Our data suggest distinctive performance profiles in padel players according to their hand dominance. Besides, two player’s roles were clearly distinguished: scorer (specialist in direct and volley and smash) and defender (specialist in lob and wall actions). Based on current players’ specialization reported, coaches should design specific game plans when competing against right-right or right-left handed pairs in padel. For instance, using lobs against a left-handed opponent appears to be risky if bad performed (increase smash chances) but more effective if succeed (send the offensive player far from scoring areas). Likewise, players should keep an eye on the right-handed when using the wall. In terms of conditioning and skills, it is remarkable the importance of volley (high-frequency, low- velocity) and smash (low-frequency, high- velocity) actions in padel offence. Physical conditioning and prevention programs in padel are required to reduce injury rates caused by cumulative elbow and wrist vibration in volleys and high velocities of joint rotation in smashed, particularly in left-handed and ‘scorer’ role players.
9 Lee mas
Background: This investigation presents two studies with the goal of adapting and validating a short version of the Group Environment Questionnaire in the Spanish sport context with professional players. Method: Study 1 used a sample of 377 male soccer players aged between 18 and 39 years (M = 24.51, SD = 3.73), in a preliminary study using exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 used a sample of 604 professional male and female athletes, ages between 15 and 38 years (M = 24.34, SD = 4.03). The data analyzed were collected at three moments of the season. For each measurement, we developed seven fi rst- and second-order structures that were analyzed with confi rmatory factor analysis. Results: Study 1 indicated appropriate factorial validity (> .60) and internal consistency (> .70), with only Item 3 presenting a low factor loading (.11), so its drafting was modifi ed in the next study. Study 2 revealed that the Spanish version of the GEQ has high levels of internal consistency (> .70) and acceptable fi t index values in its original four fi rst-order factor structure in all three measurements (χ 2 /df = 4.39, CFI = .95, IFI = .95, RMSEA = .07, SRMR
8 Lee mas
Repeated sprint ability is receiving considerable attention from both researchers and practitioners interested in quantifying this aspect of fitness on team sports. (Da Silva, Guglielmo, & Bishop, 2010). It has been much interest to know the changes of different mechanical and metabolic variables during this type of action (Da Silva, Guglielmo, & Bishop, 2010). They have been using various protocols with different race distances, repetitions and recovery times between sprint. In 2008, Impellizzeri studies the validity football, which includes travel to and from each repetition in order to get a little closer to the reality of team sports where making changes direction frequently. Some studies use different players of different competition level, differentiating between professional and no professional players. These studies analyzed the difference among various mechanical and metabolic variables before a repeated sprint test in both soccer and futsal (Pyne, Boston, Martin, & Logan, 2000; Makaje, Ruangthai, Arkarapanthu, & Yoopat, 2012). However, it has not found any studies that compare both sports in the same test
10 Lee mas
During the repetitive overhead motion of the serve the shoulder is the focal point for force transfer and contributes to 20% of the total force generated during the stroke , which, together with its mobility, allowing for a wide range of motion, leads to a fragile balance between stability and mobility when serving [4, 5]. Shoulder injuries prevalence is elevated in tennis players, with an incidence of 8.2 injuries per 1,000 h of play in professional players, and being the 15.9% of all injuries occurred [6, 7]. Consequently, in tennis, the identification of the risk factors for shoulder injury is an essential task to elaborate preventive protocols. Among them, the glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) (i.e., > 18–20˚ reduction in dominant shoulder IR, with a corresponding > 5˚ loss of total arc of motion (TAM) when compared to the non-dominant shoulder) [8, 9], external/internal (ER/IR) rotation strength ratios (i.e., <60–85%) [8, 10], iso- metric ER weakness [8, 10], or an external rotation deficiency (ERD) (i.e., > 5˚ loss in dominant shoulder ER when compared to the non-dominant shoulder) , have been highlighted as a risk factors in overhead athletes. However, some conflicting results have been reported regarding these factors. While some authors did not observe an association between GIRD and pain in the dominant shoulder according to players’ levels of expertise (i.e., junior, amateur, elite and profes- sional) [10, 12–14], others reported a significant relationship in amateur  and professional players . The methodology used and the moment of the season when shoulders were exam- ined (i.e., in most studies the glenohumeral joint was only examined once at the beginning of the season) are two major confounding variables that may explain this discrepancy [10, 13]. Thus, the in-season physical changes that may precede an injury or even the effects of fatigue after a single tennis match on these musculoskeletal parameters have not been elucidated yet .
10 Lee mas
According to the game positions played, highest HRmax values were recorded in the point guards (186±11.7 beats·min -1 ), followed by the centers (177±7.7 beats·min -1 ) and forwards (176± 8.3 beats·min -1 ). There are no reports in the literature that have examined game positions in professional men’s basketball since the new norms were put into practice. Our data differ from those recorded by López Calbet et al. (1997) for junior players in competition games indicating that centers attained the lowest HRmax values (202.8 beats·min -1 ) compared to the point guards (203.8 beats·min -1 ) and forwards (203.8 beats·min -1 ). This difference could perhaps be attributable to the fact that today’s professional players are increasingly flexible and are able to play several game positions.
18 Lee mas
As professional’s fatigue was more relevant the day af- ter the match but went back to the same baseline values the next day, it can be concluded that they recovered more efficiently. Furthermore, the comparisons of HR rest showed that professional players had lower values of PRE (~47 vs. 57 bpm) and POST24 (~51 vs. 58) than youth play- ers. As HR rest is a good reference for a player’s physical shape, these comparisons would permit to conclude that a better ability to recover is mostly linked with a good physical condition. Even considering that professionals had a better fitness preparation, it is worth mentioning that they had access to specific recovery methods (such as massages or hydration) that youth players did not benefit from. Such methods would permit optimization of the resynthesis of muscle glycogen storage, acceler- ate muscle-damage repair and have psychological relax- ing effects (26). As the two tested matches were official, taking part during a competitive period with important sportive and financial outcomes, the authors could not design the study avoiding the use of the mentioned re- covery methods.
7 Lee mas
Des d’una perspectiva de projecció metropolitana oberta a la participació de tots els agents educatius, econòmics i socials, el Consell de la Formació Professional de Barcelona està format pels agents socials Comissions Obreres i Unió General de Treballadors; l’Associació de Joves Estudiants de Catalunya; la Cambra Oficial de Comerç, Indústria i Navegació de Barcelona; el Consell Econòmic i Social de Barcelona; la Diputació de Barcelona; les patronals Foment del Treball Nacional i PIMEC; tots els centres públics que imparteixen formació professional de la ciutat; els centres concertats de la Federació Escola Cristiana de Catalunya; més de 664 empreses i associacions empresarials dels diferents entorns professionals, i l'Ajuntament de Barcelona. Els 15 anys de treball del Consell de la Formació Professional de Barcelona i la gran eficàcia i compromís assolits per tots i cadascun dels seus integrants són el millor aval de l’encert en la decisió de crear-lo i, a més a més, el projecten com un bon model de participació ciutadana i de col · laboració entre els àmbits públic i privat. Avui el Consell és un referent que ha estat exportat a altres ciutats importants de Catalunya com Terrassa, Granollers, Mataró i l’Hospitalet i ha estat font d’inspiració del Consell Català de la Formació Professional.
100 Lee mas
D’aquesta manera, es garanteix un cert control dels socis professionals sobre la propietat de l’empresa, per afavorir la independència en l’exercici de la seva professió i el compliment de les normes deontològiques i d’ètica professional, en defensa dels interessos de clients i tercers, principalment per a les situacions de conflicte entre l’acompliment d’una professió i la
12 Lee mas
Què és el que et va fer decidir-te a ser tècnica en fabricació de productes farmacèutics? M’agradava la idea de treballar en el procés de fabricació de medicaments. I a més em van assegurar que hi havia molta sortida laboral a la indústria farmacèutica. Això em va convèncer. Tenia l’opció d’estudiar per a la indústria química, però no hi ha tantes oportunitats com a la farmacèutica. Amb només un any de formació estaré treballant en una bona empresa. I quan acabi aquest grau mitjà puc seguir estudiant un grau superior. Després es fan les pràctiques. Això és fonamental a l’FP. Una cosa que m’encanta és que els estudis estan orientats a la pràctica professional. Quan acabi les assignatures, al maig, faré el que s’anomena un crèdit de síntesi i després, al juny o juliol, les pràctiques. El mateix centre busca una empresa d’acord amb la situació de cada alumne: on viu, si té cotxe o no, els horaris... I després, és possible quedar-te a l’empresa com a alumna en pràctiques?
100 Lee mas
Per a la Montse Soler, coordinadora de pràctiques d’FP, la bona entesa entre centres formatius i l’empresa permet dissenyar al detall els programes formatius.“El contacte amb la realitat és imprescin- dible per força, sinó no estaríem al dia”, afirma. La seva versatilitat i capacitat d’adaptació és un dels principals trets de la personalitat inscrita en l’ADN de l’FP. “Sense aquesta capacitat per escoltar i donar resposta a les necessitats del món de l’empresa, l’FP no seria el que és”, conclou Soler. En l’actualitat sembla una obvietat afirmar que l’FP d’avui ja no té res a veure amb el model que existia ara fa una vintena d’anys. L’FP ha esdevingut una alternativa als estudis universitaris per a aquells que desitgen un futur professional més immediat, com recorda el mateix Joel. “Abans d’estudiar FP vaig fer un any de Física a la Universitat, però aviat vaig veure que el futur professional no estava gens clar. Vaig apostar per l’FP i no em vaig equivocar. Volia aprendre a fer alguna cosa i començar la meva vida adulta”. Soler afegeix que “les empreses necessiten tècnics especialitzats mitjans amb aquests coneixements més pràctics, aquesta realitat explica l’alt grau d’inserció laboral de l’FP”. Segons Grau, “és un model que per a nosaltres funciona perquè podem influenciar en la formació dels estudiants i alhora perquè podem oferir experiències molt reals als estudiants, i penso que això és vital per integrar el món de l’empresa amb l’FP”. Amb prop d’un cente- nar de treballadors, fins fa ben poc els perfils aca- dèmics de la seva plantilla eren majoritàriament universitaris. Però la tendència està començant a canviar. A hores d’ara els tècnics procedents de l’FP ja representen el 15 % i segons els seus responsa- bles en el futur la tendència continuarà incremen- tant-se a favor de perfils procedents d’FP. L’edat mitjana de la plantilla és de només 24 anys. “Estic convençut que la gent d’FP en informàtica surt molt ben preparada i el que cal és oferir-li una oportuni- tat. Aquest és el nostre model”, sentencia Grau. Des d’empreses com aquesta s’aporta valor afegit a la societat i a l’FP. “Crec que l’ofici d’informàtic —afirma Ramon Grau— s’ha de revitalitzar i per aconseguir-ho, ha de tenir les seves diferents àrees
100 Lee mas
The results of the binary logistic regression analysis showed the highest effectiveness for the context of a player being excluded when playing at home, in period 9 of the game, and when the opponent has 3 fouls. On the contrary, the effectiveness decreases when playing balanced matches with possession durations ranging from 1-23s. Firstly, match loca- tion is an important variable that explains effectiveness of unbalanced numerical situations (72.0% of effectiveness when playing at home than away 28.0%). In contrast, Vicente and Lago (2016 in their study about the goalkeeper ’ s influence on ball possession effectiveness in futsal found that match location and match status did not indicate any impact on ball possession effectiveness. The same trend was found by Gómez et al. (2015) when they analysed ball possession effec- tiveness during playoff matches of the Spanish Futsal League. This finding may reflect that the match location effect is not a regular constraint throughout the match and may influence attack effectiveness in a different way according to the match context and the moments of the match analysed. According to Oliveira, Gómez, and Sampaio (2012) this variable is time- and opponent-dependent during a match, especially during and after critical incidents or in the last moments of the match (match periods 9 or 10). Then, the away team may be nega- tively influenced when defending in numerical inferiority against the home team that tries to score a goal during the 2-min period. In fact, this period can be considered as a psychological phase where home players were positively influ- enced by the crowd support, reveal better team cohesion to create open situations, and maintain better equilibrium on the field due to the familiarity with the court and the visual-spatial references (Bray, Jones, & Owen, 2002).
7 Lee mas
During the execution phase, player´s had to use effectively the most appropriate skills to solve the situation (Jiménez, 2007). But also, according to Tenenbaum´s model (2003), once the players started the action, they had to keep in alert about the possibilities presented during the game situation. II-players spent more time than AB-players in this phase, they made more dribbles, they made more infractions and they achieved less successful solutions. Probably, II might also influence on technical proficiency of II-basketball players as it was found in II-table tennis players (Van Biesen, Mactavish, Pattyn, & Vanlandewijck, 2012) that could explain these differences; however, as technical skills were not assesed in this study it can not be confirmed yet. Besides, according to Tenenbaum´s model (2003), once player´s decide, they need to continuously read the situation. As II-players required more time to process the information to decide, probably, they also needed more time to continuously read the situation during the execution. The higher number of dribbles in II-players could explain that they did this to have more time to process the information. In addition, results from II-players indicated that players who required more time to decide also required more dribbles to carry out the solution (see Table 2).
15 Lee mas
motor units, increasing the muscular speed of response to a contraction generated by an external electrical stimulus in BF. Figure 3 reveals that the middle blockers are the players with the lowest RF values in comparison with other positions; this being in fact statistically significant in the liberos (𝑃 = 0.006), the players with the greatest speed of response. These differences in RF could be the result of the position of the body when performing the specific technical actions of the position, as the middle blockers are always close to the net and the body position always has a high centre of gravity, whereas the liberos are in the second line, further away from the net with a greater variation in the flexion extension of the hip when they perform defensive actions, with a lower centre of gravity.
9 Lee mas
Tenir present aquesta distinció ens permet planificar amb ordre el nostre procés de canvi professional. En algunes ocasions podem plantejar-nos un canvi d’àmbit professional dins del sector que ja coneixem. En altres, preferirem fer un canvi de sector, sense canviar d’àmbit professional o fins i tot d’ocupació. En altres paraules, la mobilitat professional pot donar-se entre diferents àmbits d’un mateix sector o bé entre diferents sectors que comparteixen el mateix àmbit professional.
10 Lee mas
This growth in the number of professionals has taken place in the absence of an adequate legislation to regulate it (García, Lago & Fernández, 2011). For that reason, and in response to the demand of different collectives, several drafts for the Law on the organization of the professional practice of physical activity and sport have been produced (Campos, 2008). This aspect has already been dealt with in the regional sphere of Catalonia, the first Spanish region to regulate the practice of this profession (Generalitat de Catalunya, 2008).
16 Lee mas
contact between players. These complex actions require high anticipatory skills  and all- star players outperform non all-stars in producing these complex skills under extreme adverse conditions [20–22]. Also, related with these findings, all-star players demonstrated the ability to score pull-up points, again showing how well these players perceive environmental informa- tion and adapt their behavior accordingly [30, 31], as they strive to reach a better position from which to score (oftentimes using one or more dribble actions before shooting, for example). Several studies from basketball , football  and futsal  analyzing space-time dynam- ics of player dyads inform how the formation of playing patterns are influenced by scoring targets (i.e., baskets and goals). This higher ability to perceive the environment requires a devel- oped attention span [35, 36], perhaps evidenced in the higher number of assists given that assists constitute passes to a teammate leading directly to a subsequent field goal.
14 Lee mas
Basketball is a team sport where box-score statistics are often used to help identifying the reason that explains the game outcome (Sampaio & Janeira, 2003a). However, the box-scores only contain information that describes the frequency of actions performed by players of both teams in a game. This description can be often considered as a complete representation of the game, however, measuring performance is still a never-ending problem for basketball coaches, trainers or recruiters (Shea & Baker, 2013). Player tracking technology is one of the most recent technological advances in basketball (Sampaio, McGarry, Calleja-Gonzalez, Jimenez Saiz, et al., 2015). Powerful computer vision systems were designed with fine-tuned algorithms capable of tracking with relatively high accuracy the players’ positioning and, subsequently, all derived variables such as distance covered and speed (Sampaio, McGarry, Calleja-Gonzalez, Jimenez Saiz, et al., 2015). A very interesting advance is the combination of performance dimensions, such as the physiological and technical throughout the usual notational analysis. Therefore, it is possible, for example, to analyse the distance covered by the players when the team is attacking and when the team in defending. The studies focused on positional-derived variables in basketball are still very limited to small samples of young basketballers, by examining physical demands (Ben Abdelkrim et al., 2007), effects of defensive pressure on movement behaviour (Leite et al., 2014) and effects of activity workload in tactical performances (Sampaio et al., 2014a).
213 Lee mas
Data were collected in a prospective way. Weekly, the main researcher visited teams’ facilities and talked to the head coaches or phoned them in order to register newly happened injuries. To avoid biases in the study results, injuries related to practice or competing activities were the only ones registered. An injury was considered if it was responsible for keeping a player apart of the activity for at least one day. If an injury was not diagnosed by a physician, a physical therapist or a health professional it could not be considered for this study.
18 Lee mas
The purpose of this study was to describe the two groups of professional soccer players studied: (a) residents at sea level; and (b) residents at moderate altitude. The results demonstrated that no significant difference existed between the two groups with respect to age, professional experience, weight, height, %fat, body fat, and fat-free body mass. In agreement, various international studies show similar results related to age (20,27), professional experience (15,17), body mass, height (20,27), %fat (22,27), fat mass, and fat-free body mass (5). These results confirm that professional soccer players are relatively homogenous in terms of their morphological characteristics independent from the geographical region where they practice soccer. However, some factors do exist such as ethnic and racial characteristics that influence the average body size of a team or a national team.
9 Lee mas
Introduction: The stability of hematological status indices is a key determinant of opti- mal sport performance. The capacity to monitor hematological behaviors of elite soccer players may better explain the stresses placed upon physiological systems and the potential decrements in performance and physical capacity. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine the post-seasonal hematological status of professional top-level soccer players in response to seasonal match-play and training demands, in terms of the training practices, intensity, and loadings that they experience before, during, and after each season.
10 Lee mas