unmotivated because they struggle to be noticed among a large number of students. In addition, Saraswatti (2004, p.154) says that “A teacher cannot even get to know the names of all her learners in a large class. A personalized approach, very vital to the processoflearning becomes impossible in a large class.” According to this author, large classes demand more effort from teachers than small ones because in a large class teacher is more concentrated on managing and controlling the students rather than working towards achieving lesson objectives. This author also believes that a personalized class is essential in the teachinglearningprocess because the more attention teacher gives to his/her students, the more success he or she will have.
This research analyzes the influence of large classes in the teachingandlearningof English language in schools in Ecuador; the purpose of the study is to determine whether or not large classes affect the English language teaching-learningprocess, and the implications of classes with many students in academic, social and psychological aspects. The study was conducted in the Santa Elena province. The population of this research included students of a public high school. This research was carried out in three basic general education classrooms and two classrooms of higher Secondary education in the public high school. There were forty to sixty students per course where the questionnaire was administered. The method was quantitative. The variables considered for research focused on the influence of large classes in the English language teaching- learningprocess; they included class size, teaching approaches and methods, managing learning, activities for working with large classes, and classroom space and the different levels of proficiency. The data was collected in statistical tables. This study allowed to know that interaction in the English classrooms.
Ideal scenarios are the primary health care centers, implemented or in agreement with Universities, with shared resources for health care andteaching. Regarding methodology, clinical tutorial is the first choice, although exhibition classes, small groups seminars, problem based learning, conceptual maps, observations and clinical simulations are also options. Having undergraduate content as a basis, practice sites should be guided to community development where the student can follow the community during his studies. They will approach people to learn about their story of life. Later, they will analyze their environment with a social approach and afterwards with family medicine tools. The student will be able to make a comprehensive, systemic approach at an individual, family or community level. For this to be possible there must be a strong interaction between the University and the Health Sector.
(Rodgers Jack and Richards T., 2001) Establish that tasks involve a processof input, intake, and output by the learner. Input is the knowledge the pupils receive; intake is the knowledge that s / he processes and discards; and output is the knowledge the apprentice produces, as an understanding of what s / he received (Krashen, 1982) Additionally, Richards and Rodgers affirm that, when implementing tasks, there is a need for negotiation between the learners and the teacher, in order to assign and develop activities which lead to an increase of motivation by the apprentices and, to avoid frustration and abandonment of the learningprocess. In the same line of argument, (Brown, Teaching by Principles An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, Third Edition , 1994)explains that the fact oflearning through tasks is focused on communication, but the activities are of a linguistic type. However, “they are not linguistic in the traditional sense of just focusing on grammar and phonology, but by maintaining the centrality of functions… the course goals center on learners’ pragmatic language
Before keep on indicating the results obtained in the survey, it is necessary to state that there are students that never raise their hand when a teacher asks them a question despite the fact that they know the right answer. This sometimes happens because some students are shy and are also afraid of being embarrassed if they make a mistake. This limits their participation in EFL classes and does not enable the teacher to give feedback when needed. As a result, the teacher cannot use questions as a means of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the students who are shy and who do not like to participate in class very often.
showed that as in many countries, there is a lack of well trained ELT teachers. Those that are available, although having taught for more than 1 year proved to have poor educational skills. A number of the teachers that taught to the 4 th and 5 th grade students did not like the idea of having to teach to them, because they were not taught how to teach ESL to students at this age. The methodology was very poor and showed that many students worked individually and only used textbooks; proving that the EST process is very lacking. The evaluation process came from a very unfriendly aspect of evaluating the student’s achievement instead of the teacher’s
Following a formative evaluation at the university level implies the necessity of promoting students’ autonomous learning, in other words, university students should become the protagonists of the teaching-learningprocess so that it is easier for them to acquire certain competences and have an integral and complete knowledge that allows them to be active citizens in society (Hernández, 2003; Teichler, 2006; Zabalza, 2002). In order to achieve this, students will require personalized attention from teachers, which makes it necessary to highlight tutorials so that they become an active part of the students’ learningprocess. In this way, understanding evaluation as a whole and using tutorials as part of the evaluation process implies that attention is paid to supporting students and to correcting students’ errors and deficiencies during the teaching-learningprocess, whereas in the traditional evaluation based on just one exam the whole processof students learningand the difficulties in the process were neglected (Brown, 2003; Esteban and Madrid, 2007).
This tension between more controlled, deeper studies and a more ecological, systemic perspective, has a long history in the different research perspectives that made up CSCL: Nardi & O’Day (1999) advanced the notion of “information ecologies”, and in the realm of HCI, Hollan, Hutchins & Kirsh (2000) proposed distributed cognition as a novel way to conceptualize how we interact and learn with computers. Within recent CSCL research, this pull towards research within the constraints of authentic (formal) educational settings and the need to scale up the results and innovations of our community has been exemplified by systemic approaches to CSCL innovation (Chan, 2011; Looi, So, Toh & Chen, 2011), and by the increased attention of researchers on the notion of “orchestration” as the study of the specific usability challenges within the authentic conditions and constraints of formal learning (Dillenbourg et al., 2011).
C omparing the teachers’ and the students’ results there is a coincidence because most of the learners mentioned that they like the way their seats are arranged. They also indicated that their seats are arranged for individual and group work activities. They also said that by arranging their seats they are able to interact more and they have more fun at learning; additionally, the activities are better developed since they learn more. This information agrees with what it was observed, for the reason that the seats were rearranged, the students felt motivated, and the teacher could perform varied activities when the students arranged their seats for group work, role plays, and debates. Harmer (2007) mentions that new ways of arranging seats like separate tables or the horseshoe design, have advantages since the classroom is a more intimate place and the potential for students to share feelings and information through talking, eye contact or expressive body movements
This research was directed to analyze the factors that affect the English language teaching-learningprocess in Ecuadorian public high schools. The sample analyzed consisted of fifteen students and fifteen teachers, who were surveyed and interviewed to determine their skills and competences and a similar number of classrooms observed to find out their physical conditions. The research was carried out at daytime and ev ening in four public high schools and one “fiscomisional” in rural and urban areas of Quito. To collect data, the techniques used were surveys and note taking; additionally, the applied instruments were observation forms, interviews and questionnaires. The quantitative analysis, description and interpretation of results were based on the information gotten from: Teacher’s and Student’s Questionnaires and Interviews, Observation Sheets and researcher’s field observations. The most relevant factors found were students’ basic level of English knowledge, use of few teaching resources and a high percentage of Spanish use in class, the overcrowded classrooms and inappropriate physical conditions, which affected negatively.
The next study was conducted by Aduwa & Iyamu (2006), whose purpose was to analyze three factors: the resources, methods and environment. This study examined the frequency of instructional resources used by secondary school teachers; the accuracy of methods applied in class was also observed; and finally, it studied the type of environment conductive to learning. The research concluded that very basic resources as posters, English textbooks and workbooks were frequently used; the methods and techniques were limited mostly to lectures and reading activities; and that inadequate installation and resources do not provide a suitable learning environment. No limitations were found in this study.
Therefore, higher education institutions should lead in drawing on the advantages and potential of the ICTs, ensuring quality and maintaining high standards for education practices and outcomes in a spirit of openness, equity and international co-operation. In Cuba, universities actively interact with ITCs at a social and institutional level, which is expressed in a new vision regarding its use, availability and access in order to fulfill their mission. The Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas is also engaged in these goals. Professors and students use Moodle platform to facilitate the access to various sources of information for different courses.
Therefore the European convergence process represents a deep change in the approach to teaching that is being developed in universities as already cited above. Now, letʼs talk of a new university-based on continuing education of the subject throughout his life. It will be a modern university system quality, focusing on the formation of the student where the university professor has to do more than teach, promote creative learning by the student to think for himself. At this time, the teaching will be a priority and the university will be the protagonist.
Although the study of a foreign language has always been a part of curriculum designs in the Cuban educational system, at the moment it has acquired new dimensions and it has widely spread to the whole country from early ages. With the aim of satisfying this objective, several transformations have been carried out in different educational levels, English as a subject has not been exempted. Cuba educational program is guided to the student´s total integrity, transforming and demanding more from the teachingandlearningprocess. The current tendencies aligned to the educational process make special emphasis on the importance of the student-teacher interaction, and the students’ active participation which, impose new demands to teachers, who should be able to create a communicative atmosphere in the classroom that propitiates a creative and independent attitude in the students.
Gower, Phillips, and Walters (2005) state that short instructions are entirely appropriate to this situation where the students accept their authority. Also, they usually realize that a firm directive manner is necessary in order to make a good language practice and to avoid confusion and uncertainty. Sometimes students need a little time before they get going while others get on with the task immediately. By providing ongoing feedback you can help your students evaluate their achievement and progress. Feedback can take a number of forms: giving praise and
Nowadays, the new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are being used as practice aids in the teachingprocess. As a result, Kress & van Leeuwen (2001) focus to the abundance of new forms of texts, called multimodal. These kind of texts not only use the verbal code, but also, other non-verbal texts such us pictures, (static or moving, 3d, etc.) and sounds, among others, in order to produce meanings, and further, they had reflected about the importance of these aids in the teachingandlearningprocess, be- cause this is an aspect that has not been taken into account in the education system yet, which still prefers the linguistics code as well.
Managing learning implies creating a conductive environment to optimum learning, which requires careful and detailed lesson planning particularly in large classes. Such planning needs to consider that overcrowded classrooms are not only numerous but they are inevitably diverse in terms of students ’ proficiency level, needs, learning styles, and expectations. Additionally; feedback, the way instructions are given, discipline, and time management are other key aspects to take into account for achieving English learning in large classes, for this reason, the importance of the last four factors will be described in brief.