Psychomotor development

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Factores que influyen en el desarrollo de las habilidades psicomotrices en niños con síndrome de Down en Jipijapa, Manabí

Factores que influyen en el desarrollo de las habilidades psicomotrices en niños con síndrome de Down en Jipijapa, Manabí

Down Syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by the presence of an extra chromosome in pair 21, hence it is also called Trisomy 21. The people who suffer from it are distinguished by their physical features and mental retardation that are only manifested in this syndrome. For some years, the global reality of these children has been significantly modified by implementing strategies for treatment of early stimulation from birth, thus expanding opportunities and providing means for their social insertion. In Jipijapa it has been verified the lack of information of the parents on the programs of early stimulation to the children with Down syndrome, causing a greater delay in the development of his motor. The objective of the research was to determine the factors that influence the development of psychomotor skills in children with Down syndrome attending the Ana Luz Solís school, for which we applied surveys to 34 parents and interviews with specialists of the theme. Parents' lack of knowledge about the importance of the development of physical activities as part of the early stimulation for the psychomotor development of their children was identified as the main factor. In addition, it was found that there is no guide that allows the father of family to know the different activities that from home contribute to the learning and development of their child, so it is proposed to create an early stimulation manual for parents of children with Down syndrome.

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Vol. 88, Núm. 01 (2017)

Vol. 88, Núm. 01 (2017)

All the patients presented neurological compro- mise, including delayed psychomotor development, epilepsy and/or brain lesions characteristic of TSC. Delayed psychomotor development was presented in 31 patients (73.8%); in 25 (59.5%) of them delayed psychomotor development was severe, whereas in 6 (14.3%) it was mild. Twelve patients (28.6%) present- ed autistic behaviors and 39 (92.9%) evolved with epi- lepsy (Table 1). The mean age at onset of epileptic sei- zures was 11.6 months (range: 2-84 months). Of the 39 patients who presented epilepsy, 19 (48.7%) developed infantile spasms and 2 (5.1%) had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, the final evolution of all of them was a symptomatic, focal epileptic syndrome (Table 1). In most cases epilepsy was difficult to manage, requiring multiple changes in antiepileptic regimens and thera- pies of 2 or 3 associated drugs.

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Ingesta de folato y vitamina B12 en la dieta del nio y su neurodesarrollo a los 24 y 30 meses de edad

Ingesta de folato y vitamina B12 en la dieta del nio y su neurodesarrollo a los 24 y 30 meses de edad

Objective. To evaluate whether child dietary intake of folate and vitamin B 12 , is associated with mental and psy- chomotor development in Mexican children, respectively, at 24 and 30 months of age. Materials and methods. Information about neurodevelopment and dietary intake of folate and vitamin B 12 at 24 and 30 months of age among 229 children belonging to a perinatal cohort was analyzed longitudinally. Dietary information was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and neu- rodevelopment by Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. Results. At 30 months of age, dietary folate intake was marginally associated with increased Mental Development Index (MDI) (b=8.33; 95%CI -0.48, 17.14; p=0.06). Non- significant positive associations of vitamin B 12 with MDI were found. Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) was not associated with these nutrients. Conclusion. Dietary folate intake in early childhood may benefit the mental development of children.

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Development of the Checklist of Psychomotor Activities for 5- to 6-Year-Old Children

Development of the Checklist of Psychomotor Activities for 5- to 6-Year-Old Children

The present research aimed to develop the Checklist of Psychomotor Activities (CPA) to measure psychomotor development in 5-6 year old children. We recruited 694 preschool children in the province of Albacete; their teachers were trained to use and complete this instrument to gather data for testing its psychometric properties (reliability, and content, construct, and discriminant valid- ity). The CPA is composed of three subtests measuring children’s performance in motor, perceptual, and emotional–social aspects of psychomotor functioning. To gather evidence of content validity, we applied the Delphi method, based on the comments of seven judges. We assessed construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis, and we tested discriminant validity by comparing the scores of premature and typically developing children and separate groups of children defined by their body mass index. We found adequate item consistency on each scale and evidence of validity from the various methods outlined. We conclude that the CPA is an effective and comprehensive tool for the assessment of psychomotor skills in children at this important stage of development.

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Lineamientos para el desarrollo de herramientas educativas interactivas para la estimulación temprana a nivel psicomotriz en niños de 3 a 5 años de edad validados a través de un prototipo experimental

Lineamientos para el desarrollo de herramientas educativas interactivas para la estimulación temprana a nivel psicomotriz en niños de 3 a 5 años de edad validados a través de un prototipo experimental

The Software Industry is focusing its efforts on age groups which involve childhood education, leveraging the multimedia capabilities of current technology. However, these technological qualities are not enough. In order to create quality software with education objectives, it has to adjust to specific characteristics of the final user. Hence, with the purpose of finding these specific characteristics, different educative tools for children in early childhood were explored through a quasi-experimental study. Based on these results some guidelines were generated for the development process of educative interactive tools for psychomotor development of children between 3 and 5 years old, which where validated through an experimental prototype called “Playing whilst taking my first steps”. The products of this research are intended to provide best practices for software developers who target those types of users, and to present a potential tool for pedagogic support in stimulation process for psychomotor development.

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The contribution of a psychomotor stimulation to the process of independence for a visually impaired

The contribution of a psychomotor stimulation to the process of independence for a visually impaired

ABSTRACT This study aimed at developing and implementing a program of psychomotor stimulation process-based orientation and mobility of the visually impaired, since this type of commitment has a direct influence on psychomotor development of the individual, affecting their autonomy and independence. The program was implemented in the Laboratory of Psychomotor Stimulation of the Federal University of Viçosa, with the theoretical basis of Psychomotricity. We chose the intrinsic case study, to observe and evaluate better the difficulties encountered by the technique of systematic observation and informal interviews with parents. One can perceive evolutions in visually handicapped studied in terms equilibrium, concept space and body schema, and also willing to perform activities of daily living, which interfere in their locomotion. We concluded that the process of orientation and mobility is paramount in the work of independence of the visually impaired, and that it is needed a psychomotor development stimulus since the beginning of his life, because the delays that may arise during their growth and maturation. It becomes important to apply qualitative approaches for further studies but with larger samples.

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Forecasting of indicators of inclusive growth from agriculture in Uzbekistan

Forecasting of indicators of inclusive growth from agriculture in Uzbekistan

It is known that in Uzbekistan “Strategy of development of agriculture of Uzbekistan till 2030”is developed. Also, the resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan in accordance with resolution No. 70 of the United Nations General Assembly adopted at the summit on sustainable development in September 2015, as well as in order to organize systematic work on the consistent implementation of the sustainable development Goals of the UN global agenda for the period up to 2030, approved 17 national goals and objectives in the field of sustainable development for the period up to 2030, and approved the “Road map” for their implementation. At the same time, the task of entering the Republic of Uzbekistan by 2030 into the 50 leading countries of the world according to the rating of the Global innovation index is set. One of the national goals is “to Strengthen food security, improve diets and promote sustainable agriculture”. In order to achieve this goal, 5 tasks have been set.

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NATIONAL REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RAMSAR CONVENTION ON WETLANDS

NATIONAL REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RAMSAR CONVENTION ON WETLANDS

1.5.1 - There were several restoration and rehabilitation programs that were and are still being implemented in wetlands in Egypt. In lake Brullus, when freshwater dominated the lake for several years, due to the closure of connection (Boughaz) with the sea, weeds dominated most of the lake. Therefore enomorous efforts were made to remove weeds from the lake. These included hiring workers to remove weeds, establishing NGOs to coordinate activities and providing incentives to locals to participate in the whole campaign. Meanwhile, other efforts were made where the governor of Kafr EL Sheik together with the wetland committee and the General Authority for Development of Fish Resources worked together to clear sediments blocking Boughazes (connection with the sea). The result was marine water flushes regularly into the lake as well as marine fish, where fish catch now is a mixed freshwater and marine fish. Locals are also regularly cleaning weeds from the lake. Similarily, the governor of North Sinai together with the wetland committee participated in a campaign to clear deposits from the Boughaz at Zaranik lake.

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On the relation between income and human development, Molina and Purser (2010), using a previous version of the database used here, with less countries, find that the income and non-income components of HDI change have a near-zero correlation, and that income is not a significant determinant of HDI change once urbanization, fertility and female schooling are included. They check their results using years of women’s suffrage as an instrument for changes in gender relations, and find that it is a significant predictor of HDI progress for the whole sample. For instance, McGuire (2010) shows that the introduction of a gender quota for the lower house of the provincial legislature in Argentina had a statistically significant and substantively strong association with lower infant mortality. Summarizing, Molina and Purser find that human development trends from 1970 to 2005 fit with the longer term trend of demographic and population change. As they cite, demographic transitions, urbanization and declining fertility rates have accelerated life- expectancy and literacy achievements over the past half-century (UNDESA, 2009a). The occupational aspect of the gender transition is important on its own and combines with the fertility transition (Galor and Weil, 1996).

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Lymphocyte development

Lymphocyte development

With respect to B cell development, the present collection of reviews focuses largely on developmental processes following the expression of a functional, non-autoreactive B cell antigen receptor (BCR) on the developing cells; we trust that the fascinating earlier developmental stages, in which the cells are driven by pre-B cell receptor expression into proliferation and subsequently enter a compartment where BCR “editing” occurs, and whose signaling requirements are presently being uncovered, will be a topic of the next collection of reviews on lymphocyte development. Allman and Pillai discuss the origin, habitat and function of the various subsets of mature B cells, namely follicular and marginal zone (MZ) B cells, as well as the B1a and B1b subsets. Their review covers enormous ground, documenting the substantial progress made in this area over the last years as well as pointing out the many aspects where knowledge remains fragmentary. Major issues addressed in this paper are BCR- related and –unrelated signals driving the cells into the various compartments and controlling their maintenance and functional activity, developmental relationships between the various subsets, the “niches” in which the cells reside (including the recently identified niche for follicular B cells in the bone marrow, where the cytokine Mif rather than BAFF produced by bone marrow-resident dendritic cells may be critical for their survival), the notion that B1b cells represent memory cells originating from follicular B cells and devoted to IgM production, the distinct signals driving cells of the various subsets into responses, and the role of B cells as antigen capturing and transporting cells. Directly relating to the Allman and Pillai review is the paper of Stadanlick and Cancro, who discuss the foundations of the hypothesis that competition of peripheral B cells for BCR- and BAFF:BAFF-receptor-mediated survival signals provides the basis for positive and negative selection of peripheral B cells. In this picture the BCR and BAFF-receptor mediated survival signals are integrated intracellularly by a molecular cross-talk, which may largely rely on the canonical and alternative □F□□ signaling pathways activated by these receptors.

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WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2012: GENDER EQUALITY AND DEVELOPMENT

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2012: GENDER EQUALITY AND DEVELOPMENT

Inheritance is one of the main mechanisms for the accumulation of assets. In many coun- tries, women and girls still have fewer inheri- tance rights than men and boys. In 21 of the 63 countries that have data for more than 40 years, women have unequal inheritance rights (in the absence of wills) (fi gure 4.8). This is particularly relevant in Sub-Saharan Africa, where fewer than half of widows (or their children) report having received any of their late husband’s assets (data from 16 countries, see box 4.6). All coun- tries in the Organisation for Economic Co-op- eration and Development (OECD), the former Soviet Union, and Latin America reformed their inheritance laws more than 50 years ago. Non- OECD countries that have a common law legacy or that recognize customary or religious law are more likely to exhibit unequal rights for sons and daughters. Among majority Muslim coun- tries, there are important doctrinal differences, with some granting greater inheritance shares for girls. In Turkey, inheritance rights for boys and girls have long been equal in practice as well as in law. And in the Islamic Republic of Iran, girls’ share of inheritance is generally equal to boys. In other countries, such as Bangladesh, the law provides for unequal inheritance rights, but mechanisms exist for families to agree on more equitable distributions if they so desire. Finally, in a few countries, such as Bhutan, girls inherit who eventually marry or the number of children

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WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2011: CONFLICT, SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2011: CONFLICT, SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT

(OCDE/ INCAF), Adyline Waafas Ofusu-Amaah, Patti O’Neill, Robert Orr, Marina Ottaway, Phil Oxhorn, Kiran Pandey, Andrew Parker, Martin Parry, Borany Penh, Nadia Piff aretti, Nicola Pontara, Rae Porter, Ben Powis, Giovanna Prennushi, Gérard Prunier, Vikram Raghavan, Bassam Ramadan, Peter Reuter, Joey Reyes, Dena Ringold, David Robalino, Michael Ross, Mustapha Rouis, Jordan Ryan, Joseph Saba, Abdi Samatar, Nicholas Sambanis, Kirsti Samuels, Jane Sansbury, Mark Schneider, Colin Scott, John Sender, Yasmine Sherif, Janmejay Singh, David Sislen, Eduardo Somensatto, Radhika Srinivasan, Scott Straus, Camilla Sudgen, Vivek Suri, la Agencia Suiza para el Desarrollo y la Cooperación (COSUDE), Almamy Sylla, Stefanie Teggemann, Th omas John Th omsen, Martin Tisné, Alexandra Trzeciak-Duval, Anne Tully, Carolyn Turk, Oliver Ulich, the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID), Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional (USAID), Peter Uvin, Manuel Vargas, Antonius Verheijen, Th ierry Vircoulon, M. Willem van Eeghen, Axel van Trotsenburg, Juergen Voegele, Femke Vos, Tjip Walker, John Wallis, El Ghassim Wane, Dewen Wang, Achim Wennmann, Alys Willman, Andreas Wimmer, Susan Wong, Rob Wrobel, Tevfi k Yaprak y Philip Zelikow.

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WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2011: CONFLICT, SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT

WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2011: CONFLICT, SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT

65. See Fearon 2010a; Walter 2010; Hoeffl er, von Billerbeck, and Ijaz 2010. A range of indicators can be used to measure governance and institutional capacity. The Users’ Guide on Measuring Fragility pro- vides an excellent contemporary stocktaking of the literature and concepts (Mata and Ziaja 2009). The World Bank Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) scores are prepared internally and are publicly available for International Development Association (IDA) countries for the years 2005 to present. The World Bank has recently undertaken an annual harmonizing exercise to align the defi nitions of fragility with regional development banks (the Asian Development Bank and the African Development Bank). Other well-known measures of governance and quality of institutions include the Worldwide Governance Indicators measures of government and the International Coun- try Risk Guide (ICRG) measures compiled by the PRS Group. The Worldwide Governance Indica- tors are an index comprising multiple sources, whereas the ICRG measures are expert assessments on multiple dimensions of political, economic, and fi nancial risk. It locates three common attributes of states, “legitimacy, authority, and effectiveness,” among a variety of indexes and defi nitions of fragil- ity and compares the results across indices. See Kaufmann, Kraay, and Mastruzzi 2010b. There is a blurred line in the indicators between the measurement of governance outcomes (actual levels of representation and participation, accountability for decisions and for illegal actions, and corruption and human rights abuses) and institutional characteristics (whether there are systems and capacities that regulate state-society relations within the rule of law, provide for prosecution of abuses, and so forth). Most governance indicators actually measure both: whether a system is in place (for example, a constitution or anti-corruption law, government policy on equitable service provision) as well as some measurement, often imperfect, of whether these systems deliver good governance outcomes in practice (low corruption levels, free and fair elections, avoidance of impunity for human rights abuses, and so on).

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FICHA TÉCNICA DE LA ESPECIALIDAD

FICHA TÉCNICA DE LA ESPECIALIDAD

59. Gatehouse, Kristen. (2001). Key Issues in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Curriculum Development. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII, No. 10, October. 60. Gottfried, Byron S. (1986). Programación Pascal. España: Editorial MCGRAW-HILL. 61. Haggerty, Brian. (2000). Nurturing Intelligences. Menlo Park, CA : Addison Wesley. 62. Hahn, Harley. (1995). Unix sin fronteras. México: Editorial MCGRAW-HILL.

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TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT, 2010: EMPLOYMENT, GLOBALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT.

TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT REPORT, 2010: EMPLOYMENT, GLOBALIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT.

education and infrastructure improvements to reduce poverty. However, macroeconomic policies that would promote fixed investment, productivity growth and employment creation continued to be neglected. Similar to structural adjustment programmes, reforms undertaken in the poorer developing countries in connection with Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) starting in 1999 continued to focus on price stabilization (Khan, 2006; Muq- tada, 2003; UNCTAD, 2002), while emphasizing the need for reallocation of public expendi- ture to areas such as primary health care and education. Such measures were destined to fail in their attempt to achieve sustained poverty reduction in the absence of accelerated structural change and sufficient capital accumulation, which could have boosted growth and created productive employment (World Bank, 2005). Since the end of the hyperinflation phase in the second half of the 1980s and the early 1990s, most countries in Latin America and Africa adopted a “sound” monetary policy that sought to prevent inflation by keeping real interest rates consistently higher than growth rates, with the result that output growth remained subdued (chart 5.2). Consequently, the development gap widened and the catching up of these two regions lagged behind East and South-East Asian countries that had started industrializing from similar or even lower levels of development. It was only by drawing lessons from the experience of the Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s and the Argen- tinean debt crisis in 2001–2002 that the majority of Latin American countries adopted more accommoda- tive and even expansionary monetary policies which led to stronger overall growth. A notable exception was Brazil, where monetary policy continued to resemble the orthodox approach, but the negative impact of high interest rates on development and structural change in that country was at least partly compensated by interest subsidies for loans from the national development bank for financing fixed capital formation.

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Conceptual framework for the design, implementation and validation of psychomotor skills’ assessment systems in minimally invasive surgery

Conceptual framework for the design, implementation and validation of psychomotor skills’ assessment systems in minimally invasive surgery

Our approach to the problem has been to compare correspondent MAPs in 2D and 3D spaces. Correlation analysis between MAPs registered both in image and real space (path length, average speed, and economy of area) showed that indeed, the information provided by both versions was quite similar in terms of construct. However, differences in p-value also reflected that statistical significance improved from 2D to 3D for path length and economy of area, while remaining more or less constant for average speed. This, along with other validation studies regarding depth (Hiemstra et al., 2011a; Chmarra et al., 2010b; Stylopoulos et al., 2004), suggests the importance of this information and the need for further exploration of its relevance. In general, motion analysis has been proven an important asset in the assessment of MIS psychomotor skills, especially during the first stages of training (Chmarra et al., 2010b; van Sickle et al., 2005; Datta et al., 2001). In this chapter, we have shown that passive tracking of the laparoscopic instruments can be a reliable source of information for basic psychomotor skills’ assessment. However, due to its simplicity, video-based tracking technology can be easily applied to other areas of surgical career and life-long learning. Moreover, due to the potential portability of the system, EVA could be introduced in more complex scenarios such as the OR.

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INNOVATIVE FINANCING FOR DEVELOPMENT: A DEUX EX MACHINA FOR FUNDING POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA?

INNOVATIVE FINANCING FOR DEVELOPMENT: A DEUX EX MACHINA FOR FUNDING POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA?

The CCRIF is one of the few examples of innovative financing based on mutual insurance. The governments in question (small nations from the Ca- ribbean), with the additional participation of donors, provide one another with mutual insurance in case of natural disasters through a common budget, risk management on international reinsurance markets, and swaps on catastro- phes. With regard to the pneumococcal disease AMCs, the donors commit in advance to finance a specific AMC for a future vaccine that meets certain re- quirements. When a company has a vaccine candidate, an independent expert committee evaluates whether this vaccine meets the requirements. If the vac- cine is approved, GAVI subsidises the vaccine’s purchase for developing coun- tries. This approach is used to incentivise the research and production of an anti-pneumococcal vaccine. Additionally, donors make payments to the World Bank, which manages the financial risk and transfers the funds to GAVI. The AMF-m is managed by the Global Fund to facilitate access to effective malaria treatment, such as artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). The donors trans- fer resources to the Global Fund, which negotiates the price of the ACT with the pharmaceutical companies and subsidises a cost reduction for the treatment’s final suppliers (public or private agents, development NGOs,…) 14 .

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Application of psychomotor skills as a tool for social inclusion in early childhood education

Application of psychomotor skills as a tool for social inclusion in early childhood education

For this reason, the following work presents a didactic proposal made with the purpose of promoting social inclusion in an ordinary classroom through motor activities that help and promote an inclusive climate. The methodology to be followed will be playful, participatory and global, with which motor development and social skills are the main sections to work from psychomotricity. Through these sessions, the aim is to familiarize students with cooperative work, as well as to seek autonomy and favor inclusion, being able to empathize with the partner while the student develops their own body knowledge. The proposal is intended for the second cycle of early childhood education, focusing on the second block for the work of the body and the image itself, the game and movement. This proposal aims to highlight the possibilities of psychomotor skills to promote social inclusion within an ordinary classroom while the students themselves empathize and develop their own motor skills.

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Cognitive executive performance influences functional outcome in euthymic type I bipolar disorder outpatients

Cognitive executive performance influences functional outcome in euthymic type I bipolar disorder outpatients

Regarding euthymia, reviews on cognitive status of euthymic patients have reported a lower performance in attention, learning and verbal memory, psychomotor speed, visuospatial abilities, and executive functions (Malhi, Ivanovski, Szekeres, & Olley, 2004; Martínez-Arán, Godwin, & Vieta, 2001; Murphy & Sahakian, 2001; Robinson, Thompson, Gallagher, Goswami, Young et al., 2006; Savitz, Solms, & Ramesar, 2005). Many studies provide evidence of poor performance in mental fl exibility, abstraction, set-shifting, working memory, inhibition, and verbal fl uency (Malhi et al., 2004; Olley, Malhi, Mithcell, Batchelor, Lagopoulos et al., 2005; Robinson et al., 2006). Meanwhile, planning, decision-making, and problem solving capabilities seem to be relatively preserved, albeit bipolar patients need increased time to complete tasks involving these functions (Olley et al., 2005). White matter abnormalities have also been found to be predictive of poor outcome (Bearden, Woogen, & Glahn, 2010; Forcada, Papachristou, Mur, Christodoulou, Jogia et al., 2011). In general, different studies have raised the need for formal assessment of cognition in patients with bipolar disorder (Martínez-Arán et al., 2001; Malhi et al., 2004; Savitz et al., 2005; Olley et al., 2005; Robinson et al., 2006).

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Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness

Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness

A number of associated loci contained genes with biologically plausible roles in strength and neuromuscular fitness, through effects on the structure and function of skeletal muscle (ACTG1), excitation-contraction coupling (SLC8A1), evidence for neuro- trophic roles (TGFA), or involvement in the regulation of neurotransmission (SYT1). ACTG1 (Actin, g1A) encodes a key component of the costamere—a protein complex localized to the Z-disc of skeletal muscle which physically tethers myofibrils to the cell membrane and transmits contractile force generated at the sarcomere to the extracellular matrix via the dystrophin glycopro- tein complex (DGC) 19,20 . Monogenic loss of elements of the DGC results in muscular dystrophies 21 , whilst Actg1 knockout mice display overt muscle weakness, progressive myopathy and decreased isometric twitch force 22 . SLC8A1 encodes a transmembrane Na þ /Ca 2 þ exchanger which is vital to restoring Ca 2 þ concentration to pre-excitation levels in excitable cells. Muscle-specific overexpression of SLC8A1 has been shown to induce dystrophy-like skeletal muscle pathology 23 . Synaptotagmin- 1, encoded by SYT1, is an integral synaptic membrane protein which regulates Ca 2 þ -dependent neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic terminal 24 , and is implicated in development of neuromuscular junction pathology in rodent models of spinal muscular atrophy 25 . TGFA encodes transforming growth factor alpha, a well-characterized growth factor which plays a key neurotrophic role in the central and peripheral nervous systems 26 , and is upregulated during the acute injury response of motor neurons, promoting neuronal survival 27,28 .

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