Product differentiation

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Fusiones horizontales de empresas y estrategias de diferenciación de producto* 1 Firms horizontal mergers and product differentiation strategies

Fusiones horizontales de empresas y estrategias de diferenciación de producto* 1 Firms horizontal mergers and product differentiation strategies

Palabras clave: Fusiones horizontales, diferenciación de producto, bienestar. Clasificación JEL: L00, L13, L20. Abstract Taking as a reference a simple oligopoly model with differentiated products, in which there are three firms, the purpose of this paper is to complement the existing literature on mergers by proving that the traditional merger paradox can be avoided by assuming that, after the merger, the merging firms increase the existing bilateral product differentiation. In this context, it is proved that a merger could be welfare enhancing by increasing both consumers surplus and merging and non merging firms profits.
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12 Lee mas

A duopoly game under uncertainty about product differentiation: A separating or pooling equilibrium?

A duopoly game under uncertainty about product differentiation: A separating or pooling equilibrium?

Previous literature on signal jamming has shown that firms set lower prices in markets with demand uncertainty than in markets with perfect information in order to fool their rivals into thinking that the demand is lower than it really is (Riordan, 1985). Additionally, several studies on learning by experimentation have found that in markets for closer substitutes firms´ prices are more dispersed with demand uncertainty than with perfect information, whereas in markets for highly differentiated products price dispersion between firms is lower with demand uncertainty than without it (see for example, Harrington, 1992). Unlike the results obtained in some models of signal jamming, we found that asymmetric information on the degree of substitutability between products might make informed firms set higher prices than in a market with perfect information. Furthermore, in contrast to the literature on learning by experimentation, in our model with asymmetric information price dispersion is higher with demand uncertainty than without it regardless of the degree of product differentiation in the market. Thus, information asymmetries may significantly change firms´ pricing policies.
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29 Lee mas

Product differentiation: concept and modeling of the quality variable

Product differentiation: concept and modeling of the quality variable

In approaching the analysis of product differentiation in this paper, we propose as its main objective to highlight the role of quality in the differentiation of products, including models made in this regard as the economic literature. The basic model of decision raises the quality as a decision variable in the company that, in its optimal, determines the quality product based on its marginal contribution to income. The paper shows the relationship between quality and vertical differentiation: the product characteristics shape its quality as dimensions in addition to other areas, and vertical differentiation is perceived by the market according to these characteristics. As for strategies where concepts of differentiation and quality are intertwined, economic literature also provides several references. The obtained theoretical relationship between quality and price and the relationship between quality and benefit underline the significance of this variable, and this role is showed by several econometric modeling in product differentiation that give a specific level to quantify the quality as a variable in defining the utility, demand or price. We can conclude by indicating the validity of the approach of showing the oligopolistic product differentiation as the most successful, the establishing of a direct relationship between quality and vertical differentiation, the role of reference characteristics models in the differentiation - characteristics that can be identified as attributes of quality- and relevance of variable quality in the differentiation from a specific treatment in different models, most of which are based largely on classical models.
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15 Lee mas

Bertrand and Price-Taking Equilibria in Markets with Product Differentiation

Bertrand and Price-Taking Equilibria in Markets with Product Differentiation

In this paper we show that a homogeneous-product market with multiple Bertrand equilibria becomes a market with a single Bertrand equilibrium when we introduce a small degree of product differentiation. When differentiation tends to zero, that Bertrand equilibrium converges to the unique price-taking equilibrium of the homogeneous-product market, which is in turn one of the multiple Bertrand equilibria for that market.

10 Lee mas

International Trade, Migration and Investment with Horizontal Product Differentiation and Free Entry and Exit of Firms

International Trade, Migration and Investment with Horizontal Product Differentiation and Free Entry and Exit of Firms

This paper has built on the circular road model of horizontal product differentiation. The model derived shows that in autarky, larger countries have higher welfare than smaller countries. The model also shows that freer international trade increases welfare -with ideal variety preferences- through the exploitation of economies of scale and through better allocative efficiency, that benefit consumers thanks to the free entry and exit of firms.

19 Lee mas

Product differentiation and option games : closing the gap

Product differentiation and option games : closing the gap

First, smartphones are anything but a homogeneous product. This is especially true when considering Apple’s iPhone, which has consistently captured around 15% of world smartphone sales belonging to the “high end” of the market, according to Wall Street Journal (WSJ) correspondent Andrew Dowell (2010). This is due to non-price features, such as its sleek design, it high quality photos and audio capabilities. Hence, this producer in particular has been capable of sustaining a competitive advantage of higher quality and rivals have not been able to question its predominance among the higher end of the market. This lack of (potential) competition up to date may come to explain the fact that Apple waited over 7 years before determining it was time to launch its product, according to Dolan (2006). It is precisely these rules that escape the framework described before that can lead to an equilibrium where a firm (or firms) wait until the market is ripe enough to launch a product even when it is not the compelling SPNE. 25
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72 Lee mas

Product Selection Toolbox

Product Selection Toolbox

Siga a ROKAutomation en Facebook y Twitter. Conéctese con nosotros en LinkedIn. Product Selection Toolbox™ – ProposalWorks™ e Integrated Architecture™ Builder • Nuestra potente gama de herramientas de selección de productos y de confi guración del sistema le facilitan la selección y aplicación de nuestros productos. Vaya a http://www.rockwellautomation.com/en/e-tools/ • Confi gure y genere listas de materiales para las redes basadas en

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Wnt signalling in neuronal differentiation and development

Wnt signalling in neuronal differentiation and development

In the nervous system, Wnt signalling cascades are impor- tant for the formation of neuronal circuits. During develop- ment, Wnt signalling regulates self-renewal, maintenance and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (Hirabayashi et al. 2004; Machon et al. 2007; Munji et al. 2011) and regulates the development of the cortex and hippocampus (Li and Pleasure 2005; Machon et al. 2007). Wnts not only regulate early embryonic development but are also key regulators of late embryonic and postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS) (Inestrosa and Arenas 2010; Oliva et al. 2013). Various Wnt ligands regulate synaptic development and func- tion, including the formation and maturation of pre- and postsynaptic sites and neurotransmission. Members of the Wnt family of secreted signalling proteins are implicated in every step of neural development. During vertebrate develop- ment, a Wnt signalling gradient that is high in the posterior and low in the anterior is critical for the proper specification of the anterior–posterior axis of the neural plate (Kiecker and Niehrs 2001). In fact, several studies have demonstrated that inhibition of Wnt signalling in the anterior, as well as the activation of Wnt signalling in the posterior, is required for proper anterior-posterior patterning of the early CNS (Esteve et al. 2000; Glinka et al. 1998; Houart et al. 2002; Kazanskaya et al. 2000). During early development, after the neural plate is specified, it invaginates to form the neural tube, a process that is complete once the paired neural folds adhere at the dorsal midline, and which is required for the development of the spinal cord and brain. Neural tube defects cause conditions like spina bifida and anencephaly. It has been determined that the Wnt/PCP signalling pathway is relevant for neural tube closure and is involved in neural tube defects (Curtin et al. 2003; Wen et al. 2010). Also, a role for the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in neural tube closure is indicated by the presence of
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10 Lee mas

Visio Product Guide

Visio Product Guide

Para especificar la configuración de una categoría o seleccionar todas las categorías del diagrama, en la ventana Diagrama dinámico, bajo Agregar una categoría, sitúe el puntero sobre [r]

47 Lee mas

PRODUCT GUIDE ESPAÑOL

PRODUCT GUIDE ESPAÑOL

El PROGRESS permite al operador supervisar el rendimiento de la grúa, tanto dentro del camión como desde la pantalla del control remoto. 31[r]

68 Lee mas

FARMA PRODUCT. Aparatología

FARMA PRODUCT. Aparatología

Liposucción Mango adaptador canulip a cánula para liposuctor. 157[r]

5 Lee mas

Fitocosmética fitoingredientes y otros product

Fitocosmética fitoingredientes y otros product

Algunos aceites esenciales, por su alto contenido en fenoles o alcoholes, son apropia- dos para ser usados como antisépticos, en desodorantes o en cualquier formulación que se necesite [r]

274 Lee mas

DIGITAL PRODUCT MANAGEMENT

DIGITAL PRODUCT MANAGEMENT

*Data Enters *Developers *Redactores *Diseñadores *Negociadores con Productoras *Product Managers Propuesta de Valor *Contenidos originales *Buenas Reviews *Recomendaciones de amigos[r]

30 Lee mas

Product Strategy for Tara

Product Strategy for Tara

tency of what Perúbiodiverso II (PBD II) does within SIPPO’s indicators. Simultaneously, it aims at building a common platform for other potential SIPPO partners so they can de- velop separate interventions and still be consistent with these strategies. SECO may use this document to unify strategies for the selected product. The bulk of data and analysis comes from the sub-sector analysis done by SIPPO studies, Bio- comercio & Perúbiodiverso in recent years.

24 Lee mas

How functional differentiation originated in prebiotic evolution

How functional differentiation originated in prebiotic evolution

ABSTRACT . Even the simplest cell exhibits a high degree of functional differen- tiation (FD) realized through several mechanisms and devices contributing differently to its maintenance. Searching for the origin of FD, we briefly argue that the emergence of the respective organizational complexity cannot be the result of either natural selection (NS) or solely of the dynamics of simple self-maintaining (SM) systems. Accordingly, a highly gradual and cumulative process should have been necessary for the transition from either simple self-assembled or self-maintaining systems of functionless structural compo- nents to systems with FD. We follow results of recent in vitro experiments with respect to competition among protocells, where a primitive type of selection begins to operate among them accompanied by a parallel evolution of their functional domain. We argue that minimal forms of FD should be established within the evolution of SM processes in protocells as they undergo a simpler selection process for stability and persistence in a prebiotic environment. We then suggest the concept of closure of constraints (CoC) as a way to identify and describe minimal FD in a far-from-equilibrium SM organization. We show in detail how the concept of CoC together with the conditions for its fulfillment can be applied in the case of a simple protocellular system that begins to couple internal chemical reactions with the formation of its membrane components. Finally, we discuss how such SM systems can evolve towards significantly higher levels of FD, suggesting this is mainly the result of functional recombi- nation (formation of mechanisms) in the context of a modular SM organization. KEY WORDS . Functional differentiation, self-maintenance, natural selection, constraints, closure, prebiotic evolution, organizational complexity, protocells.
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23 Lee mas

Del product placement no se escapa nadie

Del product placement no se escapa nadie

El Consejo de Europa entiende por product placement la presentación de productos comerciales dentro de emisiones sin carácter comercial, consecuencia de acuerdos previos entre productor y anunciante. Este tipo de emisiones suelen ser películas y series, que muestran productos hacen referencia a empresas de prestacio- nes de servicios, integradas en los contenidos de la emisión, como una parte del ambiente social en el que se desarrollan.

9 Lee mas

Curso Product Manager

Curso Product Manager

perfeccionar métodos y habilidades necesarias para afrontar las tareas de un Product Manager. ¿ Que se va a aprender en este curso ? A adquirir los principios y métodos de un product manager para gestionar la complejidad de las líneas de producto cerámico, analizando el entorno interno y externo para asegurar el éxito del producto.

23 Lee mas

Product Strategy for Cocoa

Product Strategy for Cocoa

Report Content Within the scope of the project Perubiodiverso, an initiative supported by the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH (german cooperation), in con- vention with the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Tourism (MINCETUR), the Peru Export and Tourism Promotion Board (Promperu) and the Ministry of the Environment (MINAM), SIPPO is mandated to support Peruvian companies in accessing the European market. In this context, SIPPO compiled product strategies for: Maca (Lepidium ssp.), Sa- cha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis linneo), Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruvianna), Algarrobo (Prosopis ssp.), Camu Camu (Myrciaria dubia) and Native cacao (Theobroma cacao).
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25 Lee mas

XKUTCHER PRODUCT CODE

XKUTCHER PRODUCT CODE

Por este certificado, TEC1 ELECTRONICS GROUP, S.A. garantiza que este producto se encuentra libre de defectos en materiales y de mano de obra en el momento de su compra original por par[r]

16 Lee mas

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