In the first stage, which is called pretext, we focused on activating our learner's previous knowledge through the use of elicitation. We explored their experiences that helped them to predict what they would be reading about. During the prediction stage, we taught our learners how to make predictions about a text just by using images, titles, headings, subheadings, etc. In the second stage called text, we taught and modelled for our learners on how to use effective readingcomprehensionstrategies. In this stage, they were ready to focus on fast reading for gist or for general details which involved strategies like skimming. In this stage, our learners were asked to skim the text. Then, we asked them to read the topic sentences and the conclusion of every paragraph of the text for them to get a general idea of what the text was about.
c. Read to critically evaluate a text or book. Previous educational experiences (your previous academic preparation) should help you develop opinions about the facts. When reading different points of view, be impartial and once you know the consistency of the author's ideas, judge them or assess them objectively. You must discover the ideological influences or implications that it presents, to weigh the validity and foundations of the partial theses. The important thing is to read with an open attitude. When possible, consult at least two points of view before forming a definitive opinion on the subject. d. Read to understand the contents of the topics that make up a text or book. It is the type of reading that is done with the purpose of acquiring new knowledge, which implies the realization of a series of activities, such as writing notes, consulting the dictionary, reviewing, etc. These activities that provide an understanding of the contents will be discussed extensively later.
Readingcomprehension is also viewed as part of a cognitive process. (Kendeou, Trevors, Van den Broek and Espin, 2012; Van den Broek, Rapp, & Kendeou, 2005). When reading, the reader tries to understand sentences making meaning based on processing vocabulary, identifying phonologic, orthographic and semantic representations, connecting them in this process in order to get meaning of the sentences. The goal of readingcomprehension is to understand a text as a general idea, for which the reader has to connect individual ideas in order to get a reasonable mental representation of the text, action that clearly identifies Readingcomprehension as a process more complex than just Reading. That is why it is important to mention that readers do not get a full understanding of words simply by decoding; it is meanwhile they are systematically advancing and facing more highly developed texts that they focus more in making meaning relating individual and general ideas, and prior knowledge rather than word decoding (Serafini, 2012).
Berardo S (2006) mentions the different sources in what the materials were selected, “The sources of authentic materials that can be used in the classroom are infinite, but the most common are newspapers, magazines, TV programs, movies, songs and literature. One of the most useful is the Internet. Whereas newspapers and any other printed material date very quickly, the Internet is continuously updated, more visually stimulating as well as being interactive, therefore promoting a more active approach to reading rather than a passive one. From a more practical point of view, the Internet is a modern day reality, most students use it and for teachers, there is easier access to endless amounts of many different types of material. From an even more practical/economical point of view, trying to obtain authentic materials abroad can be very expensive, an English paper/magazine can cost up to 3-4 times the price that it usually is and sometimes is not very good. Often by having unlimited access in the work place, looking for materials costs nothing, only time”. (p 61) Students’ motivation was another aspects influenced by the materials. Students realized those texts have real life language, the one they will use in real communicative situations. On the other hand students could interact with the language through a kind of material which is not intended to educate so may be seen as more enjoyable or attractive to them
intervention in order to find out their level of readingcomprehension. Then, 19 instructional sessions on the use of readingcomprehensionstrategies were delivered. After explicit face-to-face teaching on readingstrategies, technology was involved for the development of specific readingcomprehension tasks in which students had the opportunity to use the readingstrategies learned previously. By the end, a different readingcomprehension standardized test was applied to participants as a post-test with the purpose of identifying students´ progress on readingcomprehension. Analysis determined improvement not just in participants´ readingcomprehension performance, but also in the development of students´ awareness of the use of readingstrategies when approaching a written text, what the researcher described as metacognitive control. Other benefits of employing blended-learning in ELT have been demonstrated by outcomes found in studies like the one carried out by Arismendi, Colorado & Grajales (2011) in the school of languages at Universidad de Antioquia which aimed at exploring and comparing students’ readingcomprehension processes in EFL though different modalities of instruction, specifically face-to-face and web-based modalities. They found that after giving the same content course of direct instruction on the use of readingcomprehensionstrategies to two different groups of graduate students, one group receiving face-to-face instruction and the other one receiving web-based instruction, participants in both environments improved their ability to use strategies and understand written texts. Researchers of this study argued that despite the fact that both modalities of instruction showed independently to have a positive impact in the development of readingcomprehension abilities, one of these modalities can be considered as a complement to the other one.
A study carried out by Erkaya (2005) indicates how the introduction of literature and especially of short stories in the classroom can benefit the classroom in different ways. Oster (1989) suggested that the well selected short stories can improve significantly ELT courses for learners at intermediate levels proficiency. Oster also affirms how these short stories can foster creativity so students can develop their writing skills, as the teacher can ask students to write dialogues or more complex tasks based on the ideas found in the reading, the type of activities may vary depending on learners’ language proficiency. There is a wide scope of activities described in this study, which teachers can assign in order to develop their language skills, and this study is clearly attached to the interest of the present research and presents insights of what we might find when applying ours.
Block C. and Israel S. (2004) claim that highly skilled readers use similar thought processes before, during, and after reading. They (a) adjust a reading goal according to their level of prior knowledge, (b) think strategically, (c) follow their intentions to the end of a passage, (d) monitor their comprehension, and (e) reflect on an author's purpose within the constraints of a particular genre and their own reading objective. Furthermore, recent research reports and panel syntheses agree that all readers should use these expert thinking processes. However, many less able readers will not do so unless their teachers become proficient in demonstrating these thinking processes.
It is widely assumed that each reader can develop individual readingstrategies or the ones they find useful. Nevertheless, a good reader is one who is able to achieve a balance between comprehension (end) and the reading process (means) by using the adopted strategies. Consequently, a poor reader will need to change his/her readingcomprehensionstrategies to overcome deficiencies. For that reason, the role of the teacher is to come up with the necessary set of strategies to increase students’ awareness and love for reading, as well as the improvement of their reading skills to overcome reading difficulties. The English teachers should be familiar and capable of selecting those most appropriate strategies to meet their students´ needs, due to the fact that EFL learners need to identify and simultaneously understand the importance of the language (Lee L. , 2002).
However, researchers such as Jeftić (2006) indicate that there are still traces of tra- ditional methods that remain a serious obstacle to achieving the goals of learner-centred education, and these are present in the teaching of all language skills at the university level. Traditional methods include learning by rote, passive learning without active involvement in acquiring vocabulary, grammar or language skills, such as listening, speaking, reading and writing (Hedge, 2005). For these skills there is a lack of teaching and learning of strategies that could help students to learn meaningfully (Jeftić, 2007). The demands for educational reforms in Montenegro, especially within the university setting and in the departments of foreign languages (Jeftić, 2006), are also justified by the recognition of these traditional methods in the teaching curricula, too, which have been the same for years without any improvement or any idea to change it for the sake of the students, who are themselves future FL teachers. This can be explained by a failure by teachers to update their teaching skills and knowledge, which they need to be working on constantly in order to teach their students to become autonomous and ‘good language learners’ (Nuttall, 2005).
Abstract: This research studies the effectiveness of the B-learning modality to improve the readingcomprehension levels of students in classroom-based model of sixth grade of baccalaureate of a Colombian institution. The didactic tool was based in an online course in the Moodle platform and the reading strategy was divided into three moments: pre-reading, reading and post- reading. The results were compared through the student’s t-test for dependent sample through a pre-test and post-test applied to an experimental group. The variations of the results were estimated regarding the experimental group versus the control group. The results show a positive impact in the experimental group who used the pedagogical resource.
There are four skills in English that students need to acquire in order to have a good performance of the language and be able to communicate effectively while managing themselves into a second language acquisition. Therefore, these skills development have different complexity according to students’ age and level. These skills also have different components as well, which make their acquisition and performance possible. The amount of time given to each skill is a matter of importance in order to acquire them. The mastering of these skills is not an easy task for students or teachers to get, but with the correct strategies applied it is possible to do.
The previous chapter described the data analysis and the results that emerged from the data collection instrument. The purpose of this study was to characterize the contribution that skimming and scanning through flipped learning had on students’ readingcomprehension (Research question(s) and objective(s)). Conducting the research study was necessary to characterize the contribution of readingstrategies on the improvement of learners’ readingcomprehension since Colombian society requests the acquisition of speaking, reading and comprehension skills in at least one foreign language (Sánchez & Obando, 2008). It is important to help students with strategies to read better since this skill is a need in the academic and professional domains. Through reading and the understanding of what is read, students can perform their academic tasks. In most cases, professionals use this ability in their activities because most information in any area is in English; hence, students need to know the strategies they can use to read in English in an effective way. However, it is necessary to teach new strategies with a more flexible learning approach so that students can use them according to the reading objective.
This paper reveals personal identity through conferences about short stories in low-SES (Socio Economic Status) preschoolers between four and five years old in a kindergarten from the ICBF (Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar) in Bogotá. This research project´s objective is to analyze low-Ses preschoolers´ personal identity through conferences about short stories, identify criteria that determine low-SES preschoolers´ personal identity and describe the relationship between personal identity criteria and low- SES preschoolers´ life experiences. To achieve this purpose, the researchers selected ten preschoolers between four and five years old, five girls and five boys. For the implementation there were seven sessions in total in which the researchers applied seven personal identity criteria by showing children different short stories. These stories were created by the researchers and tailored to be relevant to the children. Also, different readingcomprehensionstrategies and activities were carried out, children then drew about their life experiences and answered multiple questions designed by the researchers which were called conferences. To collect the data, the researchers used field notes, children´s drawings and conferences. After the process, it was found that feeling like part of a family, building relationships, recognizing their bodies and abilities, absorbing their environment, using their imagination to solve problems and dreaming about their future were relevant aspects and are related to their personal identity.
Reading is useful not only to get new vocabulary, but also to make the brain work and increase their intellectual ability. This can help to encourage the students to think and give an opinion in a more mature way. Readingcomprehension helps students to develop concentration and imagination, it also expands their point of view of certain things. It makes students to analyze and to think the principle details of a text. Readingcomprehension can help to have a great memory because it shows students the benefits this can bring to them and how useful it is not only in class but in life.
In this third session we wanted to introduce the “Present Continuous” using different activities in order to improve their skills. Taking into account that, O'Malley, J.M., & Chamot, A.U. (1990), explains that learning a language involves the use of some learning strategies to improve and develop new knowledge of a language, and one of the best forms of learning strategies is to practice the language in spaces, which students can speak and listen to the language. (P.206) For that reason, our project is focused on readingstrategies, but we introduced other activities which included listening, writing and speaking because all skills are fundamental in their learning process, but it was focused on reading strategies.
This study suggests us that the cognates must be taught in a context, not just as isolated words. In the first session, although the pupils recognized the main three cognate words reduce, recycle and reuse, at the time to include those words into a question in which we were asking about the description of the words based in the reading, they misunderstood and wrote about their daily routine, it showed us that even, when our students understood some cognate words naturally, they could not produce accurate answers. Holmes and Ramos point out (1993) that the recognition of cognates is a spontaneous strategy which should not be taught. However, it is not just about recognizing some isolated words that are similar between two or more languages. Nagy (1988) and Nagy et al (1993) argued that a notable number of English foreign language students, neither recognize nor use cognates when reading text in a spontaneous way and for that reason must be taught.
This study has shown the relevance of QAR combined with ICTs to impact students’ readingcomprehension. However, findings in the readingcomprehension test demonstrated that the content of the reading that students should face must be meaningful for them. In other words, students must have background knowledge about the topic in order to be familiarized and tackle comprehension questions efficiently. Even when students know the type of question they face, readingcomprehension tests must be carefully designed lest students feel frustrated by the lack of knowledge of a topic, or vocabulary. Additionally, findings showed that QAR strategy requires the development of several reading subskills. In that sense, students must be aware of such skills needed to answer certain questions and, however beneficial to go beyond lower levels of thinking, training those skills entails time.
As Corral-Verdugo and Catañeda Figueiras, Bazán Ramirez, Sanchez Hernández, (2006) affirm the readingcomprehension cannot be not observed not quantified in a direct way, therefore, there must be designed activities that allow to obtain indicators of this skill. For this investigation there were used four types of measured for evaluation of the performance of the pupils before and after the intervention: (a) comprehension; (b) structure of text; (c) cognitive strategies; (d) metacognitive strategies. Readingcomprehension was evaluated throughout two tasks of memory: recovery (RC) and recognition (Me). In the first the student read the text and wrote what he remembered and in the second, he answered multiple choice questions. The texts used were selected from books of 5th year by the teacher and the researcher. In the recognition task, the students answered 10 questions with three answer choices. Were counted the correct answers
This study’s pedagogical implications are directed to students, teachers, institutions, and educational policies in our country. The results show that the strategies implemented in this work of research facilitated the process of writing, their use can be suggested to reinforce EFL learners’ writing and reading skills. The use of RT can be a great experience for students to explore an instructional activity in which teacher and students take turns having a dialogue regarding the different parts of the text to construct meaning (Palincsar& Brown, 1984) and as an interactive teaching approach and a cooperative learning to foster writing (Vygotsky, 1978). Besides, during the implementation of the study it was noticed that when using this model, there was an effective learning atmosphere.
39 “Ciudadela del Sur High School” is a public school located in Armenia. The target population is 20 students from ninth grade studying English as a foreign language, whose ages are between 14 and 17 years old. In regards to social and financial conditions, these students bear a lot of difficulties because not all of them live with their parents. In terms of social status, they are settled in the low socio-economical strata. At the school, they have five hours of English Class per week in which they receive instruction in the productive and receptive skills. However, the main focus in class is readingcomprehension and grammar structures as the school main goal is to improve the score in “Pruebas Saber”. The students at Ciudadela del Sur are not self-directed learners; on the contrary, they highly depend on the teacher. They enjoy activities which involve games and music. Regarding their reading, they do not use any readingstrategies; consequently they find reading as a boring activity.