In just over thirty years, EnvironmentalEducation has accumulated a vast and diverse array of contributions in the form of discourses and practices, both of them highly suggestive for educational research. EnvironmentalEducation is an area that in spite of its achievements is still an emerging field. In this sense, through arguments stemming from the ecological crisis, the complexity of environmental knowledge and the search for pedagogical alternatives to the severe problems affecting us as society and civilization, the research within this area – at the meeting point between Educational Sciences and Environmental Sciences, with their respective scientific communities – has placed us over and over again ahead of topics, strategies and methods that reveal permanent epistemological, conceptual and empirical flexibility. This is not just a consequence of the changes that have been observed in the way we read and interpret the interface between education and environment, an interface which is further complicated by the current controversy between EnvironmentalEducation and Education for Sustainable Development. It is also related to the scientific, academic and even ideological meanings, involved in such an interface, for people and for the processes of social change. This will be the focus of attention in the present paper, since we are aware that current realities and future challenges inEnvironmentalEducation should not leave such meanings aside.
The educative system is determined by the exposed curricular frame in the policy of the State, the curricular practice of the teacher and curriculum. These three processes orient the educative practice in the school of Barranquilla. The research presented in the document considers the specific characteristics of the schools to construction of the scientific knowledge. In order to obtain the previous thing, two intentions have settled down: first to characterize the education of sciences in the public system of the city of Barranquilla and the second, to propose general suggestions to improve the education and learning of natural sciences and the environmentaleducation. In order to reach these intentions a program of four stages was developed: 1. Accomplishment of a study pilot; 2. Data collection through questionnaire for teachers and students, ethnographic study and the accomplishment of a national event on education of natural sciences; 3. Selection of the sample and application of questionnaires and 4. Analyze the data and to establish the conclusions.
rebound in basic images, central, symbolic, archetypal, with which we identify, or that relate to us in some way. Such characteristics can, in many ways, contribute to the work with environmentaleducation, in order to sensitize students through the use of sounds and images, for example. The videos were used in order to illustrate, discuss and expand knowledge on the environmentaleducation. The research allowed a thorough analysis of the instruments
Different researches about strategies, in the field of education, were consulted, by means of this information different proposals of definitions and structure were elaborated to be used in this research. 7,8,10 This structure was applied to the specific object of study, that is, the development of the Environmental Dimension in Medical studies.
causes that underlie the expansion of contagious disease and that obey the social relations of production, such as the productive transformation of ecosystems, increases in poverty and population growth, speedier and more intense transportation of people and goods, etc. In conditions of extreme poverty, such as in sub-Saharan Africa, and where most of the Public Private Partnerships operate, it is feasible for an eradicated disease to be replaced by another. In addition, this alternative—which depends on the expertise of the pharmaceutical companies—reproduces an expensive and highly debat- able technological path, in light of the growing expansion of microbes that can resist multiple drugs and the loss of human immunity caused by the consumption of antibiotics. However, the technical approach is not the only alternative for dealing with the reemergence of infectious diseases. There are many examples that record substantial reductions in epidemics at low cost, based on social mobilizations and/or the use of alternative medical paradigms. The report on a research project carried out in Uganda and neighboring coun- tries, published in Science, describes the success of an AIDS campaign that reduced the positive presence of the virus to 70% of its previous level in less than a decade. This was equivalent to a vaccine with an 80% rate of effec- tiveness (Stoneburner & Low-Beer, 2004). But this is not the only case. In China’s Henan province, malaria was reduced by 99% between 1965 and 1990 through social mobilization policies, supported by fumigation efforts, mosquito nets, and the native product artemisinin (Jackson et al., 2002). Vietnam reduced its malaria deaths by 97% between 1992 and 1997 by means of a combination of grassroots organization, mosquito nets, insecti- cides, and artemisinin (World Health Organization, n.d.). During one of Cuba’s fiercest dengue epidemics in the early 1980s, population organization turned out to be the most efficient control mechanism, and this provided one of the few success stories in controlling dengue (Gubler & Clark, 1996). There are countless examples of different alternatives based on social approaches instead of technical ones.
Shannon was employed at the Bell Laboratories when he developed his mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). As part of this theory, he proved that ‘good and efficient’ error correcting codes exist. Shannon’s proof of this was a non-constructive existence proof. However, he was able to provide one example. This example was due to the mathematician Hamming who was also employed at the Bell Labs. Hamming used the super computers at Bell Labs, but he did not have first priority of these computers, so many of his calculations were run over the weekend. At this point in time computers were only using error detecting codes, meaning that whenever a computer detected an error due to ‘noise’ it would drop the current calculation and move on to the next in line. After finding his calculations dropped two weekends in a row Hamming said to himself: “Damn it, if the machine can detect an error why can’t it locate the position of the error and correct it?” (Thompson, 1983, p. 17) Continuing this line of thought Hamming began developing his error correcting codes and, supposedly, by some time in 1947 he was able to provide Shannon with the example of one of his codes, the today so-called Hamming (7,4)-code (each codeword in the code consists of seven symbols, four of these being information symbols). When the Bell Labs learned about Hamming’s codes they wanted to patent them. This led to a long delay of Hamming’s publication of the codes. Hamming was not able to publish anything on the topic until 1950 (Hamming, 1950). At this time another mathematician, Golay, had already
Abstract: In this paper, the results of six years of researchin engineering education, in the application of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) to improve the performance of the students in the subject Analysis of Circuits of Telecommunication Engineering, are analysed taking into consideration the fact that there would be hidden variables that both separate students into subgroups and show the connection among several basic subjects such as Analysis of Circuits (AC) and Mathematics (Math). The discovery of these variables would help us to explain the characteristics of the students through the teaching and learning methodology, and would show that there are some characteristics that instructors do not take into account but that are of paramount importance.
In establishing an effective cooperation between higher education institutions and enterprises, it is recommended that a win-win situation should arise from the experience. Students and teachers contribute to enterprises with their theoretical knowledge and availability to test new ideas. Enterprises have practical knowledge, which is often non-existent in the pure academic experience. In order for higher educational institutions to benefit from the collaboration, it should be long-term oriented, e.g. involving entrepreneurs and businesses leaders as mentors and advisers in building student business hatcheries and incubators, or in developing new entrepreneurship courses and study programs, including internship programs. For enterprises, there should be short-term benefits too, e.g. through involving student groups in innovation activities, particularly helping firms formulate and develop radical innovation ideas, and through linkage to research activities. Taking these basic rules into consideration, close collaboration can be established between SMEs and higher education institutions (European Commission, 2008). Another action recommended in advancing entrepreneurship in higher education is to increase the mobility of teachers and researchers between institutions and business. Unfortunately, this is not currently encouraged or facilitated by the Academia in the majority of countries. The one exception is France where there are specific programs that have been established for members of scientific staffs. Since 1999, a law has allowed researchers to quit universities and labs to create new ventures based on their work. A network of academic incubators has been set up to support them. They are allowed to go back to university, if desired. Between 2000 and 2005, 844 enterprises have been created in France through academic incubators by researchers who have participated in this program.
Student responses were coded following the coding scheme described in Chapter Three (Table 8) to produce a tally table of the codes in each response. The initial analysis of these codes consisted in the association study between the code type and the self-explaining task, SE- Task (Table 6). For our research purposes, the codes unclassifiable, U, and non-relevant, NR, did not contribute valuable insight to elucidate the explanatory behavior of the students. Therefore, we did not consider them in subsequent analyses. From the total count of codes it is interesting to notice that for this dataset, the deductive inference code presents the highest count (Table 10). This suggests that students were actively engaged in the generation of inferences. It is also noticeable that the elaboration, E, and paraphrasing, P, codes had high number of occurrences. These E and P codes are associated with lower explanatory sophistication as they describe responses that recount information. High counts in E and P codes thus suggested that students relied heavily on recounting information when prompted to write explanations.
Polity Press, Cambridge, 2001; ADAM, B., BECK, U. y VAN LOON, J. (eds.), The risk society and beyond. Critical Issues for social Theory, SAGE, London, 2000; REVET, S., “El mundo internacional de las catástrofes naturales”, Política y Sociedad, 48, 3, 2011, pp. 537-554; NICHOLLS, N., “Cognitive Illusions, Heuristics and Climate Prediction”, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 80, 7, 1999, pp. 1385-1397; SLOVIC, P., MONAHAN, J. y MACGREGOR, D.M., “Violence risk assessment and risk communication: The effects of using actual cases, providing instructions, and employing probability vs. frequency format”, Law and Human Behavior, 24 (3), 2000, pp. 271-296; LOEWENSTEIN, G.F., WEBER, E.U., HSEE, C.K. y WELCH, N., “Risk as Feelings”. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 2, 2001, pp. 267-286; INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION (ISDR), “Living with Risk: A Global Review of disaster Reduction Initiatives”, UN, Geneva, 2004, www.unisdr.org/; y INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR DISASTER REDUCTION (ISDR), “Disaster Risk Reduction in the United Nations. Roles, mandates and areas of work of key United Nations entities”, UN, Geneva, 2009, www.unisdr.org/.
In the testimonies given by the students, the educational research process stood out as a cognitive process thanks to the application of the Moodle system. For the researcher, an active participation of the students was established, promoting the affective components, such as their perception, intelligence, memory and thought. These situations of technological incursion and diversity can determine the impact of university education on students  and . For the author of the study, the emotional bond is the emotional link that arose between the applicability of Moodle and university research. This link was formed from different relevant aspects of students' attitudes, which are based on socio-educational and family principles, where research stopped being precise, rigorous and cold until it became an area of affective knowledge.
conducted by these same researchers found that fifty-eight percent of kids say that someone has said something hurtful to them on the internet, fifty-three percent of kids say that they have said something hurtful to someone else, and forty-two percent of kids say that they have experienced online bullying (Delmonico, et al). A statistic that should also be recognized is that fifty-eight percent of children have not told their parents about their experiences with bullying online (Keith and Martin, 2006). This statistic alone is reason enough why it is difficult to blame parents, educators, school administrators, as well as peers for incidents that arise as a result of cyber- bullying. Some information that researchers and experts often tell school boards to perform in regards to internet safety are almost endless, but there are a few which each teacher and student should follow. A few of these include: start teaching early about internet rules, help children learn the difference between good and bad areas, teach about all aspects of the internet, establish clear contracts of usage, and maybe most importantly, educate the educators about the internet (Delmonico, et al). By following these rules within schools, experts hope that cyber-bullying as well as other malicious forms of internet use decrease or stop completely.
It is safe to say that model minority scholarship in America has mushroomed in the 2000s (there are more writings in the 2000s than in the four previous decades combined). Consequently, scholars in the U.S.A. must continue to develop avant-garde ways to discuss how the MMS impacts and influences the educational experiences of Asian American students—the fastest growing minority group. As a result of the immensity and profundity of their growth, this article concludes by sharing two implications that education policymakers, psychologists, and practitioners should consider whenever discussing the teaching and learning of Asian American students:
and paradoxes of the past. So don’t expect too much from hyped ‘turns’ in the professional field. According to us, there is no one ultimate source, method or technology. Synthesis and depth must counterbalance each other, just like source research and literature. A computer can of course be of help with this, as well as complete open access to contemporary journal articles (which undoubtedly could lead to a democratisation of knowledge, even for developing countries, as a posi- tive effect), but these are only technological means that can advance the research. The most important part remains the researcher, or rather the team of researchers that is able to make a creative contribution to knowledge development, and that is always difficult to predict.
The present report aims to explore and analyze student’s responses regarding the class. To start with, the practitioner 1 started the class with a video, students seemed to know already the lyrics of the song and they were responding to the questions that was placed on it. The video was related with wild animals, they presented the sound of the animal and the children would try to guess the name. The video said “This animal says Argggg” and Students mentioned “The lion” however students pronounced the word as it is written. After hearing this, teacher made emphasis on the pronunciation of each wild animal. Even though practitioner 1 applied some behaviour management like whispering the instructions so students will be quiet and attentive, students were playing and making a lot of noise. After giving the input of the vocabulary of the wild animals practitioner 2 start to talk about news paper and how it can be re used to create new things. Once students learned about wild animals and the use they can give to paper. Practitioner 2 handed out some yellow circles in order to make a craft. Practitioner 2 said “ What shape is this” to what students say “Yellow”, practitioner 2 tried again by saying “no,no the color, the shape, la forma” when students heard the word in Spanish they mentioned “Circle” practitioner said “very good, it is a yellow circle. A yellow what” and students mentioned “yellow circle”
results made it possible to verify that the approach of the topics on the environment happens occasionally, and the practice developed as EA does not address a real dimension of the educational process. Thus, it is suggested that the school invest in the continuing education of its faculty, especially with regard to environmental thematic approach.