possible ‘digital future’ of the essay. Questions mentario come possibile “futuro digitale” del saggio. in this context arise with regard to the transforma- Ciò suscita degli interrogativi riguardo alla trasforma- tion of conventions and techniques of ‘traditional zione delle convenzioni e delle tecniche della “tradizio- essayistic writing’, narrative and rhetorical princi- nale scrittura saggistica” e dei principi della narrativa e ples into digital non- ction. In how far do the spe- della retorica all’interno della non- ction digitale. Fi- ci c characteristics of digital environments such as no a che punto le caratteristiche speci che dei mezzi non-linearity, interactivity and plurivocality a fect digitali, come l’assenza di linearità, l’interattività e la notions of authorship and argument? Are there plurivocalità in uenzano i concetti di autorialità e di- unique features of digital essays that a ford new scorso? È un e fetto esclusivo dei saggi digitali svilup- forms of addressing the reader? And what forms pare nuovi modi di rivolgersi al lettore? E quali tipi di of hybridization can be identi ed? To illustrate ibridazione possono essere individuati? Per mostrare the argument, Public Secrets will be analysed. Im- e spiegare questo dibattito, si considererà Public Se- portant issues will be the concept of interface as crets. Un particolare rilievo sarà attribuito all’idea di argument, the notion of the author as ‘context- interfaccia come discorso, alla nozione di autore come provider’ and critical re ections on the conditions ‘context-provider’ e alle ri essioni critiche sulle moda- of insight and knowledge in procedural, interac- lità di conoscenza e approfondimento all’interno dei tive media environments. contesti mediatici interattivi.

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Bioética y multiculturalismo: políticas públicas en España (1978-2013). El "hecho cultural" ante la revolución biotecnológica

Bioética y multiculturalismo: políticas públicas en España (1978-2013). El "hecho cultural" ante la revolución biotecnológica

When he discussed contraception he brought up the idea whether the end justifies the means, a topic which he stressed again and again. Many will recall the surprise occasioned when it became known that Roman Catholic nuns in the former Belgian Congo had been placed on contraceptive agents because they were so frequently the victims of rape at the time of that country’s emergence from colonial rule. Actually, it was not a surprise to those who knew that the very voluntarism of intercourse underlays much of the standard condemnation of contraception in the catholic tradition. More simply put: When the voluntarism of intercourse is absent, so is the condemnation of preventing its possible consequences. Whether the preventing is done by closing the house door, by chastity belts, by closing the cervix or by stopping of ovulation is not the primary issue. I do not here refer to abortion, which some would hold to affect third parties. For Andre this fact was reason to discuss sterilization of the mentally retarded and the provision of contraception for minors without the consent of parents. Is the provision of contraceptive agents to minors ethically justified under the rubric of prevention of the consequences of being raped? If this is the ethical justification, does the physician’s responsibility end there? It leaves, I think, certain problems. If a child cannot give consent to intercourse, how can she give consent to the contraceptive? If the ethical justification for placing a minor child on the contraceptive agent lies under the rape rubric, should not the parents be informed that the child is the victim of statutory rape? Is the physician’s responsibility just the prevention of the consequences of the statutory rape but not of the rape itself? Is there an inherent right to intercourse for all who are biologically capable of it regardless of calendar age or mental age? Should one get upset if one’s 12-year-old daughter is having intercourse with one’s 50-year-old neighbour? If yes, why? If no, why not? Or should one only be upset if she is not on some contraceptive? What are the answers which might shed light on how one views the responsibility of physicians to children or the mentally retarded? Are they the patient’s servant? The family’s? Society’s? What if the interests of these entities clash? 197

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Carl Walsh

Monetary Theory and Policy

Previous editions were immensely improved by the thoughtful comments of many individuals who took the time to read parts of earlier drafts, and I have received many comments from users of the first two editions, which have guided me in re- vising the material. Luigi Buttiglione, Marco Hoeberichts, Michael Hutchison, Francesco Lippi, Jaewoo Lee, Doug Pearce, Gustavo Piga, Glenn Rudebusch, Willem Verhagen, and Chris Waller provided many insightful and useful comments on the first edition. Students at Stanford and the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) gave important feedback on draft material; Peter Kriz, Jerry McIntyre, Fabiano Schivardi, Alina Carare, and especially Jules Leichter deserve special men- tion. A very special note of thanks is due Lars Svensson and Berthold Herrendorf. Each made extensive comments on complete drafts of the first edition. Attempting to address the issues they raised greatly improved the final product; it would have been even better if I had had the time and energy to follow all their suggestions. The comments and suggestions of Julia Chiriaeva, Nancy Jianakoplos, Stephen Miller, Jim Nason, Claudio Shikida, and participants in courses I taught based on the first edition at the IMF Institute, the Bank of Spain, the Bank of Portugal, the Bank of England, the University of Oslo, and the Swiss National Bank Studienzen- trum Gerzensee all contributed to improving the second edition. Wei Chen, Ethel Wang, and Jamus Lim, graduate students at UCSC, also o¤ered helpful comments and assistance in preparing the second edition.

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Deep Education

Deep Education

Modern science has been developed from the understanding that objective knowledge (or the knowledge of objects) should be distinct from subjective knowledge (or the knowledge of the subject); therefore the impacts of scientific developments on the human subjects have not been considered. Material conceptions of development impoverish the planet of its resources. Such conceptions of development have generated climatic conditions that are increasingly catastrophic. The environment is destroyed in ways that places the survival of numerous species at stake. Overpopulation reaches such a point that extreme poverty and mal-nutrition affects one third of the world population. Hunger accounted for 58% of the worldʼs mortality in 2006 (Ziegler, 2007). Malnutrition of the mother or the child is the biggest cause of child mortality, accounting for 12,600 deaths per day. Eight children die per minute from under-nutrition according to conservative measures. Instead of reducing population at the entry in educating people to reduce the number of births, so far it was deemed more profitable to operate on accelerating the exit. Wars have become a major means of feeding predatory corporations. The barrier to improvement often appears to be the economic system that focuses on the biggest and quickest profits. Because of lobbyism and the way laws and decrees are set in place, the balance between law makers, justice, and the executive has been broken. As corporate power canʼt be held accountable for its unethical actions, business can go on as usual for a long time until a significant number of citizens realize that the situation is insane. Such awareness raising and requirement for power-down is not ʻantimodernʼ; it adds an integrative wisdom to both modernity and postmodernity (Gare, 2000).

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Search theory and unemployment

Search theory and unemployment

The relation between b ¡ c and education can be negative, both because of the greater foregone earnings of more educated people and because of their typically lower unemployment bene…ts. This is not guaranteed, however. One can imagine more educated workers being better connected to other people or institutions that may help them search at a lower cost. Also, since b depends on individuals’ preferences for leisure, one cannot rule out the possibility of more educated people with a higher value for this parameter.

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Adam Smith: Anthropology and Moral Philosophy

Adam Smith: Anthropology and Moral Philosophy

According to Smith, the interests of those who live within the limits imposed by the reach of their salary are congruent with the interests of society; normally, however, such people lack the education and knowledge necessary to discern these parallel interests. They contri- bute to the wealth of the nation by their work, but they remain una- ware of the significance of their contribution. In contrast, the social class that lives off the profits generated by work is detached from general social needs. They seek to expand markets and sharpen com- petition in order to maximize the profits they may make. In spite of these cross purposes, society as a whole may still benefit and pro- gress as a result of this situation: through the untrammelled ambi- tion of a few (the rich), the vast majority may enjoy the social move- ment of wealth in the form of merchandise, as such products beco- me available even to those who belong to the lowest classes on the social scale.

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The Matrix and Philosophy

The Matrix and Philosophy

Though it appears that Roquentin is losing touch with real- ity, at the end of Nausea it becomes evident that he is, in fact, becoming aware of its true nature. As Sartre makes clear, what Roquentin’s experiences reveal is that “the diversity of things, their individuality, [are] only an appearance, a veneer” (p. 127). Roquentin’s experiences inform him that “the world of explana- tions and reason is not the world of existence” (p. 129). They show him that the orders and values we believe are intrinsic to the world and the things in it are instead “the feeble points of reference which [we] have traced on their surface” (p. 127). In Nausea, Roquentin confronts the unwanted and overwhelming truth that humans exist in—and are confined to—a world that lacks essential order and meaning. As Sartre explains in Being and Nothingness, though it does not create it, human con- sciousness gives order and purpose to the world. Without the structuring activity of consciousness the world exists as an inde- terminate totality, an awesome undifferentiated whole. At the root of the chestnut tree, “[this] World, the naked World sud- denly [reveals] itself” (p. 134) to Roquentin. With his previous experiences pushing him toward it, Roquentin finally becomes formally aware of the true nature of existence. He recognizes that the order and purpose he took to be reality is instead a con- struct consciousness places upon it. Rather than relish the truth that is revealed, Roquentin states, “I hated this ignoble mess. [Existence] mounting up, mounting up as high as the sky, filling everything with its gelatinous slither . . . I choked with rage at this gross, absurd being” (p. 134). Nauseated at the sight of existence’s true nature, Roquentin describes existence as a “messy suffering” (p. 174) that both disgusts him and makes him “afraid” (p. 160).

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Formal Languages and Automata Theory Exercises Finite Automata Unit 3

Formal Languages and Automata Theory Exercises Finite Automata Unit 3

1. We want to design a device that, given a string which consists of binary numbers, will be able to find if the keyword “1011” is included in the input string and it also would be used as a basis to count the number of times this keyword is included. For instance, for the input string 0101011011011, the device would detect two occurrences of the keyword (the “1” in the seventh position is not considered as the beginning of a new apparition). It is required to design the corresponding DFA.

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AUTOMATA THEORY AND FORMAL LANGUAGES

AUTOMATA THEORY AND FORMAL LANGUAGES

• The American Structuralism School developed in the 50s some informal ideas about the universal grammar. For example, if a (natural) language is an innumerable set of phrases  description by means of a generative grammar or set of rules that underlie the composition of correct sentences and structural description for each phrase and explain how to compose such a phrase from the grammar.

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Teoría de Autómatas y Lenguajes Formales

Teoría de Autómatas y Lenguajes Formales

JFLAP (del inglés, Java Formal Language and Automata Package) es un software que permite experimentar de forma gráfica con los conceptos relativos a la teoría de autómatas y lenguajes formales. Permite diseñar, evaluar y realizar distintas transformaciones y comprobaciones sobre autómatas finitos, gramáticas, autómatas a pila, máquinas de Turing, y otros elementos adicionales que no forman parte del contenido de este curso.

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Teoría de Autómatas y Lenguajes Formales

Teoría de Autómatas y Lenguajes Formales

JFLAP (del inglés, Java Formal Language and Automata Package) es un software que permite experimentar de forma gráfica con los conceptos relativos a la teoría de autómatas y lenguajes formales. Permite diseñar, evaluar y realizar distintas transformaciones y comprobaciones sobre autómatas finitos, gramáticas, autómatas a pila, máquinas de Turing, y otros elementos adicionales que no forman parte del contenido de este curso.

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JTB después de Gettier

JTB después de Gettier

A pyromaniac has just purchased a box of Sure-Fire Matches. He has done so many times before, and has noted that they have always lit when struck unless they were wet. Furthermore, he has a certain rudimentary knowledge of chemistry- enough for him to know that oxygen must be present for things to burn and enough to assure him that the observed regularity between matches' being struck and their lighting is not merely a spurious correlation. He ascertains that the matches are dry and that there is plenty of oxygen present. He now proceeds to strike the match, confident in the belief that it will light. It does. Again, we have a case of a justified true belief. But let us assume that unbeknownst to our friend, certain impurities got into this match at the factory which raised its combustion temperature above the temperature that could be attained by friction when it is struck. Assume further that an extremely rare burst of Q-radiation happened to arrive at the very time and place the match was being struck, igniting it, and enabling our friend to accomplish his purpose. It is clear that he did not know that the match would strike.

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