In order to conduct a rigorous analysis, following the indications of Denyer & Tranfield, 2009, Pawson (2006), Denyer Tranfield & Van Aken, 2008 and Brereton, Kitchenham, Budgen, Turnera & Khalil, 2007, a protocol for the systematic literature review has been generated including the following steps: a) Conceptual discussion of the problem; b) Definition of literature review questions; c) Search strategy; d) Paper selection criteria; e) Single paper analysis; f) Descriptive analysis of the extracted database; g) Synthesis and content analysis. The literature review question was next formulated as follows: How can be measured intellectual capital, following a semi-qualitative approach?
20 Lee mas
positive linguistic features that must be taken into account, identified and treated as correct linguistic phenomena (see Chapter 4). So as to perform this linguistic analysis we used the English development corpus for adequacy (see section 220.127.116.11) and the Spanish corpus (see section 18.104.22.168). Once the linguistic analysis was conducted and in order to confirm our hypotheses and check whether those linguistic phenomena and traits identified in the analysis were helpful to evaluate MT output, we designed and implemented a linguistically-motivated MT metric, VERTa. So as to develop this metric, we first selected and evaluated those linguistic resources and tools that would be helpful to deal with the linguistic phenomena found. In order to deal with lexical semantics, we considered that WordNet 3.0 (Fellbaum 1998) was the most effective resource we could use since it provides a wide coverage for both English and Spanish and is used by most MT metrics. As for the tools used to syntactically annotate and parse the English corpus, and since there is a wide variety of NLP tools available for this language, both a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the most well-known constituency and dependency parsers was performed (Comelles et al. 2010). After this evaluation, we opted for the Standford CoreNLP suite (Manning et al. 2014) to parse our English data since it proved the most effective parser to analyse dependency relations and we found it very convenient that we could get information about different types of analysis and annotation using the very same tool. As for the tools used to annotate and parse our Spanish corpus, we selected Freeling (Padró and Stanilovsky 2012) because it integrates different types of analyzers and being a knowledge-based tool which does not require any training, it seemed the most useful tool to analyse our rather small Spanish corpus.
302 Lee mas
ABSTRACT: Basketball for players with intellectual impairment (II) is not included as a Paralympic modality due to the lack of evidence based eligibility systems to ensure that only athletes with significant limitations performing basketball participate in II-competitions. Eligibility systems in II-basketball are under development but is necessary to investigate the impact of the impairment in basketball. The aim of this study was to know the point of view of II- coaches and referees about the limitations of their players and the components that should be considered as eligibility criteria. Qualitative method was used in our research. For that 5 open questions were elaborated based on the components of the game identified in the literature. 47 coaches and 6 referees were interviewed through an online survey. The findings of this study indicated that tactical aspects was the component in which II-players present more limitations and should discriminate between eligible and no eligible players followed by technical skills, emotional aspects and cognitive aspects. Physical and motor skills were not considered as limitation but specific positions and roles during the game could be influenced by these components. These results as well as other similar studies that show the opinion of coaches and referees should be taken into consideration to orientate future research to develop evidence-base eligibility systems in this sport.
7 Lee mas
The third hypothesis concerns the role played by training and employment inside prisons in connection with the entry of ex- inmates into the labour market. As a whole, on a fi rst approach, the analysis of the dis- courses confi rms the hypothesis posed, be- cause these actions are valued more be- cause of their latent functions rather than because of their noticeable ones, to use functionalist terms. That is, the institutional action obtains signifi cant results with a view to prisoner re-entry, although inmates do not agree with the main objective stated for them (learning a profession in order to prepare for labour market re-entry in the future), as al- ready noted by Simon (1999). The analysis of the discourses of inmates and former in- mates shows that doing training courses and occupational workshops provided by the prison system contributes to re-entry into the labour market but, paradoxically, for reasons other than the content of those very actions. According to the respondents, the main rea- sons to engage in them are: a) getting away from the prison yard , so as to avoid interac- tion with inmates linked to crime or the repro- duction of a prison culture of resistance to authority, as held by the Chicago School; b) fi ghting boredom and preserving emotional balance; c) obtaining a salary to improve their quality of life in prison or send money to their families; and d) for those who have nor- malised crime, creating an image of good behaviour with a view to participating in re- warding programmes, and giving signs of their intention to have a positive re-entry into society and of their decision to abandon criminal activities.
48 Lee mas
The qualitative template to assessing the pedestrian system and its level of quality is summarised in Figure 2 and is based on three aspects: context, pedestrians’ quality needs and interventions. Pedestrians’ quality needs are translated in five basic requirements that need to be satisfied in order to ensure the walkability of a specific area. The ‘5C layout’ reflects pedestrians’ desire to make their journeys in the shortest and most convenient way possible, as a safe, pleasant and comfortable journey experience. However, conditions for pedestrians vary widely from city to city and the context issue influences pedestrians’ needs. Differences as far as climate, spatial conditions, quantity and composition of traffic are concerned set the need for different quality requirements and, consequently, for different interventions and solutions.
16 Lee mas
Abstract: This paper evaluates the professional development of 24 teachers involved in the Early Childhood Education-CPD Centre for Teachers-University Network ([blind review]). Collaborative research-action is carried out with teachers and pupils of Early Childhood Education, an adviser from the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Centre for Teachers, researchers, and teacher training undergraduates from the University of [blind review] ([blind review]). Taking a qualitative approach, through interviews, focus groups, and research journals, the benefits obtained by the teachers through their involvement in the [blind review] network are identified: (1) Their colleagues offer them emotional support and provide examples of good practices; (2) The teacher training undergraduates provide technological resources and the possibility of calmly observing what goes on in the classroom; (3) The researchers foster processes of reflection about practice and endorse the validity of the Project Approach; (4) The adviser provides continuing professional development.
14 Lee mas
2 The bottom up approach began with firm-specific data and analysis ended with a discussion of understanding the economy that is described in research issue 1. Alternatively, some interviewees described a top down approach based on some high level considerations such as the macro economy. 3 In more detail, descriptions of the interviewees’ fundamental analysis activities can be categorized into four layers that cover both bottom up and top down considerations. Firstly, all interviewees used valuation measures such as PE (price/earnings ratio) or discounted cash flow. The next layer of analysis was that these valuation models were based on future earnings and the current price of those earnings. The third layer of analysis was that these future earnings derived from the future profitability of the company in the context of the economy. The final layer was covered in detail in research issue 1 and concerned how the interviewees understood the economy - all interviewees linked understanding the economy with experience.
31 Lee mas
Our ﬁ ndings have implications for two main theoretical approaches in the visualiza- tion and problem-solving literature: (1) the distributed cognition framework and (2) theoretical models that view visual and analytic reasoning as complements. Regard- ing the distributed cognition approach, the study indicates that only participants who used an external element (a visual – spatial representation) to support their internal computation can mentally manipulate the structure of the block diagrams and the mapping of their layers on to the cross-section plane. These ﬁ ndings are consistent with distributed cognition theories, which hold that people tend to of ﬂ oad internal visualization processes onto the manipulation of external represen- tations: all the participants during the study decided at some point to off-load their cognitive efforts to perceptual-motor actions such as using an external visualization, or simply rotating the paper (instead of rotating the block diagrams mentally), showing a preference for less cognitive effort as the minimum memory model pre- dicts. Our results are also aligned with previous ﬁ ndings in the problem-solving lit- erature, which suggests that as individuals learn new strategies, individuals apply schemas and draw inferences from new information in problem-solving situations (Larkin et al., 1980).
29 Lee mas
The notion of ordinal proximity was introduced by Garc´ıa-Lapresta and P´erez-Rom´an  for measuring, in a purely ordinal way, the psychological proximities between linguistic terms of ordered qualitative scales. That ap- proach has some similarities with difference measurement within the classical measurement theory, and also with non-metric multidimensional scaling, where only the ranks of the psychological distances or proximities are known.
14 Lee mas
approach we employ. In classifying data, for instance, one might use an intuitive or explicit strategy. Tactics are instances of a strategy; specific procedures employed within given strategies; what we do with what we have (ALINSKY, 1971, p.126). An explicit classification tactic might be to color code pieces of data; another might be tagging paragraphs using a QDA computer program.  Regardless of the field of practice, disciplinary allegiance, research purposes or designs, I believe that there are four phases to all QDA: defining the analysis, classifying data, making connections between and among categories of data, and conveying the message/write-up. In this paper I discuss the first three. I have chosen not to discuss the fourth phase (conveying the message) for the following reasons: 1) my students and I are far less confused by what we read concerning this phase than we are about what we read concerning the other three phases; 2) there seems to be less equivocation in the literature concerning this fourth phase; 3) I frankly do not think that I have anything to say (at this time) that might
18 Lee mas
After having finished their cooperation in joint research projects GLASER and STRAUSS followed different paths in their attempts to elaborate and clarify crucial methodological tenets of Grounded Theory. Thus their approaches vary to a considerable extent. In the year 1992 GLASER turned against STRAUSS' and CORBIN's version of Grounded Theory in a monograph titled "Emergence vs. Forcing: Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis", published in his private publishing venture and written in an exceptionally polemic style. In this book he accuses STRAUSS and CORBIN for having betrayed the common cause of Grounded theory. The charge which is restated in various forms in this book and which represents the crucial thread of GLASER's critique is that by using concepts such as "axial coding" and "coding paradigms" researchers would "force" categories on the data instead of allowing the categories to "emerge". Contrary to STRAUSS and CORBIN, GLASER maintains that researchers following the "true path" of Grounded Theory methodology have to approach their field without any precise research questions or research problems ("He moves in with the abstract
23 Lee mas
Consecuentemente, Abductive Analysis: theorizing qualitative re- search constituye un notable aporte a la creciente literatura que propone una filosofía de las ciencias socia- les pragmatista para llegar a cabo in- vestigación en las RRII y otras disci- plinas. El vacío que busca llenar, la propuesta de un método pragmatis- ta, requería atenderse con urgencia. Sin embargo, la propuesta sería aún más contundente si se abordaran ade- cuadamente sus raíces filosóficas. En este sentido, debe considerarse más bien como un texto complementario a la propuesta del pragmatismo en su sentido más amplio. Su utilidad en la práctica se verá fortalecida por una profunda comprensión del resto de este cuerpo literario.
7 Lee mas
Thriving, the phenomenon of going through an adversity and emerging “better off,” has been relatively understudied in the field of psychology. Closely related to, but distinct from resilience, in which individuals overcome an adversity and return to normal development (Garmezy, 1993), thriving has not been explored in-depth and in particular, understudied with Latino/a college students. Latino/a college students stand to benefit from exploring strengths that contribute to their ability to thrive given the number and magnitude of adversities they often face. The current study investigated thriving in Latino/a undergraduate students. Analysis of qualitative interviews through Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill, Thompson & Williams, 1997) revealed adversities experienced (e.g., family discord and cultural difficulties), methods of thriving (e.g., cognitive coping, cultural values, faith, resources, social support and perseverance), and gains from the experience (e.g., improved self-concept, improved
13 Lee mas
in their language classes. For instance, one instructor noted how she first provided detailed information about the deep approach. This involved discussing with students how they would commence working on activities, how they would complete tasks, and what they could achieve as a result. This teacher’s attention to spending sufficient time on teaching learners how to learn facilitated student understanding and motivation. In instances where the learners struggle with comprehending new linguistic input, this teacher carefully observed the difficulty and found that the complexity of structures presented a challenge. Despite the difficulty, students would continue their efforts towards comprehension and task completion. To alleviate the risk of leading to a sense of inadequacy, the teacher felt the need to reassure the learners. She noted that students were relieved after being able to initially use their own lives as themes for the challenging projects. Based on this, students were able to confidently reflect on the experience and see that they could utilize the subjects they could talk about as transitions to the new themes. Furthermore, the teacher comforted language learners by drawing attention to the need for calm in the learning process. She said:
17 Lee mas
This reconceptualization can be understood through the substrate of cultural capital, which for the author originates in the notion of social reproduction, i.e., in the cultural transmission from one generation to another (Bourdieu, 1988), so that it is constituted in another expression of socializing processes. From this perspective, it is pertinent to approach gender as a type of capital that enables or limits mobility opportunities within organizations (Skeggs cited by Huppatz & Goodwin, 2013). Thus, in the same vein as Bourdieu, McCall (1992) argues that gender acts as an embodied cultural capital, manifested through the socialized conceptions of masculinity and femininity represented by men and women and, therefore, as socially learned dispositions, with differentiated valuations according to the context in which they operate. Consequently, gender capitals are related to the advantages and disadvantages that derive from the dispositions or the set of perceived abilities, from positivity or negativity, as feminine or masculine (Huppatz, 2009, 2012).
19 Lee mas
In this article, epistemological perspectives that have shaped and affected the scientific quest for understanding what neuropsychologists term “executive functions” are reviewed. Executive functions refer to the control functions of cognition and behavior. The underlying thesis of the paper is that one’s epistemological orientation determines how one sees the interaction between brain functions and our status in the world. Each different orientation thus carries with it implications with regard to how executive functions operate, as well as how, therefore, one should try to assess them. Until recently, these functions were approached through two primary epistemological points of view. One is analytic, which has its roots in the positivistic movement. The other approach is synthetic, otherwise known as “romantic science”, and forms the basis of the work of the prominent Russian neuropsychologist A.R. Luria. A third epistemological perspective, articulated under the umbrella of ‘embodied cognition’ approaches, has been advanced in the last 20 years, and is associated most closely with the work of Francisco Varela. A review of, and reflection on how these perspectives have affected research and clinical practice in neuropsychology is provided.
11 Lee mas
In general, our explorative findings show that when the students are conscious about the significance of the financial sacrifice for a Higher Education degree, they would balance the cost against the possible outcome, try not to be the burden of their family and achieve better learning quality by genuine efforts. Our results in this sense confirm and enhance previous works (Hemsley-Brown & Oplatka, 2015; Reay et al., 2001; Bamber, 2014), in the sense that the educational market is not homogeneous, and each experience is fully contextual, and in some sense unique. This is again a reason for considering qualitative techniques in educational research, where inner feelings and motivations can be better appraised, and therefore help HEIs in finding the best marketing tools, closer to micro-segmentation that to mass communication, for achieving students’ satisfaction and positive word-of-mouth. In this sense, managers in HEIs should be aware of the dual nature of the educational experience, where not only functional utilities (facilities, spaces, exchange programs…) and at a play, but also the emotional and social aspects: favouring mentoring programs for new students, social activities in Facebook, Twitter or University platforms, and obviously alumni’s programs can reinforce these aspects, and produce significant improvements in positive word-of-mouth.
26 Lee mas
In our approach, the regions of interest in an image are extracted by a graph- based region segmentation method (Felzenszwalb and Huttenlocher, 2004) based on intensity differences complemented by algorithms developed to extract the boundaries of the segmented regions. Felzenszwalb and Huttenlocher (2004) men- tion that the problems of image segmentation and grouping remain great chal- lenges for computer vision because, a useful segmentation method has to: (i) capture perceptually important groupings or regions, which often reflect global aspects of the image; and (ii) be highly efficient, running in nearly linear time in the full number of image pixels. The approach developed by Felzenszwalb and Huttenlocher (2004) is suitable for our approach because it meets the above cri- teria and it also preserves detail in low-variability image regions while ignoring detail in high-variability regions with adjustment of its segmentation parameters: σ, used to smooth the input image before segmenting it; k, the value for the thres- hold function in segmentation, the larger the value, the larger the components in the result; and min, minimum size of the extracted regions in pixels enforced by post-processing.
31 Lee mas
This is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach. Data gathered were based on articles and in-depth semi-structured interviews. The method for this study is divided into two parts: the first is a hermeneutical analysis of the documents collected and the second is a collection of data through interviews with the main stakeholders involved in the port of Santa Marta. Business managers, heads of HR departments, and directors of International Business programs were interviewed. Such interviews followed a model of questions that addressed the subject matter to reveal several aspects of the research and were analyzed hermeneutically. In the search process, we found several notable authors and papers related to the keywords; however, once we tried to find scientific articles that group several of these keywords, there were few studies that relate competitiveness with human talent; therefore, we chose to work with these studies of varying topics and interrelate them using arguments of the authors of this article in a hermeneutic- deductive way.
12 Lee mas
Abstract The optical tracking information in manufac- turing can provide valuable support and time saving for autonomous operations, but ill environment conditions pre- vent a better performance of vision systems. In this work, a method for estimating object position under semi-controlled environment where lighting conditions change dynamically is proposed. This method incorporates regression analysis that combines light measurement and an augmented real- ity (AR) system. Augmented reality (AR) combines virtual objects with real environment. Furthermore, every AR appli- cation uses a video camera to capture an image including a marker in order to place a virtual object, which gives user an enriched environment. Using a tracking system to estimate the marker’s position with respect to the camera coordinate frame is needed to positioning a virtual object. Most research studies on tracking system for AR are under controlled envi- ronment. The problem is that tracking systems for markers are sensitive to variations in lighting conditions in the real environment. To solve this problem, a method is proposed to better estimate a marker position based on regression analy- sis, where lighting conditions are taken into account. Our approach improves the accuracy of the marker position esti- mation under different lighting conditions. The experimental data obtained under a laboratory context with changes on light condition are fitted with this approach with an accuracy of 99 %.
144 Lee mas