Palabras clave: Fusiones horizontales, diferenciación de producto, bienestar. Clasificación JEL: L00, L13, L20.
Taking as a reference a simple oligopoly model with differentiated products, in which there are three firms, the purpose of this paper is to complement the existing literature on mergers by proving that the traditional merger paradox can be avoided by assuming that, after the merger, the merging firms increase the existing bilateral productdifferentiation. In this context, it is proved that a merger could be welfare enhancing by increasing both consumers surplus and merging and non merging firms profits.
Previous literature on signal jamming has shown that firms set lower prices in markets with demand uncertainty than in markets with perfect information in order to fool their rivals into thinking that the demand is lower than it really is (Riordan, 1985). Additionally, several studies on learning by experimentation have found that in markets for closer substitutes firms´ prices are more dispersed with demand uncertainty than with perfect information, whereas in markets for highly differentiated products price dispersion between firms is lower with demand uncertainty than without it (see for example, Harrington, 1992). Unlike the results obtained in some models of signal jamming, we found that asymmetric information on the degree of substitutability between products might make informed firms set higher prices than in a market with perfect information. Furthermore, in contrast to the literature on learning by experimentation, in our model with asymmetric information price dispersion is higher with demand uncertainty than without it regardless of the degree of productdifferentiation in the market. Thus, information asymmetries may significantly change firms´ pricing policies.
In approaching the analysis of productdifferentiation in this paper, we propose as its main objective to highlight the role of quality in the differentiation of products, including models made in this regard as the economic literature. The basic model of decision raises the quality as a decision variable in the company that, in its optimal, determines the quality product based on its marginal contribution to income. The paper shows the relationship between quality and vertical differentiation: the product characteristics shape its quality as dimensions in addition to other areas, and vertical differentiation is perceived by the market according to these characteristics. As for strategies where concepts of differentiation and quality are intertwined, economic literature also provides several references. The obtained theoretical relationship between quality and price and the relationship between quality and benefit underline the significance of this variable, and this role is showed by several econometric modeling in productdifferentiation that give a specific level to quantify the quality as a variable in defining the utility, demand or price. We can conclude by indicating the validity of the approach of showing the oligopolistic productdifferentiation as the most successful, the establishing of a direct relationship between quality and vertical differentiation, the role of reference characteristics models in the differentiation - characteristics that can be identified as attributes of quality- and relevance of variable quality in the differentiation from a specific treatment in different models, most of which are based largely on classical models.
In this paper we show that a homogeneous-product market with multiple Bertrand equilibria becomes a market with a single Bertrand equilibrium when we introduce a small degree of productdifferentiation. When differentiation tends to zero, that Bertrand equilibrium converges to the unique price-taking equilibrium of the homogeneous-product market, which is in turn one of the multiple Bertrand equilibria for that market.
This paper has built on the circular road model of horizontal productdifferentiation. The model derived shows that in autarky, larger countries have higher welfare than smaller countries. The model also shows that freer international trade increases welfare -with ideal variety preferences- through the exploitation of economies of scale and through better allocative efficiency, that benefit consumers thanks to the free entry and exit of firms.
First, smartphones are anything but a homogeneous product. This is especially true when considering Apple’s iPhone, which has consistently captured around 15% of world smartphone sales belonging to the “high end” of the market, according to Wall Street Journal (WSJ) correspondent Andrew Dowell (2010). This is due to non-price features, such as its sleek design, it high quality photos and audio capabilities. Hence, this producer in particular has been capable of sustaining a competitive advantage of higher quality and rivals have not been able to question its predominance among the higher end of the market. This lack of (potential) competition up to date may come to explain the fact that Apple waited over 7 years before determining it was time to launch its product, according to Dolan (2006). It is precisely these rules that escape the framework described before that can lead to an equilibrium where a firm (or firms) wait until the market is ripe enough to launch a product even when it is not the compelling SPNE. 25
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In the nervous system, Wnt signalling cascades are impor- tant for the formation of neuronal circuits. During develop- ment, Wnt signalling regulates self-renewal, maintenance and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (Hirabayashi et al. 2004; Machon et al. 2007; Munji et al. 2011) and regulates the development of the cortex and hippocampus (Li and Pleasure 2005; Machon et al. 2007). Wnts not only regulate early embryonic development but are also key regulators of late embryonic and postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) (Inestrosa and Arenas 2010; Oliva et al. 2013). Various Wnt ligands regulate synaptic development and func- tion, including the formation and maturation of pre- and postsynaptic sites and neurotransmission. Members of the Wnt family of secreted signalling proteins are implicated in every step of neural development. During vertebrate develop- ment, a Wnt signalling gradient that is high in the posterior and low in the anterior is critical for the proper specification of the anterior–posterior axis of the neural plate (Kiecker and Niehrs 2001). In fact, several studies have demonstrated that inhibition of Wnt signalling in the anterior, as well as the activation of Wnt signalling in the posterior, is required for proper anterior-posterior patterning of the early CNS (Esteve et al. 2000; Glinka et al. 1998; Houart et al. 2002; Kazanskaya et al. 2000). During early development, after the neural plate is specified, it invaginates to form the neural tube, a process that is complete once the paired neural folds adhere at the dorsal midline, and which is required for the development of the spinal cord and brain. Neural tube defects cause conditions like spina bifida and anencephaly. It has been determined that the Wnt/PCP signalling pathway is relevant for neural tube closure and is involved in neural tube defects (Curtin et al. 2003; Wen et al. 2010). Also, a role for the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in neural tube closure is indicated by the presence of
tency of what Perúbiodiverso II (PBD II) does within SIPPO’s indicators. Simultaneously, it aims at building a common platform for other potential SIPPO partners so they can de- velop separate interventions and still be consistent with these strategies. SECO may use this document to unify strategies for the selected product. The bulk of data and analysis comes from the sub-sector analysis done by SIPPO studies, Bio- comercio & Perúbiodiverso in recent years.
ABSTRACT . Even the simplest cell exhibits a high degree of functional differen- tiation (FD) realized through several mechanisms and devices contributing differently to its maintenance. Searching for the origin of FD, we briefly argue that the emergence of the respective organizational complexity cannot be the result of either natural selection (NS) or solely of the dynamics of simple self-maintaining (SM) systems. Accordingly, a highly gradual and cumulative process should have been necessary for the transition from either simple self-assembled or self-maintaining systems of functionless structural compo- nents to systems with FD. We follow results of recent in vitro experiments with respect to competition among protocells, where a primitive type of selection begins to operate among them accompanied by a parallel evolution of their functional domain. We argue that minimal forms of FD should be established within the evolution of SM processes in protocells as they undergo a simpler selection process for stability and persistence in a prebiotic environment. We then suggest the concept of closure of constraints (CoC) as a way to identify and describe minimal FD in a far-from-equilibrium SM organization. We show in detail how the concept of CoC together with the conditions for its fulfillment can be applied in the case of a simple protocellular system that begins to couple internal chemical reactions with the formation of its membrane components. Finally, we discuss how such SM systems can evolve towards significantly higher levels of FD, suggesting this is mainly the result of functional recombi- nation (formation of mechanisms) in the context of a modular SM organization. KEY WORDS . Functional differentiation, self-maintenance, natural selection, constraints, closure, prebiotic evolution, organizational complexity, protocells.
El Consejo de Europa entiende por product placement la presentación de productos comerciales dentro de emisiones sin carácter comercial, consecuencia de acuerdos previos entre productor y anunciante. Este tipo de emisiones suelen ser películas y series, que muestran productos hacen referencia a empresas de prestacio- nes de servicios, integradas en los contenidos de la emisión, como una parte del ambiente social en el que se desarrollan.
perfeccionar métodos y habilidades necesarias para afrontar las tareas de un Product Manager.
¿ Que se va a aprender en este curso ?
A adquirir los principios y métodos de un product manager para gestionar la complejidad de las líneas de producto cerámico, analizando el entorno interno y externo para asegurar el éxito del producto.
Report Content Within the scope of the project Perubiodiverso, an initiative supported by the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH (german cooperation), in con- vention with the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism (MINCETUR), the Peru Export and Tourism Promotion Board (Promperu) and the Ministry of the Environment (MINAM), SIPPO is mandated to support Peruvian companies in accessing the European market. In this context, SIPPO compiled product strategies for: Maca (Lepidium ssp.), Sa- cha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis linneo), Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruvianna), Algarrobo (Prosopis ssp.), Camu Camu (Myrciaria dubia) and Native cacao (Theobroma cacao).