With the role of the Internet as a social network, typified by growing interest in Medicine 2.0 and Health 2.0, patients and consumers are increasingly seeking health information and advice from online peer networks. Although YouTube has the potential to be used for health education and health promotion [15,38,39], as well as a platform for teaching professionalism in the medical field , we must take into account that it is a social platform, and thus the qualityof health-related information, is constantly changing . Further, other video platforms are emerging, introducing new features that may constantly challenge and redefine the criteria used to assess qualityofinformation for patient education. As we witness the first steps towards patient education through the use of social media, one needs to consider the growing safety concerns that are also present on video-sharing platform [6,7,14], especially given the salient nature of online videos.
The term quality has many interpretations from a journalistic and media point of view. Quality is usually to as a set of factors that allow evaluating the content from the perspective of production, combined with studies of working routines, contents and audiences (Gómez Mompart, Gutiérrez Lozano & Palau Sampio, 2013; Pérez Curiel & Luque Ortiz, 2014). In this paper, however, we will build on the concept of news quality coined by authors such as Belt and Just (2008), Patterson (2000), or Reinemann, Stanyer, Scherr and Legnante (2011), to refer to a set of indicators used to evaluate the qualityof a news programs considering only the broadcasted content. From this perspective, we propose to use a set of indicators to assess the qualityofinformation, including aspects related to content (understood as news quality) and structural ones:
However, it is important to note that many conclusions about the advantages of implementing the IFRS derive from studies conducted in countries where the qualityofinformation prior to implementation was lower, as was probably the case in Brazil. In countries where national standards have a good quality, as is the case of the United States, such advantages may not be evident or may even not exist. Another relevant aspect is the cost of adopting international standards. Such costs involve training, software change, regulations and others. Moreover, they may also include an increased presence of large audit firms in the internal market. These aspects were generally not considered as the central focus of the studies cited above, although they are relevant to the discussion (Niyama & Silva, 2013).
This essay extends previous research in various ways. First, as mentioned above, participation in voluntary organizations is a relevant component of social and human capital. However, previous research has concentrated on studying the determinants of civic participation in more developed countries only, not including data from less developed countries. My essay is the first attempt to study the determinants of participation in voluntary organizations which includes countries with different levels of development. My analysis takes advantage of the availability of new data based on the World Value Surveys and other sources. A second innovation is to incorporate recent work in political science, and sociology (which suggests that the specific institutional forms of the state may play an important role in fostering or in discouraging civic participation), in economic analysis. This new approach argues for the inclusion of a “political variable” in which “the state provides the formal institutional framework within which civic participation takes place” (van de Meer e t.al, 2006).
“For the past decade, the impact of web-based technologies has added “velocity” to the design, manufacturing, and aftermarket service of a product. Today’s competition in manufacturing industry depends not just on lean manufacturing but also on the ability to provide customers with total solutions and lifecycle costs for sustainable value. Manufacturers are now under tremendous pressure to improve their responsiveness and efficiency in terms of product development, operations, and resource utilization with a transparent visibility of production and quality control” (Zurawski, 2006).
entities (i.e., the aspects) that are then “woven” (i.e., composed) with the compo- nents of an application in such a way that the core components are oblivious to them 2 . This means that the core components are not aware of where/how/when crosscutting concerns are incorporated. Using AOSD, FQAs can be developed separately from the applications, customized according to the specific application requirements, and incorporated into the application in a non-invasive way. This is possible because the definition of the FQAs are independent from the applica- tions that required them (e.g., the implementation of an encryption algorithm is independent from the application that uses it). Modeling FQAs separately from the base application has many advantages: reusability, less coupled architectures, facilitating maintenance, and improving evolution. Finally, FQAs can evolve in the future. First, QAs requirements of the applications can change over time and this implies to update the previous configurations of FQAs deployed within the applications. Second, frameworks and libraries that provide implementations of FQAs are continuously evolving and updating their technologies in order to be competitive in the market: new authentication methods (e.g., social network identity authentication, biometrics) or novel persistence techniques (e.g., shard- ing databases, affinity groups) frequently appear. This implies that the “family of FQAs” needs to be upgraded with the new features, and thus, the deployed configurations of FQAs need to be updated accordingly.
Based on these premises, ontology of human organisms cam provide a map of the various relationships between an event (i.e., state of the world), the sensory mechanism that receive energy from the outside world, the movement (transmission) of these sensory impulses (transmission) to the brain (processors). The knowledge component of the augmented data information knowledge (ADIK) systems has reference to the formulation of judgment (i.e., decision/action) (Newell, 1972) that follows the processing of data-information. Decision incorporates an application of understanding, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Bloom, 1956), the products of these processes are transferred (i.e., communicated) to others (e.g., cells, person, social entities) responding to various states of an event. The main role of the ADIK system is to respond to various states of the event world.
Prejudiced attitudes following the persuasive message. Participants’ attitudes toward immigrants were assessed by averaging the responses to four highly related (α= .91) nine-point scales (i.e., unappealing vs. appealing, unpleasant vs. pleasant, not unlikeable vs. likeable, I do not like them vs. I do like them). Although in Spain, attitudes toward South American immigrants tend to be positive in absolute terms (i.e., on the positive side of a scale), these attitudes were assumed to be less favorable than those toward the dominant (majority) group (Spaniards). Given that whether an attitude is prejudiced or not is a relative (rather than an absolute) question, such evaluations can be considered prejudiced toward immigrants. To verify our assumption of prejudice toward South American immigrants in Spain, we collected data from the current subject population by randomly assigning a sample of 158 students to indicate how much they liked either Spaniards or South- Americans on scales ranging from 1 (not at all) to 9 (extremely). Consistent with the idea that evaluations of immigrants are less favorable than those toward natives, participant’s evaluations toward the out-group (South American immigrants) were signifi cantly less positive (M= 5.7, SD= 1.09) than participant’s evaluations of the in-group (Spaniards) (M= 6.23, SD= .93), t(152)= 3.27, p= .001. That is, even though attitudes toward a South American immigrant were on the positive side of the scale, attitudes were still less favorable than those toward the dominant (majority) group. Furthermore, these evaluations were signifi cantly correlated (r= .58, p= .01) with behavioral intentions toward these groups (composite measure of items such as “Would you be willing to hire people from this group?”). These fi ndings suggest that the measures used in this research can have real world implications for potential discrimination.
The revision of the EFPA model for the description and evaluation of tests arises from the need to adapt the model to the advances undergone by measurement instruments in the fi eld of psychological and educational assessment. New updates will certainly be necessary after some time because, fortunately, this fi eld is continually progressing. We cannot see into the future—nobody can—but we comment below on some of the possible pathways for the future development of psychological and educational assessment, following the lines presented in Evers et al. (2012), Muñiz (2012) and Muñiz, Elosua and Hambleton (2013), and essentially focusing on tests. The great forces currently shaping psychological assessment are new information technologies, especially the advances in computer science, multimedia, and the Internet. Authors like Bennet (1999, 2006), Breithaupt, Mills and Melican (2006) or Drasgow, Luecht and Bennet (2006) think that new technologies are having special impact on all aspects involved in psychological assessment, such as test design, item construction, item presentation, test scoring, and tele-assessment. All of this is changing the format and content of assessment, and there are reasonable misgivings about whether paper-and-pencil tests, as we know them, will be capable of withstanding this new technological change. New ways of assessment emerge, but psychometric tests will continue to be essential tools, in view of their objectivity and economy in terms of means and time (Phelps, 2005, 2008).
Another limitation of this study is related to the form ofinformation collection. The measurement of the model variables uses a single informant: the company manager with responsibility for issues related to the handling of complaints. The use of multiple informants—for example, other members of the company such as other employees themselves as well as the customers—can help to avoid common method biases. Although we do not totally rule out the possibility of common method bias in the sample, our data show no evidence of its presence. Specifically, we observe sufficient discriminant validity and construct correlations which in most instances are moderate. Moreover, we applied Harman’s one-factor test and found that it is very unlikely that common method could substantially bias our estimations (see method section). Nevertheless, in light of this limitation we wonder whether customers really do find that the least important variables when gauging perceived justice or determining their degree of satisfaction are facilitation, processing protocol, and redress. Future research from the consumer perspective should test whether the importance attributed by customers to the variables we use to characterise the mechanistic approach of the company's complaint management system coincides with the findings of this study.
crop growth, and natural fertility), and 2) land degradation (runoff and leaching potential, erosion resistance, subsoil compaction, workability, and pollutant absorption and mobility) (Figure 2). These empirical-based models were basically developed as sophisticated tools based on artificial intelligence techniques, using soil information and knowledge of the Mediterranean region. Input variables are physical/chemical soil parameters (e.g. useful depth, stoniness, texture, water retention, reaction, carbonate content, salinity, or cation exchange capacity) collected in standard soil surveys, monthly agro-climatic parameters for long-term period, and agricultural crop and management characteristics. Since the late 1980s, MicroLEIS DSS has evolved significantly towards a user-friendly agro-ecological decision support system for environmentally sustainable soil use and management. The design philosophy is a toolkit approach, integrating many software instruments: databases, statistics, expert systems, neural networks, Web and GIS applications, and other information technologies. Input data warehousing, land evaluation modelling, model application software and output result presentation are the main development modules of this system.
9 The Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) is a fully online university settled in 1995. UOC developed a new brand educational model in which the concept –and the tool- of Virtual Campus was the main element, using the Information and communication Technologies (ICT), particularly the Internet, as a means to make students, online tutors and instructors interact between them. This particular educational model was developed from its very beginning and has been continuously improved. Student enrolment has dramatically grown up during these years, starting with 200 students in 1995 and having over 60,000 right now.
understanding of the condition. The purpose of the present review was to describe the impact of pelvic floor dysfunction upon the qualityof life of sufferers, as well as the questionnaires used to evaluate it, without mediating interventions. A search was conducted in the databases Pubmed, SciELO, Hinari, Cochrane and Clinical Key in June and July 2015. Pelvic floor dysfunction has a negative impact on the qualityof life, which varies in keeping with the severity of symptoms. Women patients are faced with limitations in their physical activity, their daily life, sleep and sexuality, and tend to be anguished and depressed. Measurement of the severity of
It must be remembered also that no academic library serves the needs of just one generation, but needs to mix their services and resources as appropriate to their range of users. Although it may be true that its largest constituency – undergraduate students – are all now rank and file “digital natives” who may bear some common characteristics, assuming that all students have an equal level of sophistication with technology is fraught with risk, and may marginalize sections of our user community. Of course, in most tertiary institutions another equally influential constituency – academic staff, research fellows and often post-graduate students – are from an entirely different generation and cannot be assumed to share the same interests or values in their information behaviour. Academic libraries have responsibilities for a diverse range of library users, and consequently should aim to provide flexibility and choice in the way in which their services are offered.
Figure 16: Category of participants in the questionnaire and their knowledge in OSM After using the fastest facility tool, three participants said that the results shown by OSM and Google Maps are the same, but the rest of them said that the results vary. The period to answer the questionnaire was for one week. Therefore, participants conducted their test in the application at a different time of the day. As Google Maps consist of traffic data and according to traffic data, results varies at a different time. At some particular time of the day, the fastest route shown by Google Maps and the application almost matches with slight differences in some turns. Therefore, the result of the question varied. Information was collected with the participants regarding the difference of the route between Google Maps and the application. Ten participants agreed that the absence of traffic data in the application and their belief that Google Maps are made by professionals which contains fewer errors and are reliable has caused the difference. As well as seven participants also agreed that OSM data is of less quality as it does not contain all one way and turn restriction information. In addition, 58.8 percent of participants believed that after upgrading the qualityof OSM and adding traffic data, the results would be more accurate. However, the rest of the 41.2 percent participants
The Country Cooperation Strategy (CCS) reflects a medium-term vision of WHO for technical cooperation with a given country and defines a strategic framework for working in and with the country. The CCS aims to bring together the strength of WHO support at country, Regional Office and headquarters levels in a coherent manner to address the country’s health priorities and challenges. The CCS process examines the health situation in the country within a holistic approach that encompasses the health sector, socioeconomic status, determinants of health and national policies and strategies that have a major bearing on health. The exercise aims to identify the health priorities in the country and place WHO support within a framework of 4–6 years in order to strengthen the impact on health policy and health system development, as well as the linkages between health and cross-cutting issues at the country level. The CCS as a medium-term strategy does not preclude response to other specific technical and managerial areas in which the country may require WHO assistance.
Most corporations in Hong Kong prescribed business e-learning courses for staff development activity. The employees are all adult. The usage of the e-learning courses is voluntary, i.e. staff are not forced to complete any courses. The usage is also volitional, i.e. there is no barrier that would prevent the individual from learning if he or she chooses to do so. The business and management e-learning course is different from the commonly researched IT/computer training e-learning courses as the participants have to learn through interaction in different scenarios. All users in this study have had experience on using e-learning courses for at least one month.
There are several peculiarities that distinguish con- struction from other industries . Perhaps the most noteworthy of these is that construction firms produce and manage by projects, which are based on tempo- rary coalitions of different organizations coming to- gether to meet particular targets in a given timeframe (Pellicer et al., 2009). The temporary nature of projects makes it difficult to transfer knowledge from one to another as work teams are continuously reorganized. Further, their episodic nature makes it difficult to cap- ture, store and later exploit this knowledge (Gann and Salter, 2000). If it is accepted that one of the primary objectives of any business is to survive, then business survival means obtaining competitive advantages. Thus, knowledge is an essential resource for organiza- tions because it can provide competitive advantages, if effectively utilized (Alvarado et al., 2009). It may be stated that the construction sector is knowledge intensive as its activities require a high level of expert knowledge and know-how to solve the problems that professional encounter (Carrillo et al., 2004; Alvarado et al., 2009; Dave and Koskela, 2009).