The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two microbial preparations on the productiveperformance, health and blood profile of piglets. In total, 120 piglets (Duroc x Yorkshire/Landrace) offspring of 12 breeding sows (Landrace/Yorkshire) were distributed in three groups of 40 animals each under a completely randomized design: control (T1); Bioprepared (T2) and Bioprepared (T3). T2 contained Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptoccus thermophilus and T3 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis (L-4 UCLV). Birth weight and body weight and body weight gain (BWG) on days 14 and 33 (weaning) of age, incidence of diarrhoea and blood and biochemical profiles were evaluated. The birth weight and the BWG of piglets of T2 and T3 was greater than in the piglets of the control group (p<0.05), without difference between T2 and T3. The occurrence of diarrhoea was reduced by 52% in the animals treated with the probiotics. The hematochemical profile differed between treatments (p<0.05). It is concluded that the use of lactic-acid bacteria and yeast produced a positive effect on the productiveperformance, health, and blood profile in piglets.
Exogenous phytase could influence dietary protein availability by variation in using dose. The objective of the present study was to determine if incre- mental dosing of an evolved E.coli 6-phytase would lead to improvements in lysine availability through evaluating performance and bone status in Bo- vans White layers. A total of 182 layers were placed in individual cages and distributed to 13 treatments: a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement with three lev- els of digestible lysine (dLys - 0.67, 0.77, and 0.87 %) and four doses of phytase (0, 300, 1 200, and 4 800 FTU/kg) in 0.12 % available P (avP) diets. Additionally, one phytase-free control treatment was included with 0.25 % avP and 0.87 % dLys. Productive parameters were recorded for 25 weeks, from 39 week-old. At the end, abdominal fat deposition and the tibia were sampled; in bone was determined breaking strength and bone ash. Layers fed 1 200 FTU/kg phytase increased egg production percent- age (F 3,169 = 2.01, p = 0.111), abdominal fat deposition (F 3,169 = 2.52, p = 0.059), bone breaking strength (F 3,169 = 4.29, p = 0.006) and bone ash weight (F 3,169 = 3.62, p = 0.014) compared with non-phytase inclusion. Furthermore, 1 200 FTU/kg phytase decreased incidence of broken eggs and soft-shell eggs (F 3,169 = 2.9, p = 0.036). Phytase and dLys levels influ- enced egg mass and bone ash concentration (F 12,169 = 1.86, p = 0.043). FCR and body weight loss was reduced with phytase inclusion (respectively: F 12,169 = 2.43, p = 0.006, and F 12,169 = 2.24, p = 0.012). Phytase-free control diet increased egg weight (F 12,169 = 3.70, p < 0.001), but gave greater BW loss (F 12,169 = 17.79, p < 0.001), less abdominal fat content (F 12,169 = 5.85, p < 0.001), and no effect on other variables (p > 0.07). In conclusion, 1 200 FTU/kg of phytase improved productiveperformance and preserved body weight and bone status, without equivalence of phytase inclusion for dLys level, even with higher doses.
The study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary pharmacological levels of supplementary copper on the productiveperformance, intestinal morphometry, hepatic copper, and copper in feces of guinea pigs during 56 days. Sixty weaned male guinea pigs were used for this experiment, randomly distributed into four treatments with five replicates each and three animals per replicate: T1, basal diet (0 ppm of Cu supplemented as copper sulfate); T2, basal diet + 100 ppm Cu; T3, basal diet + 200 ppm Cu; T4, basal diet + 300 ppm Cu. No significant differences were found between treatments on final body weight, daily body weight gain, voluntary feed intake, feed conversion ratio and mortality. In addition, supplemented copper caused a significantly reduction (p<0.05) of the villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio as the level of supplemented copper increased. The copper concentration in liver and feces significantly increased (p<0.05) as the level of supplemented copper increased. It is concluded that dietary pharmacological levels of supplementary copper did not improve productiveperformance, increased the concentration of copper in liver and feces and showed a negative effect on intestinal morphometry.
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion, alone or in combination, of phytase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol vitamin (25-OHD 3 ) on the productiveperformance and tibia characteristics of male broilers from 1 to 21 day of age. A total of 200 male chicks of the Cob 500 Line were distributed in four treatments with five replicates and 10 birds per repetition. The treatments were: T1, Control; T2, Isonutritive as T1 considering phytase matrix (0.178% Ca and 0.15% AP – available phosphorous); T3, Isonutritive as T1 considering 25-OHD 3 matrix (0.1% Ca and 0.05% AP) and T4, Isonutritive as T1 considering both phytase and 25-OHD 3 matrixes. Broilers were weighed and feed intake recorded on days 7, 14, and 21. On day 21, lengths and weights of tibias of twelve chicks per treatment were measured. Left tibias were tested for ash, calcium and phosphorus contents. No statistical difference was found in body weight, daily weight gain or carcass yield between treatments. T3 showed lower bone density, shorter and lighter tibias than those of other treatments (p<0.05). Ash contents and calcium concentrations in tibias from birds fed T2 or T4 were lower than those on T1 or T3 (p<0.05). Phosphorus concentration in tibia from broilers fed T2, T3, and T4 were similar to those fed T1. In conclusion, the phytase enzyme, vitamin 25- OHD 3 and the combination of both as a supplement in diets of broilers neither had positive effect on the productiveperformance of broilers nor contributed to effective mineralization of the tibia.
Experts in farm animal welfare assign considerable importance to the availability of a substrate such as straw in the assessment of housing systems (Spoolder et al., 2003). In the European context, straw can be a high-cost bedding material in pastoral regions without arable cropping, and the rising cost of haulage and alter- native uses for arable by-products can exacerbate this problem (Teixeira et al., 2012). The demand of straw as organic material to amend soils to ensure sustainable crop production and the use of straw as a source of biomass for energy production may be 2 other reasons for the increase in the cost of straw as bedding or forage in intensive lamb meat systems (Gauder et al., 2011). Consequently, as straw costs could potentially increase further, the lamb meat in- dustry is seeking alternative bedding materials. System managers require clear guidance and information on the suitability of po- tential alternative bedding materials and their effect on the welfare, performance and meat quality of their animals, as well as the cost of using them. In our study, in addition to straw, we analyzed 3 sub- strates that are relatively frequent in the Aragón region of Spain, sawdust, rice husk, and a by-product of cellulose (LER-030310, a by- product of the paper industry). The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of using 3 alternative bedding materials other than straw, on lamb welfare, productiveperformance, and meat quality during the fattening phase.
The aim of this study was to evaluate diets enriched with vitamin E and organic selenium on the productiveperformance and meat quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The study was carried out in the fish farm «El Ingenio» in Huancayo, Peru with 4200 juvenile trout (164 g of body weight) during 40 days. A basal diet (treatment 1), two levels of vitamin E (25 and 50 ppm) and three levels of organic selenium (0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 ppm) were used. In the study, 600 trout were assigned per each of the seven treatments, using three repetitions per treatment (n=200) in a completely randomized design. Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and protein efficiency ratio were evaluated. Besides, in the frozen meat content of vitamin E, selenium and total volatile basic nitrogen, and the oxidation state were determined. Data was processed by the analysis of variance, the Tukey multiple comparison test and the Dunnett’s test. The diet supplemented with 500 ppm of vitamin E and 0.35 ppm of organic selenium improved body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio (p<0.05). Likewise, this diet improved the meat quality in relation to the control group (p<0.05) due to its capacity to store 0.23 mg of selenium per kilogram of trout meat.
guinea pigs were randomly distributed into three groups and housed in galvanized cages. The treatments were: T1, green alfalfa; T2, mixed feeding (concentrate feed + green alfalfa [10% BW]); T3, integral feeding (only concentrate feed). Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were measured weekly. On day 28 all animals were slaughtered to assess carcass yield. Total fat was extracted to determine the fatty acid profile by gas chromatography. The productiveperformance and fatty acid profile of the carcass of experimental animals were significantly influenced by the dietary treatments (p<0.05). T2 y T3 had higher daily gain weight, feed intake, carcass yield and lower feed conversion than T1; however, carcasses had higher content of omega-3 in particular α-linolenic fatty acid and lower content of omega-6, resulting in a lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and the lowest carcass fat content. It is concluded that alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a source of n- 3 fatty acids, particularly α-linolenic acid, which can improve fatty acids n-3 content of guinea pig carcasses.
The present study evaluated the effect of supplementation with oregano essential oil (OEO) on the productive parameters, oxidative stability, and lipid parameters of turkey meat. Eighty 1-d-old male turkeys were randomly distributed into four treatment groups and fed the following diets for 105 days: control diet without any supplementation or supplementation with 300 mg/kg lincomycin and spectinomycin, 100 mg/kg OEO, or 200 mg/kg OEO. Supplementation with 200 mg/kg OEO obtained the best bodyweight, average daily gain, feed conversion, and the lowest feed intake concerning the other diets (p < 0.001), while 100 mg/kg OEO had the best oxidative stability (p < 0.001). Though OEO had no hypocholesterolemic effect, 200 mg/kg OEO produced the lowest concentration of triglycerides in the blood (p < 0.05). In conclusion, OEO supplementation improves productive parameters and increases oxidative stability in turkeys. Therefore, OEO has the potential to act as a growth promoter replacing antibiotics.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of the health status of poultry houses on the prevalence of larval stages of endoparasites in intermediate hosts and on the productive behavior of 55-week-old White Leghorn laying hens for eight weeks. Two treatments were designed (T1 and T2) with 486 chickens each (three replicas of 162 birds), according to the hygienic quality of two chicken houses (dust levels in the floor, puddles in excreta towers, feathers and broken eggs in the floor and corridors, presence of wild birds, population of insects). Every 15 days (four samplings) 1 kg of excreta per replica was collected from the excreta towers to quantify and classify the intermediate hosts. All insects and arthropods were identified, and the presence of nematode larvae and larval cysts was quantified. The intestines of 15 birds (T1=7; T2=8) were collected for the identification of endoparasites. The extension of the infestation was determined, and the productive variables were estimated (production of total eggs and per bird, percentage of egg laying, conversion, viability, and external quality of the egg). The results indicated that the sanitary situation of the chicken house with poor hygienic conditions (T2) positively influenced the populations of intermediary hosts of cestodes and in a greater production of eggs with dirty, stained, and broken shells. Alphitobius diaperinus was the coleopter with the highest presentation and with the highest intensity of infestation by Subulura suctoria.
replicates per treatment and two animals per replicate. Half of the pigs were fed with restaurant waste and poultry slaughterhouse waste and the other half with concentrate based on corn and soy. Half of each group were castrated males and the other half were females. Body weight of pigs was recorded. All animals were slaughtered at 120 days of fattening, determining carcass characteristics and meat quality through the Longissimus lumbar muscle. A significant interaction between feed x sex was found for body weight and feed conversion (p<0.05). The weight and performance of the carcass was not influenced by sex or food. Pigs fed with concentrate obtained higher body weight gain, better feed conversion, higher protein and lower content of oleic acid in the meat than pigs fed with restaurant waste and poultry slaughterhouse waste.
Testing we understand any formal or informal task set a given moment for one or several purposes. It may be more structural or more communicative, longer a shorter, but always given as a precise means to provide assessments. As teacher you will want to know you’re your students are progressing and how you teaching has been. The students, for their part, need to be reassured that they progress and they will want to be shown how best they can improve their performance. So you need to use tests either published ones, or test that you have devised yourself.
El centro es una forma espacial muy utilizada en el teatro de calle, y la que menos interesante resulta para la performance, ya que al trazar un círculo imaginario alrededor de la acción, el espectador se convierte en un elemento pasivo, alguien que ha sido colocado en el lugar de la espera. Una espera quese traduce como distancia con respecto a aquello que sucede, dando lugar a respuestas convencionales. En los centros, el modelo básico de reunión-representación-dispersión se da en estado más puro que en el caso de los itinerarios o las encrucijadas y el vínculo con el espacio real –el aquí y el ahora- aparece suspendido. La obra se instala en el espacio público al mismo tiempo que se distancia de él.
De esta manera, el posible artificio se vuelve absolutamente verdadero gracias a este doblez de la performance que tiene un componente teatral, sí, pero que no puede mirarse enteramente como ficción porque, como comenta Irina Garbatzky citando a Patrice Davis, “El performer es el que habla y actúa en nombre propio (en tanto que artista y que persona) y de este modo se dirige al público (…). El performer efectúa una puesta en escena de su propio yo, el actor desempeña el papel de otro.” (Los ochenta reciénvivos: 22). Esta puesta en escena, esta presentación del propio yo –de un “yo” que es persona y artista al mismo tiempo y tiene clara consciencia de ello-, que en este caso fue teatral pero también puede pensarse en términos textuales, es de hecho el eje que estructura la poética de un grupo que por lo demás es altamente fluctuante y polimorfo. Aquí no se trata de una voz del poema que señale a una subjetividad que le serviría de origen, sino de constituir el texto en un espacio para el despliegue verbal de un “yo” que piensa, se corrige, divaga, se explaya en la descripción de sus emociones y por último, aunque no sea menos importante sino todo lo contrario, presenta todo ese conjunto de experiencias a partir de un cuerpo.
A well organized, technically sound, private counterpart : In many of the cases we have examined, a well organized private counterpart has been critical to effective public private collaboration. This has been the case regarding the PCC’s role in the Competitiveness System, and specific business associations in the productive transformation programs for cosmetics and BPO&O. Interestingly, the standing and capacity of the private counterpart has frequently been endogenous to both actions of the government and the context of public-private collaboration: the strength of the PCC is clearly a by-product of its designated role regarding productive development policies; the Contact Center Association has strengthened thanks to the PTP; and ANDI’s BPO&O chamber emerged as a result of the same program. Explicit government-led efforts to organize the private sector have in fact been common in Colombia’s history, and have led to strong business representation that, many argue, have had a reflection on sound economic policies throughout history (e.g. ANDI and the Coffee Growers Federation, see, for instance, Schneider, ). The quality of public counterparts to the government in collaborative enterprises, therefore, needs not be taken as given by the government. Attempts to strengthen private sector representation must be careful to balance the potentially conflicting goals of keeping representation sufficiently concentrated to be effective, yet sufficiently representative of a wide arrange of interests to minimize benefits to specific sectors at the expense of the common interest. In Colombia, having private interests organized around horizontal goals (such as competitiveness), and empowering those interests for mainly horizontal purposes or for identifying and solving government failures, has also proven beneficial. As discussed at greater length in the conclusions to the PCC case, limiting the reach of collaboration to these dimensions can also help replicate the benevolent character that private representation by the PCC has had in Colombia as a result of historical circumstances. This is another lesson of wider application.
These growth scenarios are obviously sensitive to the assumptions which have been made with regard to key parameters. But the assumptions are empirically grounded in the experience of either least developed countries or developing countries. They thus provide a realistic indication of what a full employment growth path for the LDCs could look like if productive capacities were developed. The estimates indicate that there are major opportunities for increased growth rates. However, for these opportunities to be realized, various constraints on the achievement of the potential growth rates must be addressed. Achieving these potential growth rates will first of all require substantially increased investment rates (see box 8). These must be financed from substantially increased domestic savings, or substantially increased external resource inflows, or some combination of the two. Accelerated export growth will also be necessary in order to pay for the increased imports which will be required for sustaining faster economic growth. There will also need to be increased technological effort to acquire and use modern technologies in use in other countries. The full-employment output growth trajectory will not be achieved if investment demand falls short of the investment requirements. Macroeconomic policies will thus need to ensure macroeconomic stability, which is vital for investment expectations, and also to create an environment in which there are strong demand-side incentives to invest.
the magazine. The first publication (epigraph 5.1) "Hydroponic system and desalinated seawater as an alternative farm-productive proposal in water scarcity areas: Energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of lettuce production in southeast Spain", published in Cleaner Production, analyzes and compares soil production and nutrient film technique systems in outdoor lettuce crop from the energy and greenhouse gas emissions point of view, under different water supply scenarios. The second publication (epigraph 5.2) "Deficit irrigation with reclaimed water in a citrus orchard. Energy and greenhouse-gas emissions analysis" of the Agricultural systems magazine, studies the energy and greenhouse emissions of a grapefruit orchard with the implementation of several irrigation regimes (traditional irrigation and controlled deficit combined or not with regenerated water) in different stages of cultivation. The third publication (epigraph 5.3), "Producing lettuce in soil-based or in soilless outdoor systems. Which is more profitable? "Of the journal Agricultural water management, compares the systems studied in the first publication from an economic point of view, evaluating the economic viability of the systems and quantifying the effect of using desalinated sea water for irrigation.