A great number of sportand healthcare institutions empha- sise that for physical exercise to be beneficial to health, it is necessary to be physically active for a given duration, fre- quency and intensity. However, according to our research, it is more important for the elderly to feel that they are active, par- ticularly during a stage of life in which society has declared them to be legally “inactive”. In this sense, our results confirm the WHO approach to promote active ageing, which includes moderate physicalactivityand greater mobility when carrying out daily activities (walking, climbing stairs, gardening, danc- ing, swimming, etc.). In this same line, other authors also indi- cate that “doing some type of physicalactivity is better than doing nothing at all” (USDH, 2008; Blair, Kohl, Gordon, & Paffenbarger, 1992) and that moderate exercise, which many more people are able to do, may have important health benefits. Thus, the functional capacity or the independence of elderly individuals (that they feel and perceive themselves as people who are not “dependent”) will, in many cases, determine how they perceive their health or whether they define themselves as being healthy or ill (Gonzalo & Pasarín, 2004). As this paper has shown, engaging in activities that require movement and mobility, be they household tasks, walking or strolling every- day or practising a sport, are essential to their health.
Conscientes de la situación, en los últimos años se han ido desarrollando importantes acciones de sensibilización y estrategias de mejora para fomen- tar e impulsar la participación y la igualdad efectiva de la mujer en todas las facetas del deporte: escolar, recreativo, salud y deporte de alto rendimien- to. Paralelamente, se ha incrementado de forma exponencial el número de conferencias, congresos o redes internacionales y nacionales para fomentar el debate y la promoción de políticas de igualdad y participación de la mujer en el deporte. Entre las más significativas cabe destacar la realización de confe- rencias mundiales sobre Mujer y Deporte en Brighton (UK, 1994); Windhoek (Namibia, 1998); Montreal (Canadá, 2002); Kumamoto (Japón, 2006) y Síd- ney (Australia, 2010) por parte de la International Working Group on Women andSport (IWG).
In addition, Jamet (1998) and García-Ferrando (2001) conclude that there has been a great diversification and growing popularity of sports andphysical activities among increasing segments of the population. Among those segments are the elderly, who have been traditionally marginalized from modern sports, but, as indicated by Mosquera and Puig (2002), where possible (improved quality of life, special offerings, etc.) they have started to be attracted by these activities and to incorporate them in their lifestyles. However, the amount of older adults who practice physical activities or exercises is still small compared to other social groups due to a number of circumstances, obstacles or barriers.
Background: Practice of physicalactivityandsport is an ideal medium for obtain benefits bio- psycho-socials health of young people. The aim of the current study is to know the reasons for practicing physicalactivityandsport in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was implemented and the survey about behaviours, attitudes and values related to physicalactivityandsport practice, which was developed in the AVENA study was used. The sample size was 2859 Spanish students from public and private secondary schools in 5 Spanish cities: Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander and Zaragoza.
Roman-Viñas is with the Dept of PhysicalActivityandSport Sciences, FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull; the Nutrition Research Founda- tion, Barcelona, Spain; and CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII). Marin and Vicente are with GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development), Faculty of Health andSport Sciences, University of Zaragoza. Sánchez-López is with the Social and Health Care Research Center, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Cuenca, Spain; and the Faculty of Education, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain. Aznar is with the PAFS Research group, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Madrid, Spain. Leis is with the CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII); and the Pediatric Nutrition Research Group—IDIS—Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Aparicio-Ugarriza is with the ImFINE Research Group, Dept of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of PhysicalActivityandSport Sciences, INEF, Technical University of Madrid. Schroder is with the Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group (CARIN), IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute); and CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain. Ortiz-Moncada is with the Food and Nutrition Research Group, Dept of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine, and Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante, Spain. González-Gross is with the CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII); and the ImFINE Research Group, Dept of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of PhysicalActivityandSport Sciences, INEF, Technical University of Madrid. Serra-Majem is with the Nutrition Research Foundation, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII); and the Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Roman-Viñas (email@example.com) is corresponding author.
activity levels of university teaching department students (Tekkanat, 2008), physicalactivityand quality of life of physical education and sports teacher students were found to be higher than those of other teaching departments. Nevertheless, the results of the National Health Risk Behavior Survey showed that one-third of university students did not participate in physicalactivity sufficiently enough in terms of healthy-life risks (Douglas, 1997). Brockport State University in New York applies standard physical fitness tests to students of the physical education and sports teaching program during their studies and does not allow those who fail the test to graduate (Stier, 1999). For this reason, the students who want to study in physical education departments should have good sport performance andphysical fitness levels besides their academic success. However, a study investigating the physicalactivity levels of physical education teachers showed that participants had an average 1380,16 min/week physicalactivity, 41,6 % were physically inactive, 41,6 % were minimum active, and only 16,8% were HEPA (Health-Enhancing PhysicalActivity) active (Arabacı and Çankaya, 2007). In another study, physicalactivity levels of physical education teachers seems to affects the motivational situation in the classroom which is beneficial to the students learning process. It has been suggested that higher fitness levels and maintaining to the exercise generates motivation to the physical education teachers (Alcalá et al. 2018). Nowadays, considering the fact that higher education students are faced with risk factors due to physical inactivity, it is necessary to identify the differences in academic achievement andphysical activities of physical education students between the theoretical and practical courses during their education periods. In this respect, it is important to produce on-campus and off-campus solutions that increase physicalactivity.
There is not one combination of exercises, sets and repetitions that has proven to optimize training adap- tations; however, it appears that multi-faceted and inte- grative programs that increase muscle strength, enhance movement mechanics, and improve functional abilities appear to be the most effective strategy for reducing sports-related injuries in young athletes. Moreover, fun- damental movement skills competency in children and adolescents can increase physicalactivity, improve car- diorespiratory fitness and enhance body composition (BMI z-score).(Lubans, Morgan et al. 2010) Although there are many approaches to potentially reduce youth sports-related injuries (e.g., coaching education, safe equipment, proper nutrition), enhancing physical fitness as a preventative health measure is considered a cor- nerstone of multi-component programs for school-age youth. This is an important consideration for health care providers who often perform pre-participation physical examinations in order to assess a young athlete’s rea- diness for sport (Hewett, Myer et al. 2006). In addition to the medical examination (including a musculoske- letal assessment), health care providers should inquire about a patient’s participation in physical activities over the past few months.
tions of water intake from food and beverages are typi- cally assessed by using dietary records or recalls, and total water derived from food composition data bases. Fruits and vegetables are generally the largest relative sources of water from solid foods, besides soups, infu- sions and juices, after pure water and beverage con- sumption, but proportions vary largely according to die tary patterns and climate conditions. In this regard, sodium replacement should be taken into account espe- cially in those zones where temperatures are high du - ring at least half a year and hydration care may become more important than in cold places; this is the reason why sport drinks emerge as interesting options as hy- dration-producer. The habit of drinking water is more complex than the habit of food consumption and mea- surement of pure water consumption is fairly new in fo- cus in dietary research and still adequate validation of dietary assessment methods of water intake is needed 4 .
performed in daily living, or lifestyle physicalactivity (LSPA) 5 . LTPA can be divided into exercise, sport, and household and other daily chores. Transportation to and from work is referred to as commuting physicalactivity. Video games, home computers and watching television with remote control devices now compete for LTPA. At the same time, jobs are more comfortable and sedentary 6 , and less physicalactivity is required for transportation 7 . The environment is a critical component for sedentari- ness. Industrialisation, urbanisation and improving income are each associated with car use, lifts, automatic washing machines and microwave ovens. While each may reduce physicalactivity only slightly, together they can have an important impact on total energy expendi- ture (TEE) 4 .
Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in tra- ining and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modula- ted by regular physicalactivityandsport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Con- centrations can differ widely from normal reference ran- ges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale.
Introduction: The Pregnancy PhysicalActivity Questionnaire (PPAQ) is a questionnaire about the physical activities performed by pregnant women that evaluates the practice of physicalactivity in their daily life, including household and childcare activities, travelling or physical effort in the workplace. This is a semi-quantitative instrument developed and validated for the U.S. culture. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to present the translated version of the aforementioned questionnaire into Castilian Spanish after having made its transcultural adaptation. Methods: The method used to carry out this research has been the so-called “translation-back translation”, a method generally recommended for the transcultural adaptation of questionnaires. The authors of the present paper (BA in Translation and Interpreting, BA in English Language and BA in Spanish Language) and several bilingual translators specialised in this field have participated in both the translation and the adaptation of the PPAQ. Results & discussion: Most questions did not pose any problem from a translational point of view, except for some examples that will be singled out in this paper. The pilot test in 20 pregnant women corroborated that the questionnaire translated into Spanish was correctly understood by the respondents. Conclusions: The method used for the transcultural adaptation of the PPAQ makes it possible to confirm the conceptual equivalence between the English version and the Spanish translation provided here. Future lines of research could include the assessment of the metric characteristics of this questionnaire, although, admittedly, the translation offered below suffices to carry out research in this specific area.
Neste estudo, idosos de ambos os gêneros foram recrutados mediante chamada por rádio, jornal e cartazes afixados nos postos de aten- dimento da saúde da família, nos Distritos II e III de Recife-PE. Foram considerados os seguintes critérios de inclusão: ter entre 60 e 70 anos de idade completos ou a completar no ano da coleta; ser funcionalmente independente no desempenho das atividades físicas básicas e instrumentais do dia a dia (questionário Older Americans Resources and Services Program, OARS, Rodrigues, 2008), atingir o escore mínimo esperado no Mini Exame do Estado Mental - MEEM – de acordo com a escolaridade (Brucki, Nitrini, Carmelli, Bertolucci, & Okamoto, 2003): para analfabetos, 20 pontos; para esco- laridade de 1 a 4 anos, 25 pontos; 5 a 8 anos, 26 pontos; acima de 9 anos, 28 pontos). A amostra final foi constituída de 83 participantes, sendo 43 (51.8%) do sexo feminino. Os participantes assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido, e o estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade de Pernambuco (protocolo CEP/UPE: 184/08; CAAE – n. 0167.0.097.000-08).
The brain is particularly vulnerable to ROS for several reasons: 1) it consumes approximately 20% of the total body oxygen despite the fact that it comprises less than 2% of total body weight, 2) it contains high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and may contain low propor- tions of endogenous antioxidants, 3) iron accumulates in brain-speciﬁc regions, and 4) iron-binding proteins (i.e., ferritin) may be relatively deﬁcient in the brain. These characteristics and evidence from both direct and indi- rect studies have associated neurodegenerative diseases with oxidative stress conditions and emphasize the use of antioxidants as prophylactic agents in their management. 11,12,13,14
higher MF was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk in boys and girls, this inverse association disappeared when the effects of BMI were controlled. Benson et al. (126) reported that children with moderate or high upper body muscular strength had 98% less chance of developing insulin resistance than children with low strength after adjusting for maturation, WC and BMI. Magnussen et al. reported that in children and adolescents muscular power and endurance were inversely associated with clustered cardiovascular disease risk score after controlling for BMI, although the association was not significant for muscular strength (54). There were some methodological differences between these studies that may partially explain the difference in results. Benson et al. had a smaller study sample (n=126) and upper body muscular strength was measured as 1RM for bench press whereas Magnussen et al. indexed muscular endurance as push-ups performed in a 30-second period and in our study MF was calculated as sum of the standardized z-scores on a handgrip/weight test and the SLJ test; although when we used handgrip or SLJ as indicators of muscular strength separately the results were similar.
ported behaviours will remain a staple in telepho- ne-based and large epidemiological studies (for more information see a summary of the main PAQs in table I) but improved questionnaires should be created to enhance capturing non-exercise (hou- sehold chores, standing, walking for purpose) and sedentary behaviours (sitting or lying) that are uni- quely associated with public health. The inclusion of such behaviours in these questionnaires will help distinguish types of activities that might have a cri- tical role in health and potentially distinct interac- tions with volitional exercise. The development of such questionnaires is ongoing for these purposes 78 .
Overall, the findings from this study help contribute to a growing body of evidence that supports the effectiveness of well-implemented TPSR programs (Walsh et al., 2010). Using a time-series analysis design was beneficial in allowing an examination of how TPSR levels may be impacted over the course of the program as well as by the particular structural content of a program’s curriculum. Furthermore, this study represents an important step in responding to calls for increased evaluation in community-based programs (Salmon, Booth, Phongsavan, Murphy, & Timperio, 2007) and aids in understanding the process in which PYD programs, specifically those utilizing the TPSR model, can be effectively implemented. Currently within the field of PYD there is a lack of integration between theory and actual program practice (Brink & Wissing, 2012). This was the first known study to incorporate a time-series analysis into findings within the PYD literature, which proved to be helpful in gaining an understanding of how actual program curriculum can have an impact on enhancing the various levels of responsibility as defined by the TPSR model. Finally, it is hoped that findings from this study may help to inform research and practice related not only to the TPSR model, but also to the broader field of youth development in physicalactivity programming.
Introduction: Emotional intelligence is a very important issue in education that is separated by cognitive intelligence in the primary education classrooms of the Spanish educational system. A lot of studies show that being emotionally competent makes students acquire greater self-esteem and greater cognitive development. Moreover, the current Educational law focuses exclusively on cognitive intelligence, obviating any type of emotion. Aim: What is intended is to expand the vocabulary in the students, which is experienced in the benefit of cooperation and work intragroup and intergroup relations, as well as development and empathy, work life and well-being. Methods: In the present study, it has been decided to work on the development of the emotional intelligence through two activities which have a playful nature. Conclusions: Given the studies that we have done so far on emotional intelligence, we believe that educating emotionally in all areas is important for the complete and integral development of the student body.
Several studies suggest that levels of daily PA and levels of PA in PE classes are associated. Thus, adolescents usually more active in PE classes are often also more active outside the school context (Marques, Fossati & Curi; 2012; Ruch et al.; 2012). Therefore, the amount of PA promote in PE classes could be determinate by type of content and TS used. The main finding in this study was that RK styles promoted a higher amount of LPA during PE than PK. Furthermore, at least the 60% of time in PE classes students are not involved in PA; around 36 minutes per class is sedentary time (Figure 8). Nevertheless, our results must be influenced by the content used in the PE (strength and flexibility) because there were not in accordance with findings from Ward et al. (2008), whom reported PA levels were better when PE classes included opportunity for students choice (less directive TS); and this study used PFH content. Nevertheless, our results are in accordance with other study that concluded that teacher using directive TS increased PA patterns more than student-choice TS using SG content in PE classes (Erwin, Stellino, Betts, Beighle, Jonhson, 2013) and it is also in accordance with a recent research published in 2015 that analyzed the influence of TS (peer teaching) on PA patterns assessed with ACLs in PE classes (Whipp, Jackson, Dimmock, & Soh, 2015) concluding that there were no significant differences between intervention and control group for time spent in LPA, VPA and MVPA. So, variations in content and TS may have impact on adolescents’ PA patterns in PE classes but there is still controversy about how content may affect TS.
Introduction: Nowadays, it has been shown that social well-being represents a psychosocial factor of great relevance for the academic context in several educational levels. The objective of this study was to analyze the perceived social well-being of adolescents and other sociodemographic factors, such as gender or the academic level of fathers and mothers. A non- experimental descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out by means of a single measurement in a single group. The sample was represented by 128 adolescent students (12 to 18 years old) from a public high school from Córdoba. As main instrument, the social well-being scale developed by Blanco y Díaz (2005) was applied, obtaining an acceptable reliability of α = 0.822, and using the IBM SPSS software for data analysis. The results indicated adequate levels of social well-being in a global way, with gender being somewhat masculine rather than feminine. Likewise, the masculine gender was associated with higher levels of social updating, as well as higher levels of contribution and social coherence according to the studies of the fathers and mothers respectively. All this reveals the consideration of these sociodemographic factors when intervening and working on social well-being in young adolescents.
Para realizar esta revisión bibliográfica, se han buscado artículos de revistas científicas, libros, información de diferentes institutos nacionales de salud, deporte y educación, e información de jornadas y congresos nacionales e internacionales. Para ello, se han usado las siguientes bases de datos: Sportdiscus, Scopus, Xabio, Dialnet, ISI Web of Science y Google Académico. Tras este proceso, se ha seleccionado cualquier artículo que tuviera que ver con el recreo y la AF. Para realizar la búsqueda, se han usado las siguientes palabras clave: recess, recreo, physicalactivity, actividad física, deporte, sport, physical education, educación física, secondary education y educación secundaria.