This presentation is about communication in health crisis. It is done from the perspective of the public health administrationand taking into account the international and global scenario in which the most important health crisis occur. The concept of health and of governance of health in the XXI century is introduced, showing that there is interdependence between sectors and implication of citizens, professionals, companies, academia and other stakeholders in health decisions. This complexity influences the way in which health crisis are managed and solved and therefore how communication should be dealt with. Two examples of recent health crisis, how communication influenced in the results of those, and the lessons learned are described. The first one is the influenza pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 and the second one the entero haemorrhagic E.Coli outbreak, declared in Germany in 2011. To conclude, some aspects of communication to have into consideration during health crisis and during the preparedness against them are mentioned.
Publicadministration is a feature of all nations, whatever their system of government. Within nations, publicadministration is practiced at the central, intermediate, and local levels. Indeed, the relationships between different levels of government within a single nation constitute a growing problem of publicadministration. Regional administration implies authorities functioning within the administrative sectors of ministries, which enable ministries to carry out their responsibilities at a regional and local level. The functions of regional administration are the following: assesses the educational needs of the region, and plans programs to meet those needs; develops long-range plans based on the goals and values of the regional membership; oversees and evaluates the implementation of long-range plans; accepts fiduciary responsibility for the region; monitors subdivision compliance with corporate and regional bylaws, international policies and administrative procedures; provides counseling to individual subdivisions; ensures open communication at all levels of the region.
Within social media, social networks represent the greatest exponent of the communicative paradigm 2.0 in the central, regional, and local administration, in publicand mixed com- panies, as well as in autonomous bodies. This is because, as Criado-Grande and Rojas-Martín (2013, p. 17) point out: “the 2.0 nature of social networks in the public sector involves, first, that citizens are potential active agents in the production of web content and act like prosumers; second, the acceptance of collaborative intelligence as evidence that public innovation is also outside the formal boundaries of the municipal organisation; and finally, it involves an increased disintermediation of ac- tivities between organisations and individuals. All of this reflects a new scenario for collaboration, transparency, participation and accountability within the public sphe- re.”
The different perspectives from which rights are discussed include consideration of rights as entitlements under law, rights as ethical stan- dards and rights as aspirational ideals. Medical ethics is also addressed from a range of per- spectives –including, but not limited to, deontological ethics, consequentialist ethics, casuistry, virtue ethics and caring. Medical eth- ics and human rights are linked indirectly and directly. Indirect links are evident from the con- cerns of health care professionals to improve the health and lives of individuals and of soci- ety, and to treat all patients with equal respect. Direct links include recent declarations to re- spect human rights and an increasing discourse about rights within bioethics. Human rights proponents and bioethicists share values regard- ing human dignity. However, these two sets of activities use different discourses and methods and have different implications. The scope of medical ethics or bioethics is more comprehen- sive than the human rights discourse, embrac- ing concepts of duties and virtue, empathy, com- passion andcommunication skills that cannot be dealt with through a rights approach. How- ever, rights are powerful and have a specific role in medicine. For example the special role of health care professions in witnessing and responding to abuses of human rights provides the opportunity and the responsibility to act on these(34).
Luego, a fines de la década de los 80 y principios de los 90, en un intento superador de los clásicos, surgen la teoría gerencial de la administración pública y los enfoques neo weberianos, un conjunto de autores europeos y estadounidenses que –bajo el nombre de New Public Management (NPM), aquellos, y Reinventing Government, estos– inician una corriente en los años 80 que busca transferir principios de la administración del sector privado al público. Los países en que la Reforma Gerencial fue más profunda han sido Gran Bretaña, Nueva Zelanda, Australia y Suecia donde se inició a partir de los años ochenta (Krieger 2015). En los Estados Unidos, la reforma tendría lugar en esa década principalmente a nivel local, que Osborne y Gaebler (1992) han descripto en forma muy ilustrativa. En el ámbito federal tendrá inicio en 1993 con el programa National Performance Review, en la era Clinton y el liderazgo del vicepresidente Gore. Los neoweberianos reafirman los principios democráticos, revalorizan la burocracia pública profesional y critican el enfoque privatista del NPM.
The rats were sacrifice using 25mg/kg of ketamine and all the Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education were observed. The brains were dissected out. The length and width of the brain were measured using a ruler whereas the weight was measured using weighing balance. The tissues were fixed in paraformaldehyde and processed using routine H and E histo- logical techniques, and crystal violet stains.
A final exam where the student must be able to demonstrate both their knowledge of the subject assigned as competition in this field, and the ability to manage information, analysis and synthesis. To do so, the student must carry out an exercise that relates synthetically all the contents of the course (60%). If the student does not obtain a grade of 5 out of 10 on the exam, then paragraphs 2 and 3 of this teaching guide shall not be applied. In that case, the final exam will count for 100%.
When there is no primary identification, but a more sophisticated and mediated form of reaching the comprehension of the appellative message, it is sure that deduction is at work. To understand this form or argumentation, it is necessary to start with the syllogism, the best-known form of deductive reasoning used as a method for scientific knowledge. Beyond the scientific realm, the use of deduction as a persuasive method appears in multiple fields, such as the argumentation in journalism, advertising, politics, pedagogy, justice, the parliamentary debate, the military harangue, the religious preaching, or simply the arguments to convince someone in daily life. This reasoning, called enthymeme, is based upon a logical form of syllogism, but is different in the aim pursued: it does not intend to validate the truth of certain statements, instead, it intends to persuade on the basis of the proposed arguments. The premises that nurture the enthymemes are statements that appear as irrefutable, even if they are only presumably true. Something that seems evident may change with time. Presumptions are beliefs that in some circumstances would admit the contrary case (they are not absolute truths), but they are not “lies”. Persuading would be an impossible task if a fertile field propitious to accept the arguments would not exist.
the 1990s saw the concept of cultural diversity reaching institutional ma- turity and acceptance. inter-agency forums on culture and Development sponsored by unesco in 1991, paris, and in 1993, Korea, were held, as well as the conference on cultural policies for Development, in 1998 in stockholm, where the universal Declaration on cultural Diversity was created. pre- viously, unesco had published a paper from the world committee on cul- ture and Development on our creative Diversity. all of these events emphasized cultural identity as a right, and that cultural policies should exist to exercise this right (harvey 2003: 59-71) in stockholm, the action plan for cultural policies for Development was passed. this plan shows a move for- ward toward the Development of culture. Further, it places the promotion of cultural and linguistic diversity in the hands of the mass media and the communicationand information technologies. specifically, different forms of media are to contribute to cultural development through “the promotion of languages and local and regional cultures, through investigation and preser- vation of national heritage, and through promotion of diversity of cultural and indigenous traditions as well as national cultural identities.” it also gua- rantees editorial independence for the mass media. (unesco 2003: 34)
e) Support for the CEPA Programme should be recognized by Parties to the Convention as an investment which will reduce conflicts over wetland resources, increase the number of advocates, actors and networks involved in the issues, and build an informed decision-making andpublic constituency. CEPA mobilises actions directed at achieving the wise use of wetlands. CEPA should form a central part of implementing the Ramsar Convention by each Contracting Party.
Cable Manager and Conduit Clip The cable manager can be mounted directly to the underside of a worksurface by using two screws or can be mounted on either side of the rail. To remove the cable manager, push up,and slide to right, reach behind and press the bottom of the tabs forward to release the two snaps, then pull down and forward to remove it from the rail. When installed, cables can be routed through the valley or the fingers of the cable manager. To increase the spacing between the cable manager fingers and the worksurface, add washers (not provided) when mounting.