F ormative research has become one of the pioneers at the moment to include research in pedagogical dynamics in order to take students beyond the simple and instrumental management of knowledge. In this respect, Parra (2004) affirms that to reflect about research inthe university is to reflect about the university itself; this makes research a very important process in higher education, since this should not be an “extra” aspect inthe entire education process, rather its main and inherent aspect regarding its function inthe society (Gutierrez, 1989). This type of research is then used to build knowledge and find a clear perspective of academic work by teachers and students. Inthe same way, there is a necessity of research that goes beyond instruments and methods, to become a “culture” and an attitude to be sown in students and teachers by giving them the possibility to reflect about their reality. Guided by this inevitability of including research inthe different academic processes in higher education, particularly inthe development of foreign language competences, this research project was born under the question: How to articulate educational research with theclassroom projects inthe Anglophone Language and Culture subject?
To begin with, we would like to thank Dr Masatoshi Sato for giving us the opportunity to conduct our thesis project under his supervision. He demonstrated to be a highly qualified and committed professor, being always willing to teach us and help us. We are truly thankful to him for being demanding at all times, for believing in us as a team, and encouraging us to keep working and improving our project. This one-year-process has not only been an instance to learn about research methodology and our topic, but also about teamwork and collaboration. We believe we managed to keep a healthy environment, being respect for each other and commitment to this project our two main pillars. Therefore, we would like to thank each other within our group, for managing to stay together and work as a team, despite the minor differences we had a few times. We are sure that our discussion and agreement skills, which were developed throughout this process, are of enormous value for our futures. Lastly, we want to thank all the teachers and mentor teachers who were part of our learning process. Each and every one of them provided us with different learning experiences, which made us the professionals we are about to become officially.
These students enjoy English classes; therefore it is a motivation for me that I could provide to them more meaningful tools and related contents through classroom projects to facilitate to them how to learn the foreign language. From these points arises the interest to determine the impact of implementing Project Based Learning in foreign language learning of transition students. To reach this goal in progressive and effective manner, it is necessary to follow four steps which are coherent because first I need to diagnose the students’ situation about the English learning; second, I have to implement the new strategy, that in this case will be theProject Based Learning (PBL); Third, it is necessary to assess the implementation of PBL and finally I will monitor the success of the implementation of PBL. This implementation has great strengths because it engages the students to learn inthe context, with real world projects and in which they have to work with their partners to find solutions to problems presented intheclassroom. That is why this research study looks into the following question:
Listening Comprehension was assessed inthe same way as Speaking and according to the same scale; in this case indicators of a good level of Listening Comprehension for the children of this level and according to the criteria established by the Education Ministry were the following: To get the general sense of habitual oral texts by understanding both the ideas and the relations established between these ideas; and to interpret some non explicit elements present inthe ideas (double meanings, humour, etc.) assessing these elements critically. Listening Comprehension was assessed by students’ ability to listen to general texts and identify approaches to certain themes and uses of thelanguage which denote a social, racial, sexual…discrimination – and then to use these factors to correct their own production.
Brown (2005) mentions that “The communicative language approach seeks to explore “pedagogical means for “real life” communication intheclassroom…we are trying to get our learners to develop linguistic fluency” (Brown, 2005, pag 42). On the other hand, we also have Richards (2006) who mentions that with communicative language teaching “learners learn a language through the process of communicating in it, and that communication that is meaningful to the learner provides a better opportunity for learning than through a grammar based approach”. While the theoretical aspects of Communicative Language Teaching are much more contrived and would need more in-depth analysis, we will just stick to the characteristics of this approach. Brown (2015) mentions that fluency and accuracy are complementary principles when it comes to a communicative approach, but that sometimes fluency can seem more important to learners. He also says that “the role of the teacher is that of a facilitator and guide, not an all knowing bestower of knowledge. Students are therefore encouraged to construct meaning through genuine linguistic interaction with others” (Brown, 2015, pag. 43). Achieving fluency in communicative language teaching is one of the driving principles of the method, but we must not forget accuracy. Fluency and accuracy often come hand in hand. Richards (2006) mentions that when working on fluency, the focus is on getting the message across to a potential listener, relying on different communicative strategies and the use of vocabulary. This leaves little room to practice pronunciation and grammar. Richards indicates that “fluency work thus requires extra attention on the part of the teacher in terms of preparing students for a fluency task, or follow up activities that provide feedback on language use” (Richards, 2006, pag. 9) This shows that even if achieving fluency is crucial inlanguage acquisition, we must not forget accuracy. These are aspects that we want to incorporate into our daily practices in order to make students actually use what they are learning and get them to communicate.
Finally, this study aimed to contribute in first instance to students that were involved inthe problem identified in order to improve the relationships among them and also strengthen their personal values that are important in their whole life to coexist in different contexts, however the researchers also wanted that this project benefit the participants’ parents with the purpose of they understood the importance of reinforcing the values of their children. Besides, the educational community in this case Colombo Latino School could implement the strategies inthe different areas to foster and strengthen the values of all students, and as a result improve the relationship of the whole community. Furthermore, another benefit of this research was to demonstrate to the educational community that values could be developed from any knowledge field. Last but not least, we as researchers wanted to know how from a foreign language teaching we could work on the different social problems that happen inthe daily life such as violence, social inequality,
I noticed that students were affectively engaged to study English, their attitude towards language enable them to want to learn more about it. It illustrates what Hawkins (1999) entailed when he said that talking about language is an emotional business. They expressed they considered English was not difficult and when I asked students the question: what they would like to learn in their English class, some of them asked that they would like to continue learning in order to know everything or to know how to say different words in English.They mean English as the subject and the class teacher develops with them. It reinforces what Corcoll (2013) expressed about affection inthe EFL classroom: Effectiveness of activities, affection and self-esteem promotes learners to wonder about language use. Interviewing students revealed they were confident in their ability of learning English. This fact enhances language awareness when they have the intention of learning a language and they are affectively engaged. From this disposition, they need opportunities to discuss about language, so they can be in contact with thelanguage, interact and discovering language themselves. As shown inthe following excerpt:
To gather all the information, triangulation was used, where the non-participant observations during the lesson plan and the written production of the students were contrasted. First of all, during the two lessons, students’ engagement inthe activity was evaluated through their participation and the number of interruptions during the activities. We understand “participation” to refer to the interaction between students and teachers, such as following the story and asking and answering questions. “Interruptions” are understood in this study as a behavior that disrupts the reading activity, such as playing with classmates or talking with others about a topic not related to the story. Students’ participation was contrasted with the non-participant observations. In fact, the teacher was observed during the read aloud activity, taking into account the strategies that she used in both activities; reading strategies as well as theclassroom management techniques that she used.
Introduction: Text. Introduction: the most common way of understanding Physical Education in our society is through play and sport. Therefore, these motor manifestations should be used as motivating elements to enhance attitudes and values of personal and social responsibility. Objectives: The objective of this work was to design a learning project for teaching sports. Results and discussion: Physical Education professionals have a pedagogical resource, such as project-based learning, with which to design a didactic intervention for the teaching of sports that contributes to the integral development of students, and with a pedagogical perspective that allows a didactic transposition between school and society. It is development favors a thought capable of generating creative ideas by exploring possible solutions by students favoring divergent thinking. Conclusions: The teacher must favor an apprenticeship of sports, with pedagogical and recreational-recreational criteria as a backbone to favor the development of the individual's personality and competencies. In this sense, theproject-based learning methodology responds to these demands since the activities are programmed and designed around student interest centers. Keywords: sports, project learning, Physical Education, school children.
Until quite recently, thework done with corpora inthe legal translation classroom consisted of compiling small corpora of specific genres (with texts taken from the Internet and even from paper documents) and ex- ploiting them with tools like Wordsmith Tools or AntConc. The process was hard and time-consuming, as there were few available corpora and those that did exist required a long processing time. Texts had to be scanned and formats had to be changed. The focus was on monolin- gual corpora and some small parallel text corpora compiled by students intheclassroom, since practically no translated corpora were open to public access. The extensive use of this approach intheclassroom was thus restricted.
So far, 6 different storybooks have been developed by the members of the MuViT group. All of the stories were professionally translated into English, Spanish, Turkish, German, and Russian (Cyrillic and Latin) by the members of thelanguage departments of the participating partner institutions. Parallel to this, pictures for the books were drafted by one of the partners and culturally adapted after team-evaluation; a requirement analysis was undertaken with a group of children in order to specify the technical details for the software implementation. In a third step the researchers from thelanguage departments developed and translated different tasks for thework with the stories, focusing on text comprehension, language awareness and cross-linguistic comparisons. Finally, text and audio-files were prepared for the application of the software, and a first proto-type of the MuViT Software, including a combination of images, sound, text, was developed (see Fig. 1).
comes last and least that which comes inthe middle. Consequently, it is possible to believe that if new topics or revision of previously taught topics occur inthe middle of the class, information will not be easily remembered afterwards. On the contrary, information received at the very start of the class, for example, through Warm-up activities, and the last part, for instance, through Closure activities, may stand a better chance since information is likely to be remembered. Following this idea, the beginning of the class may become the most important moment because it will lead students to remember information more effectively. From the very beginning of the class, during the Presentation step, students apply both types of short-term memory: immediate and working memory. When the teacher starts the lesson through Warm-up activities, students receive information through the immediate memory and then it moves on quickly to be dealt with inthe working memory in order to retain the information students need to follow those activities and apply it accordingly. Later, teachers tend to present a new topic during the Teaching phase. Even though information is presented in a contextualized way, as short-term memory presents time limits, it is at this stage that some of that information seems to get lost. Therefore, timing and certain moments of the class are important elements to consider since students’ focus and attention need to be kept high.
language is both what L2 teachers teach and linguists describe [wouldn’t it seem] self-evident that the findings of linguistics should be relevant to how the content of language courses is to be defined[?]” (Widdowson, 2000: 21). The question, then, is not whether language tea- chers should be trained in linguistics, but which aspects of linguistics should be emphasized in teacher training courses (Ellis, 2010). I agree that linguistics for teachers should not be “watered down” linguistics courses, but I also believe that language teaching is not linguistics any more than “medicine is chemistry”. In this sense, we need to provide future language teachers with a good picture of what they are working with (language) and leave the rest alone. This might leave out discussions on current linguistic theory, but would emphasize the description of the different aspects of language included in any other linguistics-for-linguists course as well as the need to be up to date with relevant, applicable research.
One of the circumstances to feel more relaxed to use L2 is the interaction pattern. The results are shown on table 2. They feel more at ease when talking to partners that they choose, mainly in ESO, whereas the pattern of interaction which they find most stressful is talking to the whole class. However, there is a point highly surprising that has been reflected on figure 2. It shows the degree to which students feel more relaxed if the teacher is not there. According to the results, it is significant that more than a half of them in ESO prefer the presence of the teacher, which together with those who answered “sometimes” makes almost three quarters of the total; they admit that they do not feel relaxed if the teacher is not present. On the other hand, in Bachillerato they are not so radical to say “never” but the percentage is similar when taking into account “never” and “sometimes”. This difference, despite not being very significant, might respond to our premise that older students are more autonomous and are more prone to develop that autonomy.
classroom linguistic policy sheds new light to the field of language socialization. In our view, the author could best contribute to open new research avenues by following this multilingual perspective in future publications in which her rich data may be further exploited. Issues like the presence of all (Bengali, Italian, French, Finnish, English) LPPLJUDQW FKLOGUHQ¶V ODQJXDJHV inclassroom discourse and their role in promoting
The second type of disturbances was generated by the announcements system of the school. Most days the classes were interrupted at mid-time with general announcements such as: “Se le recuerda a toda la comunidad educativa que el día viernes es el día del Jean, por favor recuerden que tiene un costo de quinientos pesos …” (Reflective Journal, page 3. ), or at other times, the national anthem or the Pereira anthem suddenly started to sound. For this reason, the students lost their attention on the class topic and the pre service teachers were required to explain the lesson and instructions again. These problems reduced the time of the class, causing struggles on the pre-service’s teachers planning.
According to Straub (1999), what educators should always have in mind when teaching is “…the need to raise their students’ awareness of their own culture”, to provide them with some kind of metalanguage in order to talk about culture, and “to cultivate a degree of intellectual objectivity essential in cross-cultural analyses”. DeVos and Ross (1982) argue that “Identities are negotiated through a process of contrast of self to others and one's group to other groups”. The cultural identities of interlocutors are a function of their self- and alter-ascriptions in cultural terms (McCall, 1976). DeVos and Ross (1982) note that identities function to define rules of comportment, create a moral commitment, and reinforce a sense of common origin.
One of the topic areas you have mostly focused on is language and gender. What has been your main interest in that area? - My own interest has been inthe area of leadership so I’ve been looking at ways in which competent, capable women leaders present themselves, how they manage the requirements of their role, how they perceive themselves, and the differences between their perceptions and the way they actually operate in workplaces. One of the interesting things we found is that for both, men and women leaders, their narratives, the ‘hero’ stories, very often are very different from the ways in which they actually behave inthe workplace. There’s a Māori guy, for example, who sounds very authoritarian, decisive, very strict and cut-throat inthe intervie, and he’s very different in meetings. He’s informal, humorous, very considerate of other people, makes fun of them sometimes, but in a very informal chatty sort of style, and switches when he needs to into a more decisive mode. So those sorts of differences between how people present themselves in one context and another are classic sociolinguistics.