About this process, Brüggemann et al. (2013) indicate that research on the potential impact of the adoption of the IFRS in the EU is still in its early stages and requires closer scrutiny in order to assess its costs and benefits. Likewise, these authors stress that there are two types of consequences for the EU economy derived from this regulation: the expected and unexpected effects. With reference to the expected effects, other studies have focused on the impact that the IFRS have had (not only in Europe, but also in other parts of the world) on the qualityoffinancialinformation, using “earnings management” (EM) as a proxy in this regard (Barth, Landsman & Lang, 2008; Callao & Jarne, 2010; Cang, Chu & Lin, 2014; Doukakis, 2014; Jeanjean & Stolowy, 2008; Pelucio-Grecco, Geron, Grecco & Lima, 2014; Soderstrom & Sun, 2007; Van Tendeloo & Vanstraelen, 2005; Zéghal, Chtourou & Sellami, 2011). The concept of EM, or earnings management, assumes that there is a certain amount of discretion on the part of management when it comes to preparing financialinformation, which enables them to alter the perception that external users of the financial reports, investors or creditors, have about a company’s results (Healy & Wahlen, 1999). A priori, for this research it is not clear whether the IFRS can boost or hamper EM, given that the effects generated against earnings management by high- qualityfinancial reporting standards, such as the IFRS, can be undermined by the use of fair value and greater flexibility that are permitted by these standards (based on principles) (Aisbitt, 2006; Callao & Jarne, 2010; Cang et al., 2014; Doukakis, 2014; Soderstrom & Sun, 2007). In this regard, different empirical studies on the topic offer different conclusions, and therefore there is no unanimity as to whether the IFRS have a positive or negative impact on EM, and consequently on the quality and transparency offinancialinformation. In this regard, as Brüggemann et al. (2013) explain, the contradictory results in this literature can be conditioned by factors that emanate from the research methodology design.
The introduction of new standards, however, has implications for the banking sector (Adzis, Tripe, Dunmore, 2016), predominantly for the recognition of losses or gains related to the application of fair value to financial instruments in accordance with the Technical Pronouncement CPC 46 - Measurement of Fair Value. The positive implication of this approach, according to the CPC 46, is that it can make it possible to increase the qualityof bank information to measure financial instruments so that they may reflect the economic reality of such assets. In contrast, the negative implication, due to professional judgment, is that the application of the pronouncement may enable the manager to be more open to opportunistic practices and to manage results. Along the same lines, the pro-cyclical behavior of provisioning of losses causes provisions to increase during economic recessions. Consequently, in bad times, an increase in losses could affect the bank's profit, weaken the bank's capital, reduce its lending activities to solvent borrowers, and
Empirical studies demonstrate that the lending relationship increases credit availability for private firms (Bharat et al., 2011). More informative financial reporting is meant to improve access to financing. Hence, private firms are interested in maintaining a relationship with creditors and disclosing informative financial reporting. In this line, Kim et al. (2011) using a list of privately owned Korean firms, found evidence that private audited firms have a significantly lower cost of debt. In a more recent study, Chen et al. (2015) show that firms voluntarily adopting International Accounting Standards (IAS) increased their access to foreign banks, because the adoption of IAS leads to improved accounting informationquality. Ding et al. (2016) explore the relationship between financial reporting quality and private held debt financing in China and found that better earnings quality increases private firms´ access to debt financing and lowers their cost of debt.
The Barcelona Aquarium The Aquarium is the world’s most important Mediterranean theme-based sea life centre. It has eighty metres of transparent tunnel under an immense oceanarium and 21 gigantic theme-based fish tanks that bring the public closer to sharks, seahorses, goldfish… in total, there are 10,000 animals of more than 450 different species in the Aquarium. Furthermore, the areas known as Planeta Aqua and Explora are a complement to one the favourite attractions of the visitors and one of the most visited sites in Barcelona. However it is not only a leisure visit, but also a learning experience, which is a fundamental part of its contents.
One of the main attributes of the accounting standard is that the conceptual framework gives the issuance offinancialinformation based on accrual (Postulados Básicos de Contabilidad Gubernamental, 2009), in other words, in accounting for transactions of revenue or expense are recognized as at the date of its completion, regardless of the date of receipt or payment (Mancilla, 2014); the basis of accounting income when actually performed and / or recorded in the corresponding assets, when there is legally the right to charge, from its collection (Postulados Básicos de Contabilidad Gubernamental, 2009). Also is convenient recognize, financially, the total transactions or quantifiable economic changes undertaken by government agencies, with cumulative basis. The importance of preparing financialinformation on an accrual approach that enables users offinancialinformation more estimating the economic impact of fiscal policy of the Federal Government, recognizing the change in ownership of the goods, the actual supply services. The accounting of expense transactions will be recognized according to the date of the making, is the accounting time that reflects the recognition of an obligation to pay to third parties for the receipt of goods, services and public works contract, and the obligation arising from laws, treaties, decrees, resolutions and final judgments, regardless of payment; According to Postulados Básicos de Contabilidad Gubernamental, (2009), those of income when actually performed and / or recorded in the corresponding assets when exist, legally, the right to collect taxes, duties, products, and exploitation of public resources.
Based on these premises, ontology of human organisms cam provide a map of the various relationships between an event (i.e., state of the world), the sensory mechanism that receive energy from the outside world, the movement (transmission) of these sensory impulses (transmission) to the brain (processors). The knowledge component of the augmented data information knowledge (ADIK) systems has reference to the formulation of judgment (i.e., decision/action) (Newell, 1972) that follows the processing of data-information. Decision incorporates an application of understanding, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Bloom, 1956), the products of these processes are transferred (i.e., communicated) to others (e.g., cells, person, social entities) responding to various states of an event. The main role of the ADIK system is to respond to various states of the event world.
extreme and in most cases unrealistic assumption. How- ever, it is valuable in demonstrating the robustness of a trial results when the effect estimate remains statistically significant even under the assumption of a worst-case sce- nario. The remaining 2 assumptions (assuming that LTFU participants have different event incidences than the observed group) are more plausible and designed (in terms of differential extent and direction between inter- vention and control) to test the robustness of effect esti- mates. The challenge is to choose plausible values for RI LTFU/FU and RD LTFU/FU . The values we use in our dummy tables are just illustrative and we are continuing to explore the literature for evidence to support our choices. For example, a recent report on antiretroviral therapy scale-up programs in Africa found that the incidence of death among participants LTFU was 5 times as high as the inci- dence in those followed-up . While other imputation methods such as regression models and multiple imputa- tions might be preferable, they are not feasible because they would require raw data from each included study. The results of this study should have important implica- tions for trialists. Evidence of vulnerability will call for improving both trial design and implementation, to min- imize LTFU. The results of our study will also have impor- tant implications for clinicians interpreting the findings of RCTs. Our findings will uncover the potential impact of plausible assumptions about the outcome of participants LTFU on the results of those positive studies that are most likely to affect clinical practice. They might provide reas- surance that these results are usually – at least for reports in five prestigious journals – robust or, on the contrary, suggest that many high-profile trials are vulnerable. We may also find that results vary in robustness and users of the literature will have to evaluate them on a case by case basis using clinically plausible assumptions. Our fondest hope is to help create a culture in which investigators uni- formly test alternative assumptions regarding LTFU and discuss the extent of the vulnerability of their findings to varying assumptions regarding LTFU.
BC5.31 Determining when a present obligation arises in a public sector context is complex and, in some cases, might be considered arbitrary. This is particularly so when considering whether liabilities can arise from obligations that are not enforceable by legal or equivalent means. In the context of programs to deliver social benefits there are a number of stages at which a present obligation can arise and there can be significant differences between jurisdictions, even where programs are similar, and also over time within the same jurisdiction —for example, different age cohorts may have different expectations about the likelihood of receiving benefits under a social assistance program. Assessing whether a government cannot ignore such expectations and therefore has little or no realistic alternative to transfer resources may be subjective. This gives rise to concerns that such subjectivity undermines consistency in the reporting of liabilities, and can also impact adversely on understandability. Some therefore take the view that an essential characteristic of a liability should be that it is enforceable at the reporting date by legal or equivalent means.
21 children of undocumented parents experience trauma and psychological distress, in fear of a parents detention or deportation” (MCLA, 2017). What we have left for Latino youth to deal with is trauma, low income and little to no support to pursue their education. In addition, between the past couple years, these barriers were made even more prominent under the new Trump administration because of the constant anti- “brown and black” immigrant rhetoric heard widely in both the media as well as in public and private spaces. While overall disparities in the U.S between communities of color and whites have existed long before Trump ever became the leader of the nation, his presence has made the climate inside schools increasingly difficult for Latino youth especially immigrant children and children of immigrants. There could never be a better time to address his divisive tactics and racist immigration policies than now by investing financial and human capital in the very same groups that he continues to attack and oppress.
As well as being based on projects, the construction industry is based on people and for this reason the companies that work in it need a change in men- tality and culture. Since organizational culture is a prerequisite for the success of knowledge manage- ment, a culture of innovation should be promoted in which the exchange of knowledge and room for creativity are fundamental. Those cultural and social barriers that make knowledge difficult to manage in the construction industry must be broken down. One of the biggest problems faced by businesses in the sector is that much of their knowledge is held by the professional and technical staff that works on each of its projects. High staff turnover means that good practices are lost and that there is no clear culture that values their capture and management. Face- to-face and group meetings are the principal means utilized in the construction sector for the transfer of knowledge. Ways of acquiring knowledge through job rotation and the capture of knowledge by experienced personnel must be promoted. In order to ensure its quality, information should be selected and organized prior to being stored.
Monitoring the financial security of the enterprise in the four stages presented is available for any business entity, regardless of scale and type of activity. Moreover, it does not require large financial investments, which is especially important in conditions of a low level of provision of small and medium-sized businesses with their own financial resources, a high level of competition and unpredictability. A small enterprise cannot always invite the appropriate specialist of the necessary qualifications to work, and the culture of attracting external consultants or outsourcers is still poorly developed. Often, the manager himself deals with the financial security of the enterprise. However, the universality of the proposed methodology offinancial security allows you to organize work in this area to a specialist who does not have extensive experience.
SIX FinancialInformation cuenta con más de ochenta años de experiencia en la obtención, procesamiento y distri- bución de información financiera inter- nacional. Nuestra extensa base de datos es la piedra angular de una oferta sumamente versátil. SIX Financial
The teacher will define and explain the technical terms and analysis, giving examples and orientation of the study of each chapter; by using different means: computer resources (PowerPoint presentations, Word and Excel), whiteboard and any other considered as appropriate depending on the situation.
The aim of this paper is to present an historical compendium of ISTEC’s activities in the region, highlighting its core ideas and principles, and how these have been successfully applied for the benefit of many higher education institutions. These aim at dynamically improving the qualityof quant coveraand access to of education in Latin America. They reflect ISTEC’s multidisciplinary approach, based on entrepreneurial activities, not only to educate engineers but to produce the next generation of leaders the region needs. Latin America must be placed in the world map of education, innovation, generation of wealth and intellectual property with a strong sense of social responsibility. Due to the nature of ISTEC’s members and strategic partners, the consortium can leverage and balance the influence of academia, industrial partners and government bodies to make the “Triple Helix” work for the benefit of our peoples in general, across geographical, cultural and social borders.
Nepal is prone to natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, fires and the outbreak of diseases. These disasters have often undermined the achievements made in poverty reduction and human development while posing serious challenges to human health security. Once such event was the catastrophic earthquakes that struck Nepal on 25 April and 12 May 2015. As many as 8790 people lost their lives and more than 22000 people sustained injuries. It also inflicted significant damage to structures(26). In total, almost 500000 homes were fully damaged and hundreds of historical and cultural monuments at least a century old were either destroyed or extensively damaged; 500 health facilities were destroyed beyond repair and another 760 facilities sustained partial damage(26). The disaster also exposed inequities in Nepali society. Poorer rural areas have been more adversely affected than towns and cities due to their inferior qualityof houses and more women and girls died than men and boys(26).
The existence of two possible levels of confidence in the advise is useful for infor- mation transmission between A and R, because R is not sure of the advisor skill-level. Confidence is the only component in the message that provides information to R about which type of advisor is sending the message. The advised asset could be y or z, but does not provide any information to R about which type of advisor is sending the message, because both unbiased types recommend y and z only when signaled, and they do so with the same likelihood. On the other hand, the confidence with which the message is reported provides information about the advisor’s type because a high (low) confidence message cannot come from an unbiased unskilled (skilled) advisor. Again, r(B) represents the probability that the biased A sends a high confidence message and 1 r(B) represents the probability that the biased A sends a low confidence message. Because r(U U ) and r(U S) are fixed, ;hereafter, we refer to r(B ) just as r.
no case has been reported since February 2006. However, the situation remains fragile in view of ongoing transmission in neighbouring countries and rather weak surveillance. Measles is the fourth leading cause of death among children under five years of age, constituting 12% of total deaths. Following the implementation of national measles campaigns, the number of cases dropped dramatically. The main challenge for the immunization programme is how to sustain and increase routine coverage in the presence offinancial constraints and poorly staffed and ill-equipped health facilities. Other communicable diseases that are public health threats include schistosomiasis and hepatitis B and C. Available data indicate a low prevalence of HIV in Yemen. However, the prevalence has increased rapidly, from 0.001% in 1999 to 0.2 percent in 2006. By the end of 2006, the national AIDS programme had reported 2075 HIV/ AIDS cases (passively collected from public health facilities in 18 governorates). Due to the cultural factors and the stigma attached to the HIV/AIDS, it is recognized by the Ministry of Public Health and Population that the reported prevalence rates are an underestimation.
A second line of research is based on the contribution that disclosure makes towards reducing transaction costs (Amihud and Mendelson, 1986). Investors pla‑ ce a lower valuation on securities subject to higher transaction costs and so the cost of equity for these securities is higher. Usually, higher transaction costs are asso‑ ciated with greater information asymmetry (Diamond and Verrecchia, 1991 and Verrecchia, 2001) and lower liquidity (Diamond and Verrecchia, 1991 and Kim and Verrecchia, 1994). This is the reason why studies in this line of research resort to proxies or indicators for these magnitudes like relative spread, trading turnover or standard deviation of yields. In this line, Greenstein and Sami (1994), who also focus their analysis on SEC’s promulgation of the obligation to publish segmented information, show that relative spreads reduce in companies that begin to publish this type ofinformation. Welker (1995) and Healy et al. (1999) obtain similar re‑ sults after analysing the disclosure quality ratings published by the Association for Investment Management and Research (AIMR). Healy et al. find increases in sha‑ re prices, monitoring by analysts and public funding for companies that improve