Figure 5 shows the difference between the two kinds of readers in the reading process of simple text and complex text. Through the analysis above, it can be seen that when reading simple texts, the English learners have the same ability to acquire information from reading as the native speakers, although their information processing ability andspeed are not as good as the native speakers. Therefore, their reading time t1, answer time t2, total time t3 are significantly larger than native speakers, but the score s is not significantly different. When reading complex texts,2 English readers' information processing ability andspeed, and information acquisition ability from reading is significantly lower. Therefore, their reading time t1, answer time t2, and total time t3 are significantly larger than native speakers, while the score s is significantly lower than them.
private. The fact that grade 10 students read practically at the same speed as grade 5 students and similar to the students in the remaining grades suggests that maybe younger students are better prepared than older students (they might be exposed to extracurricular English such as watching cartoons or playing games more than older participants). This finding suggests that, regardless of their grade and age, students learning English as an L2 in countries like Spain, where exposure to the L2 is practically limited to the classroom (3-4 h per week), will need much time to read with some fluency in the L2 given that the maximum reading rate was 77.46 WPM (students in grade 8). This rate is far from the suggested 200 WPM rate (Anderson, 2008; Carver, 1992). Additionally, if we bear in mind that grade does not guarantee improvement in L2 reading rate, most of these students are doomed to invest much time in reading in the L2; reading is probably the most indispensable skill for university students, so if they ever attend university and are required to read in the L2, this could demotivate them or deprive them from doing other tasks given the amount of time they will have to invest on reading. Since previous research has shown the efficiency of reading programmes (some of Lai's (1993) teenage participants experienced an increase of 96 WPM, which is already higher than any of the speeds shown for the participants in the present study), a focus on reading in the L2 should be implemented in schools in order to improve the readingspeed of participants. As for comprehension, this measure yielded most of the significant differences between groups, with older students scoring significantly higher than younger students. A tentative explanation to this finding could be that older participants have a wider vocabulary knowledge and probably higher general
(1) Skimming and Scanning. Skimming and scanning are effective ways to read quickly. The skimming method should be applied to materials with only a few new words and familiar to students. Students can quickly scan the full text to initially understand the context and the author's writing intentions, and then master the idea of full text. It is to cultivate an important skill of students to focus on topic sentences. The scanning rule is a method used for materials with more difficult content and more vocabulary. Students can first check the exercises in the back of the article, and then go back to read the article. This method allows students to quickly understand the requirements of each exercise and read with a targeted goal (Xie, Yang, & Liu, 2011; Xie, Yang, & Zeng, 2009). With the purpose of reading in mind, students can gradually scan the entire article at the speed of ten lines at one glance, and find the answers to each exercise, while skipping the content unrelated to the exercise, which will undoubtedly accelerate reading.
situations and in significant situations. We must read with the mind activated, asking the text questions and developing critical thinking. In short, to get the most out of reading, we must be clear about an objective, a reason or why it is read. The development of effective reading is to increase reading skills and competencies, so that maximum understanding is achieved in the shortest possible time. If a good reading technique is acquired, it will be possible to read with the same naturalness with which one breathes and, being so, there will be no doubts when facing any text. With practice and a good methodology you can acquire the basic fundamentals to advance in the achievement of an effective reading. One of the goals of the practice will be to achieve the greatest fluency (readingspeed). It is positive to focus on speed since the level of understanding will improve with practice; avoiding regressions (go back in the texts).
most of the times the attempts to fulfill the expectations are simply related to include sample papers of standardized tests of the country, as they are: ICFES 2 (Instituto Colombiano para el Fomento de la Educación Superior) or SABER test 3 without pragmatically focusing on the real needs of the students’ language skills. Therefore, the lack of effectiveness of the strategies used so far is evidenced in the poor scores of the students on the ICFES/ SABER (Appendix A), PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) (ICFES, 2012) and PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment; Clavijo, 2014) tests as claimed by Bos, Ganimian, Vegas and Álvarez (2014). Additionally , according to the Centro Regional para el Fomento del Libro en América Latina y el Caribe 4 (2012) and the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica 5 (2014), a large number of students do not actually read or only spend little time doing it. It seems either they are not interested in improving their reading skills or the exposure to the activity is not rewarding enough. From this point of view, it urges the need to look for different tools to help students improve their readingcomprehension as well as to raise their awareness on the importance reading has in achieving their academic and personal goals.
implementation was challenging since most of time students felt scared and embarrassed when communicating and sharing their ideas in English. However, these communication experiences are essential when learning a foreign language. According to Stevens (1950), “communication is the discriminatory response of an organism to a stimulus” (p. 689). Based on this, the stimulus to make students communicate during the sessions was the activities proposed in the worksheets that, in many cases, included team work. To this respect, Richards (1976) asserted that “reorienting language teaching towards a major focus on communicative skills involves three basic elements: (1) samples of the target language; (2) guidance concerning the nature of the target language; and (3) management or directed learning activities” (p. 4). Considering this, the worksheets afforded students with enough examples of reading texts in English, as well as they comprised activities in which the learners had to use the vocabulary acquired. In this way, it is essential that students receive a meaningful input that leads them to finally communicate naturally. Besides, monitoring and guiding the learners’ process is crucial to ensure a communicative environment.
SERCE establishes four performance levels for each Grade which has been assessed in the Reading area, with its respective cut points. Sixth Grade students who stand at Level I are able to locate information with only one meaning, in a central or prominent place of a short text (the beginning or the end), which is literally repeated or reapeted through synonyms and isolated from other pieces of information. Students who stand at Level II, apart from doing what has already been mentioned in the previous level, locate information in the middle of a text which must be distinguished from some other located in a diffrent segment; they also integrate information from graphic and verbal codes and differentiate one-meaning words. Sixth Grade students who stand at Level III, apart from what has been covered in the previous levels, locate information and distinguish it from other pieces of information conceptually closer and interpret paraphrase and synthesis. They also integrate data distributed in a paragraph, link two texts, fill in implicit information in a paragraph, reread to look for specific data, distinguish a certain meaning in words which have many, and recognize the meaning of word parts basing on the text. Students who are grouped at Level IV for Reading performance, apart from what has already been enumerated, integrate, prioritize and generalize information.
On the other hand, Malcolm Knowles(1975) cited in Brockett & Hiemstra, (1991 p.21 ) states that self-directed learning is a process ―... in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.‖ Knowles (1975) recognizes three reasons for self- directed learning. The first one is that people who take the initiative in learning learn more and better because they are more motivated than people who are in a classroom doing what the teacher proposes. The second is SDL is close to natural development. This means that learners become more responsible as they grow. The last one is related with the new development in education because it is hope that students who enter into these programs have skills in SDL.
comprehension. The project focused on the implementation of four lesson plans in which six reading strategies were applied. These were predicting, activating background knowledge, questioning, re-reading, summarizing, and evaluating. Data collection was conducted by using students’ logs, interviews and artifacts. Data analysis included participants' insights into the usefulness of the strategies. Findings demonstrated that participants thought that the reading strategies led them to improve the understanding of the texts, enabling them to identify main ideas and increase their vocabulary. The students also felt more organized and encouraged to read since they followed a complete process in which each of the strategies gave them support and scaffolding to comprehend the texts. The researcher hopes that the result of this study might provide ideas for other EFL teachers who are interested in improving their students' readingcomprehension.
The socio-cultural processes are emotional, social and cultural factors that may inhibit or enhance a student’s L2 learning. Particularly, a supportive home environment will help the ELL to successfully transfer academic language proficiency in the L1 to academic language proficiency in the L2 (Collier, 1996). The linguistic component is closely related to the ELL’s language development (Collier & Thomas, 2007). It “targets four literacy domains of listening, speaking, reading, and writing” (Collier, 1996, p. 1). It is the subconscious and formal teaching of language. A student’s highly developed oral and written system in the L1 will trigger cognitive success in the L2. The third component, the academic component, argues that the ELL’s academic development in the L1 will immediately transfer to the student’s L2. The final component of the prism model is the cognitive component. This represents an ongoing process that begins from birth and extends beyond schooling. First language and L2 cognitive developments guarantee academic success in the student’s L2. These 4 components or processes are both interconnected and interdependent, through L1 and L2 (Collier & Thomas, 2007).
53 Besides, teaching explicitly about the language -in this case, inflectional and derivational morphology, and parts of speech- makes students be aware of what they learn and how to use it regardless the context. Moreover, the students themselves pointed out in the survey answers that the use of syntactic clues helped them to parse complex sentences and decoding words (Zhang and Koda, 2013), improving in that way, their overall readingcomprehension (Nagy, 2007). One example of the positive impact that the explicit teaching of morphological awareness has upon reading skills is the opinion of one student who said that knowing the structure of sentences (parts of speech) and suffixes helped her/him to guess the meaning of words and sentences (See Table 7). Additionally, 100% of students gave the maximum punctuation to the survey question which asked whether they considered that the intervention had helped them in their readingcomprehension. The above-mentioned punctuation given by the students to the intervention and their opinions are pivotal to evaluate and reflect upon this particular intervention, so as to try to improve the plan for an eventual re- application.
The mastery of a foreign language is very helpful to college students. This paper aims to clarify the psychological cognition and its formation mechanism in English readingcomprehension. First, a questionnaire survey was carried out in ten universities of both liberal arts and science in Zhejiang Province, China. The survey data were analysed systematically, in the light of the grade, gender and other factors of the respondents. The results show that college students of different grades differ greatly in psychological cognition of English readingcomprehension; the cognition level gradually decreases from grade 1 to grade 3 and rebounds in grade 4 under the employment pressure; the English score of college students is positively correlated with the level of psychological cognition; during English readingcomprehension, there are certain differences in psychological cognition between males and females, and the cognitive level of liberal art students is higher than that of science students. The research findings throw new lights on the relationship between foreign language learning and psychological cognition.
"Online virtual environments increase popularity of social networks in the future as a means of proving students the experience of interacting in which a virtual world". Baker, Wentz, & Woods, M (2009) this quotation was taken from the previous study, and specifically that sentence makes a real change in XXI century education. The online environment is something that is present in the world and has to be taken seriously because that is what is going to replace the traditional methods still used, taking into account this social networks are just a new experience, not just for students, teacher also have to deal with this and adapt their methodologies to the virtual world where the experience online plays and important role in the way in which knowledge is presented.
The traditional teaching mode of English reading emphasizes vocabulary and grammar over the psychological mechanism of learners, making it difficult to improve their English reading skills. This paper mainly explores the psychological mechanism of English learners in readingcomprehension, aiming to optimize their learning strategies and thinking mode. The psychological mechanism was theoretically analyzed in the three stages of English reading, namely, pre-reading, while-readingand post-reading. Then, a three-stage teaching model was established and applied to a contrastive experiment on non-English majors in a university of Guangzhou, China. The students in the experimental group were taught English reading using the three-stage model while those in the control group were taught by the traditional teaching model. The psychological state of the students in English reading was measured by a questionnaire survey, a pre-test and a post-test. The results show that the three-stage teaching model has a positive effect on the psychological mechanism of college students in English reading. The research findings promote the application of cognitive psychology in English reading teaching.
When considering the implementation of Graphic Organizers for readingcomprehension, teachers may encounter certain limitations in the use of this strategy. As it has been formerly discussed, the use of this strategy may not suit every learner’s learning style and needs. It is very likely that during instruction students whose dominant learning style is not visual may find the strategy useless or boring. Similarly, since this strategy is also a thinking strategy, teachers may encounter that students need to be trained in other reading strategies such as think-aloud, predicting and word attack skills before moving into the direct instruction on the construction of Graphic Organizers. Since this is a strategy mainly used in ELL contexts it is possible that EFL/ESL students have never used them in their L1 classes; therefore, the instruction and implementation of GOs may take longer that the time expected. For instance, the time of intervention of this study required students to work over four out of eight hours of their lessons which eventually caused that the program for the grade fell behind and that learners felt exhausted and bored of doing the same task repeatedly.
There are some fundamental purposes for guiding the reading instruction. Abbott et al., (2012), listed three of them: meet the varying instructional needs of all the students in the classroom, teach students to read increasingly difficult texts with understanding and fluency, and construct meaning while using problem solving strategies to figure out unfamiliar words that deal with complex sentence structures. In other words, one of the goals of guided reading is to help students build a network of strategic actions for processing texts (Fountas & Pinnell, 2012, p. 272). There are some strategic activities suggested by Fountas & Pinnell, 2012. Figure 2 displays 12 systems of strategic activities, all operating simultaneously in the reader’s head.
There are many reasons to use storybooks in the classroom. Ellis and Brewster (1991) provide one of the most important reasons, “stories are motivating and fun” (p.1). Children really have a lot of fun reading these books. In the classroom, the whole group laughs at the same time about the ideas and events that picture books contain, thanks to the shared social experience that takes place during the reading process; this practice “provokes a shared response of laughter, sadness, excitement, and anticipation” which in turns “can help build up the child’s confidence” (p,1). This quote states that by using storybooks students’ self-confidence is enhanced, which is made evident when students’ motivation and participation in reading activities increases. Students feel motivated “as they experience a strong sense of achievement of having worked with a ‘real’ book” (p, 11). Anyone could think that is definitely impossible to comprehend stories written for people who speak a different language to his own. However, picture books in a second language are not difficult to understand if combined with efficient strategies that emphasize the use of illustrations to enhance comprehension.
Additionally, this author explains that observations, emerging descriptions and insights of the researcher are important aspects of the research findings. Additionally, Brown (1995) suggests that qualitative approach is inductive,involves collecting data and seeks to proof and test hypotheses, that can explain the data collected.Denzin (1994) explains that qualitative research involves interpreting phenomena and making sense and looking for meaning that data reveal. Creswell (2003, p.184) states that “qualitative research is fundamentally interpretive”. It means that the researcher makes interpretation of data; this includes to describe the setting, to analyze data for themes or categories and finally to draw conclusions.On the other hand, Burns (2003, p. 21) points out that quantitative approach “involves forming research hypothesis which are then subjected to controlled testing and statistical measurement procedures”. Additionally, Burns (2003) assures thatdifferent authors recommend using the mixed method approach since the qualitative and quantitative method is complementary.