We studied the use of remnant forest patches in this greatly transformed rurallandscape by Dromiciops gliroides, a small arboreal marsupial, which is largely restricted to wild-forested habitats. This marsupial is known as a relict species, because it is phylogenetically isolated, it belongs to an ancient branch among world marsupials, and it is endemic to the temperate rainforests of southern South America (Hershkowitz 1999). The species is presently classi ﬁ ed as ‘ near threatened ’ by IUCN standards, because of considerable reduction of its regional populations as a consequence of habitat transformation (Díaz and Teta 2008). Futhermore, its has recently been reported that D. gliroides may play a signi ﬁ cant role as a mutualistic seed disperser of shrubs, vines, epiphytes and the hemiparasite Tristerix corymbosus, contribuiting signiﬁcantly to the regeneration of forest species
We studied the importance of the successional community context (current shrub and tree species composition and vertical structure of seral shrublands) to account for the heterogeneity of seed input into early successional sites of similar age, primarily for colonizing woody species with fleshy-fruited, bird-dispersed propagules. Our findings illustrate that extremely low seed rain of colonizing tree species may be delaying or impairing the progress of for- est succession in the present rurallandscape, despite the relatively large remaining cover of second-growth forest patches and numerous seed sources (Aravena et al. 2002; Echeverrı´a et al. 2007). Artificial perches increased seed abundance and the number of bird-dispersed species in the seed rain in all three seral communities, but the mag- nitude of the facilitation effect was dependent on the eco- logical context of each successional community. Seed input enhancement was higher in the seral community that was less attractive to frugivorous birds.
Basque Country rurallandscape through its actors: proposals for conservation and management.- Rural Development Agencies of the Basque Country have begun a program whose main objective is to value the rurallandscape of Atlantic Basque area. The investigation remarks the results obtained from the application of a landscape assess- ment methodology for people which usually takes part in the local rural development but have not experience in landscape evaluation. They choose landscapes of meadows, forests, mountains and villages as the most representative of their environment; they highlight the work of the farmer and propose actions that promote responsible consumption as a way of maintaining a model of multifunctional agriculture and, there- fore, the quality of the countryside.
Finally, the positive association with fragment size or shape complexity found for all modelled species (Table 1; Fig. 3), together with the strong correlation between these two patch metrics, rendered a positive linear and polynomial associa- tion between expected S and both log(A) and log(SI), respec- tively (Fig. 4a,d; Table S4, Supporting information). Then, for the range of fragment sizes in this rurallandscape, a higher number of predator species is predicted to occur at the largest forest fragments owing to both habitat selection by species and sample area and edge effects. These are conserva- tive results given the low number of records for a subset of the assemblage at the study area. Further, the resulting linear FRSR and the subsequent lack of functional redundancy indicate that changes in S are tracked by proportional changes in FR, explaining the similar form taken by the asso- ciation between both biodiversity components and fragment structure (Fig. 4c,f; Table S4, Supporting information).
Populations of the endemic and threatened marsupial Dromiciops gliroides were studied in logged and unlogged forest patches and shrublands in a rural area of northern Chiloe´ Island (42uS), Chile. We expected to find differences in abundance, with higher densities in unlogged, old-growth remnant forests. Individuals were livetrapped over 4 years (2005–2009) at the peak of their breeding (November) and nonbreeding (February) seasons. We estimated population densities using capture–mark–recapture procedures. Home range, diet (through fecal content), and health status (ectoparasite loads) were assessed for captured individuals. We estimated the length of the breeding season by the levels of reproductive hormones, whereas winter torpor was documented using artificial nest boxes. Population densities varied seasonally in accordance with breeding, with higher densities recorded during summer, and were similar in old-growth and in logged forests, but were considerable higher in forests than in shrublands. D. gliroides reproduced well in both unlogged and logged forests. Social torpor was documented for the 1st time and was fairly frequent (64%), especially among juveniles. Home ranges were 2 times larger for males than for females. We confirmed the omnivorous diet of D. gliroides, with predominant consumption of arthropods, and a higher consumption of fleshy fruits during summer. Habitat and animal age had significant effects on ectoparasite prevalence, with higher incidences among juveniles in logged forests. We conclude that D. gliroides is not a rare species in remnant forests in the rurallandscape of Chiloe´ Island. This result is crucial for the assessment of its conservation status and offers clues for designing better conservation strategies for this living fossil in anthropogenic landscapes.
Abstract: Changes in land use have generated a new landscape configuration in the Andino orobiome (mountain range) of the tropical Andes, resulting in a mosaic of cultivation and pastures interrupted by small fragments of forest and live fences. This has resulted in an ongoing decrease in the biodiversity of this biome. In the upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River (villa de Levya-Boyacá, Colombia), located 2 600-3 000 m above the Cordillera Oriental, over three time periods in 1960, 1984, and 2004, we characterized the structure, patterns, and evolution of the overall landscape and of the live fences (used as tools in biodiversity conservation and con- sidered to be desirable alternatives to nonlive fences in farming production systems) within an agricultural land- scape. To do this, we interpreted high-resolution satellite images using a landscape ecology approach and applied landscape map metrics. We found that the natural forests have been transformed by pastures and cultivation, and that although live fences cover only a small portion of the total landscape (4.6%), they have an important effect on landscape structure and biodiversity. There has been an increase in live fences, especially between 1960 and 1984, as well as an increase in their density. However, there has been a reduction in the average length of live fences over the periods that we studied. This could be due in part to changes in the types of agricultural products that have been cultivated in recent years, with an increase in potatoes and a decrease in other vegetables, and also by resource extraction of timber and fuel wood. In the studied area, agricultural production was sustained while biodiversity conservation was improved by the use of live fences. Therefore, live fences should be consid- ered not only as part of an agriculturally productive area, but also as an important element of a multi-functional landscape that contributes to the maintenance of biodiversity and provides resources of economic and ecological interest, decreasing the pressure on natural forest. Improving the network of live fences constitutes an important strategy for the sustainable management of the rurallandscape of the Andino orobiome of Colombia and similar areas in the tropics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1183-1192. Epub 2009 December 01.
In upland forests, ACD was generally higher on slopes compared to valleys and ridges, which has been observed on soil catenas in the tropics [8, 30, 62, 63]. On basaltic parent materi- al, CART analysis revealed that ACD increased when slope angles exceeded 19° (Fig 5), similar to the slope threshold recently observed on Barro Colorado Island, Panama . Variations in slope affect the formation and chemical properties of soils [26, 48, 51, 62, 64], which arise from differences weathering processes within the landscape. Again, greater soil fertility on slopes could increase ACD by enhancing forest productivity. Indeed, preliminary efforts to quantify topographic differences in soil weathering and nutrient abundance show that ridges and valleys have lower amounts of base cations, in line with the notion that stable environments may be in a more advanced stage of chemical weathering [Wanek & Taylor unpublished data]. Converse- ly, slopes have greater levels of soil P and higher pH, suggesting a greater role for erosional pro- cesses and nutrient redistribution [Weintraub et al. In Review, Wanek et al. and Taylor et al. unpublished]. Yet, such speculation warrants more research, as sloping terrain can be unstable and prone to disturbance from landslides and wind throw, which reduce forest biomass in some regions [57, 65, 62].
In this way, the shape is not fragmented, is integrated, becomes authentic and turns into a monument. It dominates the space and eliminates the void, becomes a dream and, with it, transcends constructed landscape. If it does not blend in, it breaks the balance with nature and then land becomes ill, losing its harmony and vertebration. Nature is assaulted, attacked, becomes defective, waiting for time to straighten up its gait. The new art may mean its dismantling, returning to the natural scenario, which is only fully recovered in most cases in long lapses of time. Time, like space is two features of human actions on the environment to be considered separately (Turner et al., 1994). The question we should ask ourselves when intervening in the environment is: What does Nature want to be in this place? The answer depends on the spatial scale and timeframe, to identify its unique essence (“genius loci”), its aspirations and its potential (Du Plessis, 2012).
In the case of the elementary functions defined over binary strings, the functions with higher order are more rugged than the ones with lower order. The order-1 elementary landscapes are the smoothest landscapes and, in fact, they can always be solved in polynomial time. Following this chain of reasoning, in a general landscape, the elementary components with order p > 1 are the ones that make the problem difficult. However, from Theorem 1 we observe that only the order-1 elementary component of a function f is taken into account in the computation of the FDC. This fact poses some doubts on the value of the FDC as a measure of difficulty of a problem, since FDC is shown to neglect the rest of information captured in the higher order components. This is true under the assumption that one single global optimum exists in the search space. The doubts on FDC as being a difficulty indicator have also been raised by other authors. Two examples are the work by Tomassini et al.  focused on genetic programming and the one by Bierwirth et al.  based on the Job Shop Scheduling.
In this study, the starting point was the digital version of the Atlas de los Paisajes de España (Atlas of Spanish Landscapes), Mata & Sanz (2003). This work (scale 1:4,000,000), which recognises 24 large landscape associations, is divided into 51 separate maps (scale 1:200,000) showing different landscape groups (subdivisions of these landscape associations) within their respective areas. However, this work is descriptive: it provides no appraisal of the quality of these landscapes. The primary objective of the present work was to provide such an appraisal, thus affording the necessary data for the production of a landscape quality map for the entire country.
In turn, the transdisciplinary team composed by Jorge Llopis, Jose Luis Higón, Javier Pérez, Pedro Cabezos, F. Hi- dalgo, J. Torres, J. Serra, R.E. Martín Tolosa and Jorge Mar- tínez, recovered the interesting Landscape surroundings of San Francisco de Borja at Fontilles. A case study on Heritage Landscape . They explored the effects that an isolation ho- spital introduced in the territory, as well as the possibilities that bring a restoration plan of such a singular architectural heritage, by means of drawing and modern immersive di- splay systems. A second approach to the use of drawing as a narration, involved its usage as an interesting option or complement to word-based approaches. It is the case or graphic narratives appealing to allegories, metaphors, depictions or diagrams [Chías 2016a].
Today, most of the Azores surface (75%) is dedicated to human activities (46% to crops, 15% to towns and 14% to other purposes), whereas forests occupy only 25% of the area (Dias, 2007). A large part of these forested areas is dominated by introduced trees. In the forests of São Miguel, the dominant trees are Pittosporum undulatum, Acacia melanoxylon, and Eucalyptus globulus, which were introduced from Australia, Cryptomeria japonica from Japan, and few representatives of the native forests, mainly Morella faya and Laurus azorica. Pittosporum undulatum, initially introduced as a hedgerow species, is considered one of the more successful and dangerous invaders of the island, along with Hedychium gardnerianum, Gunnera tinctoria and Clethra arborea ( Hortal et al., 2010 ; Gil et al., 2013). Cryptomeria japonica and the Mediterranean Pinus pinaster were introduced for silviculture and transformed the island's landscape by establishing dense forests that replaced the former laurisilvas above 300 m elevation ( Moreira, 1987). The present landscape of São Miguel is almost totally cultural, in contrast with other islands, such as Pico and Flores, where human pressure has been less intense (Dias, 2007).
The paper is organized as follows. After this introduction, I describe the dataset used in this paper, where I emphasize the novel nature of it. Then I will I will define how I can include distance in the econometric estimation, given the diverse nature of Bolivian landscape. After that, I will estimate a balanced panel data regression of the dynamics of regional Bolivian economic growth to try to answer how a shock could affect other regions. I conclude this paper with a discussion of the results
Abstract: Landscape has acquired a new value from the European Union, with the approval of the European Landscape Convention (2000), granting to the landscape a legal character and establishing its value for the identity of the citizens and their territorial characteristics, Through the assumption of varied active policies, not only conservation, but renewal, creation or management. With this background is presented the Aranjuez Cultural Landscape Management Plan (director Miguel Angel Anibarro, environmental section Fariña-Higueras), which is the first cultural landscape declared by UNESCO in Spain. The main objective of the Management Plan is to project municipal leisure networks, using knowledge of the natural, environmental, cultural and anthropic values of the territory, structured in a series of thematic tours that will allow the integral understanding by the residents and visitors and will generate economic wealth to the local community. It was proposed the adequate management of the tourist capacity of the territory, the diversification of leisure activities and the generation of wealth and jobs detecting those values of interest and included them as part of the offer of "natural" tourism, conveniently structured in small facilities. In conclusion, the declaration of a Cultural Landscape should be an opportunity to establish combined strategies actions between the intrinsic quality of the place and the actions, uses or functions that will be incorporated by human action over time.
En este apartado se hace una revisión de diferentes fuentes bibliográficas con el propósito de fundamentar y desarrollar el estudio basándonos en los aspectos más relevantes sobre el tema. La fundamentación teórica está divida en dos puntos, el primer punto está relacionado con el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera y las destrezas comunicativas, en especial la destreza oral, mientras que en el segundo punto se revisan los conceptos clave de esta propuesta: inteligencias múltiples, taxonomía de Bloom y learning landscape. Teniendo en cuenta la Ley Orgánica de Educación (LOE) 2/2006 del 3 de mayo modificada por la ley LOMCE 8/2013 del 9 de diciembre, la cual da prioridad al desarrollo de las habilidades orales, y el Marco Común Europeo de Referencia de las Lenguas, donde la competencia comunicativa se considera el fin último del aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera, en esta fundamentación teórica se estudiará la importancia que tiene este concepto de competencia comunicativa en la enseñanza y aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera.
Landscape information and mapping have many po- tential applications in environmental sciences and ap- plied geomorphology. Landscape classification and evaluation are necessary, for example, for suitability studies, regional planning or land system inventories, which might be made on the basis of landscape mapping. In this case, planners are usually involved in projects re- lated to sustainable development and social acceptance of land use changes, which is a main issue in various fields within Natural Protected Areas (NPAs). Besides, landscape is a feature usually considered part of our Geo- logical Heritage; and related with this point, it is worthy to mention that there is a strong increase in tourism linked to the aesthetic values and historical quality of na- ture in general, and the elements of geodiversity in par- ticular. Thus, tourism related to rural landscapes is increasingly offered and demanded in NPAs and Geo- parks. These NPAs and Geoparks use the geological he- ritage in order to, among others, illustrate the processes of landscape evolution, and for training and education (Eder and Patzak 2004).
We build on the ACE Framework (Access, Capacity & Environment) developed by the research team 2 in the early stages of the global Landscape Study. The ACE framework is based on the idea that for ICT to make a difference to human development it has to go beyond just setting up computers connected to the Internet. The ACE Framework considers issues of Access, Capacity and Environment, breaking them down into operational variables and observable indicators as described in the following chart:
After the Christian conquest halfway through the 13th century, the Muslim population persisted, be it under the control of the feudal lord. The valleys are densely populated during the Mudejar and Morisco periods, in numerous small hamlets that grouped just a few families. The Expulsion of the Moriscos in 1609 was a point of cultural rupture that led to depopulation in the territory. Later, the Christian repopulation took place, who occupied some existing houses and towns, whereas other places were permanently abandoned. Farming activity continued in the 18th and 19th centuries and areas to grow crops on among mountains were gained. Interesting rural samples related to farming and sheep-herding development appear: terraces, farmhouses, and cisterns .
Despite the wide range, it is commendable the subtlety exercise developed by Foster and Partners and the structural engineer Michel Virlogeux when designing the Millau Viaduct on the A75 motorway in France. The most important and successful decision taken was to define the exact altitude and location to cross the valley, prioritizing the integration of the infrastructure in the valuable landscape against other concerns like economy or constructive sim- plicity. The bridge is incorporated like a beautiful background of the River Tarn valley, providing a solu- tion that allows cultural landscape not to be radi- cally modified to incorporate a new infrastructure. The most impressive facet of the itinerary occurs while you are coming into the bridge. The great infrastruc- ture turns up beside a hill, graceful shape, hung lightly on the landscape. It becomes an element that seeks its fading with the clouds of French sky, coming to belong to the air environment rather than the terrestrial one.
The landscape, defined as ‘an area as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors’ (Council of Europe, 2000), must be considered as an environmental resource in land planning processes at the national, regional and local level, and needs to be taken into account when designing strategies for sustainable development (Meeus, 1995). Frontiers between countries within the European Union become diffuse in initiatives involving extensive territories, as is the case of the Trans-European Transport Network. At the territorial scale, landscape evaluation must take place within a supranational context, using natural rather than artificial boundaries. There is therefore growing interest in including landscape resources when drafting policies, and in management and planning processes (Tress, Tress, Decamps, & D’Hausteserre, 2001; Wascher, 2000) on the European scale, as specified in the European Landscape Convention (Council of Europe, 2000). This states that there is a need to ‘consider the landscape dimension of international policies and programmes’, and dedicates Article 9 to ‘transfrontier landscapes’. Landscape maps based on consistent approaches and reliable information are important tools for assessment, protection, management, and planning (Mücher, Klijn, Wascher, & Schaminée, 2010)