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International R&D spillovers and unobserved common shocks

International R&D spillovers and unobserved common shocks

depending on the characteristics of the units; therefore, they might emerge with lags; and second, there could be a possible causal link between past values of output or other covariates and the R&D capital stock. Another reason why lagged values of R&D investment should be accounted could be that uncertainty may cause fluctuations in R&D. According to Bloom (2007), the adjustment costs of changing the R&D capital stock might be a response to uncertainty caused by recessions, and economic and political shocks. Such a response is associated with “caution effects” (firms postpone activity since higher uncertainty increases the chances of making a costly mistake; therefore, responsiveness becomes moderate) and “delay effects” (as firms postpone activity at high levels of uncertainty, then uncertainty appears to cause fluctuations in aggregates and therefore productivity growth as reallocation of factors of production at the firm level slows) which could have an impact on R&D investment and shape its dynamics through the business cycle. This implies that R&D only may change slowly over time which is coherent with a dynamic link between past and current R&D rates, and thus makes R&D more persistent over time. However, Cesa-Bianchi et al. (2014), assuming that both uncertainty and economic activity are driven by a set of country-specific and unobserved common factors, have found that future output growth has an impact on current uncertainty and that uncertainty shocks have little or no effect on GDP. This is not interpreted as saying that uncertainty has no effect on economic activity but rather it seems to be more a symptom than a cause of economic instability. This could provide evidence that uncertainty may not cause fluctuations in aggregates and therefore has no effect on R&D investment, as the concept of delay effects suggests; hence, more research would be needed to see whether uncertainty leads to changes in R&D investment in the presence of unobserved common shocks so that a dynamic link between past and current R&D rates in this context could be justified.
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WORLD INVESTMENT REPORT 2005: TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF R AND D

WORLD INVESTMENT REPORT 2005: TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF R AND D

Bridging the technology gap between countries is necessary to foster sustainable economic development. Technology is advancing faster than ever before. Developing countries that fail to build capabilities enabling them to participate in the evolving global networks of knowledge creation risk falling further behind in terms of competitiveness as well as economic and social development. While international technology transfer can bring important knowledge to an economy, that alone is not enough. Using new technologies efficiently requires creating additional absorptive capacity, while a continuous effort has to be made to keep up with technical change. This is particularly true given the fact that wages tend to rise as a country develops, facilitating the entry of lower cost competitors in the market. While actions of both domestic enterprises and the government are essential to build technology capabilities in developing countries, TNCs can also play a role. One of the main reasons why developing countries promote inward FDI is indeed to link up to the global technology and innovation networks led by these firms. In terms of creating new technology and diffusing it internationally, TNCs are world leaders in many industries. They account for the bulk of global business expenditures on R&D. They dominate new patents and often lead innovation in management and organization. Establishing links with their innovation and production networks can help countries enhance their technological capabilities and enable them to compete better in international markets.
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Es evi d e n t e q u e la d e n o mi n a d a cult u r a p r e v e n ti v a s e d e b e inicia r

Es evi d e n t e q u e la d e n o mi n a d a cult u r a p r e v e n ti v a s e d e b e inicia r

La f o r m a ció n p e r m a n e n t e, a sí co m o la fo r m ació n co n ti n u a, d e b e n incl uir e s t o s rie sg o s y las p a u t a s p a r a s u p r eve nció n. Ta m bié n fo r m a p a r t e d e la c ult u r a p r eve n tiva la vigila ncia d e la s al u d. Es i m p o r t a n t e co n o cer el e s t a d o d e s al u d in divid u al y colec tiva d e las p e r s o n a s q u e t r a b aja n e n u n ce n t r o. To d o s d e b e m o s cola b o r a r e n e s t e s e n ti d o p a r a p o d e r facilitar el e s t u di o s o b r e la ac t u ació n d e lo s fac t o r e s d e rie sg o s o b r e la s al u d d e las p e r s o n a s y d e t ec t a r c u á n d o s e p r o d u ce n si t u acio n e s e n q u e la s eg u ri d a d o la higie n e n o h a n si d o ca p ace s d e p r eve nir a d ec u a d a m e n t e. Par a ello s e e s t a blece n las eval u acio n e s sig uie n t e s:
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Drivers and Impacts of R&D Adoption on Transport and Logistics Services

Drivers and Impacts of R&D Adoption on Transport and Logistics Services

An analysis of the results leads to ICT hardware has little importance for organisational change. Hardware endowment, measured in terms of network infrastructure usage and Internet access, does not increase the likelihood of introducing organisational changes. On the contrary, software use and ICT practitioners drive organisational changes. The intensity of R&D applications use and, in particular, ICT- skilled employees are the major drivers of organisational changes. This, together with the previous result, indicates that skills, software and hardware have different implications for companies’ conduct and performance. Whereas hardware is a necessary condition for an efficient R&D adoption, it is not a sufficient condition for business transformation. These are rather human skills combined with innovative software that enable firms to rearrange their operations, functions and workflows, i.e. find innovative ways of doing business. Hardware infrastructure, in contrast, is already a commodity that does not offer companies any potential to create a competitive advantage.
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Essays on firm r&d strategies and market design

Essays on firm r&d strategies and market design

This paper analyzes how the equilibrium R&D strategies of …rms are a¤ected by external factors such as spillovers and competitive pressure. The analysis contributes to the understanding of a …rm’s R&D strategy choice. In this paper, especially, we focus on a …rms’choice to innovate or to imitate. From the model we obtain that when …rms choose endogenously their optimal R&D strategies three types of equilibria arise: equilibria in which all …rms innovate, equilibria in which …rms choose asymmetric R&D strategies with one innovating and one imitating …rm, and, …nally, equilibria in which no …rm innovates. We …nd that stronger intellectual property rights protection provides higher incentives for …rms to engage in R&D. Nevertheless, smaller …rms are less likely to be innovators in markets with homogenous product and high levels of spillovers. The welfare consequences of having a dominate …rm can be positive or negative. This depends on whether market dominance discourages smaller …rms to innovate. An increase in the number of competitors can …rst increase innovative e¤ort and welfare but then decrease them. So, our model would explain an inverted U-shaped relationship between innovative e¤ort and competitive pressure. However, this relationship will depend on both the degree of product di¤erentiation and IPR protection. Regarding social welfare, if a market is characterized by a high rate of innovation a reduction of IPR protection can discourage innovative performance and welfare substantially. However, a reduction of IPR protection can also increase social welfare because it may induce imitation resulting in higher aggregate industry output. The future research should apply the dynamic framework to the analysis of …rm R&D strategy choice.
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R E P U B LI C A D E C O L O M B I A M U N I C I P I O D E C O TO R R A - C Ó R D O B A D E S P AC H O D E L AL C AL D E

R E P U B LI C A D E C O L O M B I A M U N I C I P I O D E C O TO R R A - C Ó R D O B A D E S P AC H O D E L AL C AL D E

• Que medi ante ac uerdo 012 de mayo 30 de 2012 s e establ eci ó el Pl an de Desarrollo para “ E L P R O G R E S O D E C O T O R R A E N B U E N A S M A N O S ” periodo de gobierno 2012-2015 y de conformidad a lo establ eci do en l a l ey 152 de 1994 y el est atuto de presupuesto se debe ajustar el pl an operati vo anual de inv ersi ones del presupuesto de l a vi gencia fisc al 2012.

21 Lee mas

Biomechanics Principles and Applications – Donald R. Peterson & Joseph D. Bronzino

Biomechanics Principles and Applications – Donald R. Peterson & Joseph D. Bronzino

Since, by the Frank–Starling mechanism, end-diastolic volume directly affects systolic ventricular work, the mechanics of resting myocardium also have fundamental physiological significance. Most biomechanics studies of passive myocardial properties have been conducted in isolated, arrested whole heart or tissue preparations. Passive cardiac muscle exhibits most of the mechanical properties characteristic of soft tissues in general [93]. In cyclic uniaxial loading and unloading, the stress–strain relationship is nonlinear with small but significant hysteresis. Depending on the preparation used, resting cardiac muscle typically requires from 2 to 10 repeated loading cycles to achieve a reproducible (preconditioned) response. Intact cardiac muscle experiences finite deformations during the normal cardiac cycle, with maximum Lagrangian strains (which are generally radial and endocardial) that may easily exceed 0.5 in magnitude. Hence, the classical linear theory of elasticity is quite inappropriate for resting myocardial mechanics. The hysteresis of the tissue is consistent with a viscoelastic response, which is undoubtedly related to the substantial water content of the myocardium (about 80% by mass). Changes in water content, such as edema, can cause substantial alterations in the passive stiffness and viscoelastic properties of myocardium. The viscoelasticity of passive cardiac muscle has been characterized in creep and relaxation studies of papillary muscle from cat and rabbit. In both species, the tensile stress in response to a step in strain relaxes 30 to 40% in the first 10 seconds [94,95]. The relaxation curves exhibit a short exponential time constant ( < 0 . 02 sec) and a long one (about 1000 sec), and are largely independent of the strain magnitude, which supports the approximation that myocardial viscoelasticity is quasilinear. Myocardial creep under isotonic loading is 2 to 3% of the original length after 100 sec of isotonic loading and is also quasilinear with an exponential timecourse. There is also evidence that passive ventricular muscle exhibits other anelastic properties such as maximum-strain-dependent “strain softening” [96,97], a well-known property in elastomers first described by Mullins [98].
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F O R E S T E R B IG I D E A

F O R E S T E R B IG I D E A

Collaboration and office productivity tools, as well as content and portal tools, are targeted at knowledge workers in offices (e.g., accountants, administrative assistants, architects, graphic designers, insurance underwriters, software developers, stockbrokers). But information work will expand to include people who work most of the time with other people (e.g., educators, field salespeople, physicians, police officers, real-estate agents, retail floor workers, security guards, social workers) or the physical world (airline pilots, biologists, construction workers, electrical engineers, factory workers, farmers, mechanics).
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Memòria de R+D+i 2006

Memòria de R+D+i 2006

entornos. Se ha abierto así una nueva y prometedora línea de investigación orientada al estudio de la presencia docente en cuatro tipos de actividades de aprendizaje ?foros de conversación, foros de debate, trabajos en grupo cooperativo y trabajos individuales ? habituales en los entornos electrónicos basados en la comunicación asíncrona escrita. Para ello, el diseño contempla el registro de las aportaciones de los participantes, profesores y alumnos, en el transcurso de 12 actividades de aprendizaje, 3 foros de conversación, 3 foros de debate, 3 trabajos en grupo cooperativo y 3 trabajos individuales- desarrolladas en 3 entornos electrónicos distintos. Tomando como base estos datos , los objetivos del proyecto se orientan en una triple dirección: identificar y describir las manifestaciones de la presencia docente y analizar su incidencia sobre el desarrollo y los resultados de los procesos d e aprendizaje y de construcción del conocimiento en las actividades estudiadas; analizar las relaciones existentes entre la presencia docente, el nivel cognitivo de las aportaciones de los participantes y el nivel y la dinámica de participación en el desarrollo de las actividades; e identificar los recursos semióticos, estrategias discursivas y estructuradas conversacionales asociados a la presencia docente y analizar sus características y su incidencia sobre el desarrollo de los procesos de aprendizaje y de construcción del conocimiento en las actividades estudiadas.
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R EVISTAP L É Y A D E

R EVISTAP L É Y A D E

• Ahora bien, una tercera posición compartida por un número nada despreciable de internacionalistas, con la cual comulgo, es que un ataque inminente puede ser par- te de un ataque armado. Así las cosas no estaríamos en un supuesto distinto al que contempla el artículo 51. Aun en las elaboraciones del caso Carolina se plantea la situación de una necesidad inmediata e imperiosa sin que haya tiempo para deli- berar o para tomar una acción diferente. Bien visto, y según es mi parecer, en ese estado de urgencia se está en presencia de un ataque armado en curso y no se re- quiere que se arrojen las primeras bombas o misiles o que un ejército cruce las fronteras para que éste se materialice. Debe reconocerse, sin embargo, que nos movemos en un espacio de imprecisiones pues difícil resulta contar con un criterio objetivo sobre lo que significa inminencia o lo imperioso de una situación o un trance de urgencia que no ofrezca la posibilidad de optar por otro tipo de respues- ta. En la práctica a los Estados no les faltará imaginación para cobijarse con una in- terpretación laxa de estos supuestos o requisitos. Pero queda a la mano la actua- ción del Consejo de Seguridad que debe entrar en funciones una vez que haya pa- sado la emergencia y determinar si efectivamente un peligro inminente daba pie a un ataque armado. Christine Gray sigue esta línea de razonamientos. La cito tex- tualmente: “States prefer to argue for an extended interpretation of armed attack and to avoid the fundamental doctrinal debate” 11 . Y un poco más adelante, al tratar
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