Following the dominant subject matter and methodology of Development Studies, it is not difficult to pin down its social commitment. In- deed at the very beginning of political science, it did not make any pretense about its commit- ment to the defense of liberalism. Much older disciplines like Economics and Sociology were earlier liberal oriented disciplines that actually facilitated the growth of capitalism. Political the- ory itself was not only within the household of philosophy but also grew from Sociology, History and Anthropology. Dwelling majorly on the work of Herbert Spencer, the contribution of English sociology to politicaltheory was illuminated by Barnes (1921). For instance, Spencer is said to revive the contract doctrine to justify political authority. He also put forward a sociological state- ment of individualism in which the state was subordinated to the individual. Besides, Spencer correlated the state with society in general, in the attempt to estimate its position and roles in social processes. The liberal principles which are expressed in these contributions did not end as works of sociology or politicaltheory; rather they were carried over to Development Studies which re-echoes the ideological commitments of its constitutive disciplines. More recently, economic discourses revolve around neoliberal economics. Indeed for some scholars creating a civil society is about reducing politics and freeing the market (see Edwards, 2014; Fukuyama, 2001). The same theoretical inclination bears strongly on a political theme like democracy in which there is a tendency to reduce the concept to a market phenomenon. Saltman, for instance argues that a faulty prevail- ing notion of democracy in recent times is that it is equal to “liberal capitalism” (see Wells, Slayton and Scott, 2002: 343).
Before starting the analysis a note on method is necessary. In this article the main point is to analyse the relationship between media and democratic decision-making. When reflecting on this issue I have found it useful to rely on James Hyland’s view of politicaltheory as integrating political practice and normative judgements (Hyland: 1995). I try to combine insights into how media influence political communication with normative perspectives on how democratic decision-making ought to be carried out. Politicaltheory thus understood meets in the intersection between political practice and philosophical reflection. That is also the type of analysis attempted in this article. In this section I will examine some of the most prominent changes in political communication and argue that as a consequence of these changes political communication must be re-examined and adapted to our changing circumstances. I will divide my discussion in two parts. Part one deal with how media impacts public debate. The second part will deal with social changes over the last decades that influenced the role of political communication. There are many possible ways the media can impact the political process and an analysis of these different approaches could itself be an independent study. To draw attention to some important structures and approaches my discussion will centre around four important (but not exhaustive) mechanisms drawn from Hague et al. (2016). Hague et al emphasise four different mechanisms for media influencing politics: reinforcement, agenda-setting, framing and priming (2016: 238- 240). The main point for my discussion is not these mechanisms in themselves, but to use them as tools for analysing further the relationship between media and politics and linking them to important features of contemporary democracies. Many analyses of the relationship between media and democratic politics reach broadly the same conclusions and an example is James Curran’s excellent analysis of media and democracy (Curran: 2011). Hague et al. provides an analytical framework off the shelf that makes it ideal for the analysis in this article and my main focus will therefore be on Hague et al. to make the analysis as focused as possible.
Efficient theories in ecology provide a known standard against which to measure natural phenomena. By a standard, we mean a prediction of how the world would work if only the first principles of the theory are at work; they are true by definition and do not need to be tested, because they follow logically from the action of first principles. Without standards, no deviations or gaps in knowledge would be apparent, so there would be no need for theory refinement and increasing understanding, which would lead to scien- tific stagnation. A historical example will help to clarify this point. In 1908, R. C. Punnett was invited to read a paper at the Royal Society of Medicine, where he presented evidence on the importance of Mendelian inheritance for under- standing human diseases such as brachydactyly. During the discussion that this paper engendered, the British statistician Udny Yule objected to the importance of Mendelian inheri- tance in brachydactyly, stating that if it were a dominant character, it would tend to increase in the human popula- tion. The same year, the great British mathematician G. H. Hardy, in a letter to the editor of Science, showed that Yule’s statement was groundless, because, under the assumption of random mating, there is not a tendency for dominant characters to increase or for recessive ones to die out in populations, because they remain fixed after one generation. This is the well-known Hardy–Weinberg principle. When alleles occur in frequencies different from Hardy–Weinberg expectations, we do not conclude that the this principle is falsified; rather, we conclude that other processes, such as drift and selection, as well as nonrandom mating also influ- ence the between-generation gene frequencies. The Hardy– Weinberg principle is akin to a neutral model showing us what to expect in the absence of drift, mutation, or selection. It provides a standard against which patterns in nature can be compared, unexplained deviations identified, and whose explanation would require refinement and further testing. The end result would be an increase in our understanding of the phenomenon under study. Furthermore, as was seen in this example, the fact that Mendel’s theory of inheritance was amenable to mathematical analyses led to the discovery of the Hardy–Weinberg principle, which, in turn, increased our understanding of factors affecting microevolutionary change, thus furthering theory development.
If we suppose (see (Dubois & Prade 1986 b)) that fuzzy numbers A and B are obtained from random experiments with imprecise outcomes, that is, each measure is an interval where no distinctions can be made, the theory of evidence seems a more realistic model. Additionally this means that Montecarlo simulation can be used to perform the computations.
Let’s look briefly how these issues appear in the thought of Ricardo that, as we have said, is the version that is usually identified as the labour theory of value par excellence. For this approach, these diverse objectives must be achieved simultaneously in the same plane. Since the central concern of Ricardo is to understand the distribution of the fruits of economic activity among the various classes, the objective of the invariable measure is central to his theory of value: it requires a measurement unit that is not contaminated with monetary fluctuations, nor is affected by changes in what is going to be measured, the distribution itself. At the same time this exploration conceives that this distribution takes place through market transactions, so it is essential for it to have an explanation of the magnitudes in which these exchanges take place. Then, for both purposes it is built the notion of “embodied labour”: the “value “ of each commodity is represented by the labour that needs to be mobilized for their production, both the “direct” or “live” labour (the one that is required for carry out the final production process) and “indirect “ or “dead” labour (the one that is needed for the production of inputs and raw materials, produced in previous periods). Let us note something that not always stands out: in this notion Ricardo already has a development regarding “concrete” labour, because for him what is relevant is not the actual labour that individual producers have spent on these tasks, but what is meaningful refers to the predominant techniques that are accessible and are employed by the generality of the participants in the market (the “socially necessary” labour, Marx would say later to refer to this notion): This eliminates the possibility, logically untenable to assert, that the most inefficient producers generate more value than the more efficient in the production of the same good. The monetary magnitudes are measured with reference to this category that has a technical foundation, which is in principle independent from the remuneration of the agents involved, and therefore allows comparing situations in different times and in different circumstances. The “embodied labour” would be a neutral unity of measurement, that is objective, at least theoretically can be estimated statistically and whose perception must converge by rigorous independent observers. Implicit in this approach there is also an assumption of agents’ behaviour: they always seek to get as much of this embodied labour, and in the case of capitalists, that for Ricardo are the key players in this structure, the reference action is to maximize their profit, that is nothing different that the appropriation of surplus, measured in terms of “embodied labour”.
Nielsen (2003) justifies the use of a systemic approach when studying corruption, and he identifies twelve key elements in the operation of corrupt systems. According to the author, the first element consist in detecting the existence of a reciprocal sub-system with parasite and destructive win-win relations. The second element refers to extor- tion activities conducted by government officials and political parties, which are more serious problems compared to bribery. The third element recognizes the fact that cor- ruption activities may be related to productive activities which helps to the sustainability of corruption networks. The forth element is about how unethical behavior conducted in previous periods by reform agents can be used against them, and obstruct the application of an anti-corruption policy.
In this paper we use search theory to analyze some features of the labor market, like unemployment duration, the determinants of the unemployment rate, and the impact of education on these variables. The importance of understanding these phenomena does not need too much explanation. What does deserve some explanation is why we will try to understand them by using search theory instead of the traditional Walrasian setup. We …nd no better way to do this than quoting at length from Lucas (1987):
Foraging theory is an area of behavioral ecology that describes how an agent forages for food (energy) in a field, and how it decides to choose or not in order to maximise its energy rate. Two models have been studied in foraging theory: the prey and the patch model . Next, we briefly describe each of these models.
International Political Economy (IPE) is a field of International Relations which highlights the relationship between politics and economics. This sub-discipline deals with the way in which economic and political factors interact at the international level. It can be conceptualized as an academic crossroads or disciplinary intersection of politics and economics which seeks to explore and analyze the mutual interaction between states and markets. The academic concepts or buzzwords of ‘globalization’, ‘hegemony’ and ‘interdependence’ are central to analyses of IPE. International production and trade, international finance and money, international investment and multinational corporations and economic development, poverty the BRICS countries, energy, climate change and the environment constitute the core topics of IPE.
The course approach is based on the constructivist model, according to which the framework of action of states and economic groups is modelled by both material and social issues, including domains such as culture and social institutions. These are fundamental aspects to understand the international political dynamics linked to the global financial and economic order.
The course approach is based on the constructivist model, according to which the framework of action of states and economic groups is modeled by both material and social issues, including domains such as culture and social institutions. These are fundamental aspects to understand the international political dynamics linked to the global financial and economic order.
Microsoft Word Tesis Julio Benítez Francisco Sociología docx UNIVERSIDAD ANDRES BELLO Facultad de Humanidades Y Ciencias Sociales Escuela de Sociología Actor Network Theory Aproximación sociohistórica[.]