The planning instruments of a territory allow to generate strategies integrated in the political, administrative, environmental, social and financial components in order to offer a strong backbone for the use and care of natural resources. However, in Colombia there are still shortcomings in the relationship between the different types of Land Management Plans, since they depend on the forms of land ownership and the types of territories existing in the country that make it impossible to exercise the ordinance described in the Colombian regulations stipulating a Territorial Planning Plan in a de-centralized manner for long-term planningandmanagement of the territory but applied to reality, the opposite is true. The present study analyzes some of the different planning instruments, with the purpose of determining their relationship with the integral and adequate management of the natural resources of the municipality of La Calera, Cundinamarca, Colombia. The purpose of this is to find, through documentary analysis, the shortcomings and advantages in environmental terms presented by the planning documents of the municipality near the capital of the country, which seeks both urban andrural development. Some recommendations are proposed as the importance of following up on the strategies proposed in the territorial planning instruments in order to reduce the environmental and social conflicts evidenced in the PDM to approach the vision of the territory raised from the first POT. Finally, the conclusions of the documentary revisions are made where the little effectiveness in the adequate management of its natural resources was evidenced.
El partido de Mercedes se ubica en la provincia de Buenos Aires de la República Argentina (Figura 1). La ciudad cabecera, también llamada "Mercedes" se ubica a 100 km al oeste de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y a 152 km de La Plata, en el denominado “tercer cordón” del conurbano. El partido en su totalidad tiene una superficie de 105.000 has (1.050 km 2 ), de las cuales sólo 1.200 has corresponden a la planta urbana y el resto, 103.800 has, corresponden a zona rural. La población es de 63.284 habitantes (INDEC 2010) concentrados sobre todo en la ciudad cabecera (el 84,3%), en tanto que en el área rural, la población se concentra en las localidades de Gowland (1.738 habitantes) y Tomás Jofré (191 habitantes), Agote, La Verde, Altamira, San Jacinto, Goldney y García o bien vive dispersa.
Nowadays, it has become evident the need to seek sustainable development models that address challenges arising in a variety of contexts. The resilience concept appears connected to the ability of people to cope with adversities that inevitably arise due to context dynamics, at different spatial and temporal scales. This concept is related to the model known as 'Working With People' (WWP), focused on rural development projects planning, managementand evaluation, from the integration of three dimensions: technical- entrepreneurial, ethical-social and political-contextual.
Why are ethnic minorities seen as inferior? Negative attitudes toward ethnic minorities exist in part because of ethnocentrism. (…) (E)thnocentrism involves judging others in terms of one’s own cultural standards. Ethnocentrism creates the feeling of “us,” the group one belongs to, versus “them,” the other groups that are out there. People in the majority, out of loyalty to and preference for their own values, beliefs, and norms, may consider other views to be inferior. Because members of ethnic minorities do not measure up to the majority’s conception of appropriate ways of behaving, it may be assumed that something is wrong with them. Ethnocentric judgments are often expressed as prejudice and discrimination. Figure (1) shows American attitudes toward specific immigrant groups. In general, European immigrants are viewed more positively than non-European immigrants.
Sport management involves any combination of skills related to planning, organizing, directing, controlling, budgeting, leading, and evaluating within the context of an organization or department whose primary product or service is related to sport or physical activity (DeSensi, Kelley, Blanton and Beitel, 2003). Sport managers carry out these skills in a variety of organizational settings (for example): college sports; professional sports; amateur sports (Olympics); sport marketing andmanagement firms; sport communications and news media firms; corporate sponsorship and advertising firms; sporting goods firms; arenas, stadium, and civic centers; community recreation sports programs; social service agency sports programs (YMCA, YWCA, JCC); private club sports programs; and military sports programs. According to Parkhouse (2005), the most recent research on the economic impact of sport identifies it as a $213 billion-a-year industry, making it the sixth largest industry in the United States (“The answer is,” SportsBusiness Journal, p.23, December 1999). The wide range of organizational settings where sports occur means that individuals can select and pursue careers in the kind of work environment of their choice and for which they are best suited (public/private organization; profit/non-profit organization; professional/amateur sports; participation/spectator sports).
To provide all participants with a very special experience, Rio 2016 has been working, for the last three years, to form partnerships with several national and international institutions in various fields of work, such as health, education, sport, languages and many more. The preparation for the Volunteer Programme also includes the implementation of the Pioneers Volunteers Programme. Planned to start in the first half of 2014, the programme's goal is to spread the theme of volunteering throughout society and enable interaction between the Rio 2016 team and the volunteers, who will be the main part of our workforce for the Games.
As new scientific information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes. The author(s) and publisher have done everything possible to make this book accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication. The author(s), editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of the book. Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accor- dance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation. The reader is advised always to check product information (package inserts) for changes and new informa- tion regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by F. A. Davis Company for users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the fee of $.10 per copy is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036-1347-4/05 0 + $.10.
Markov Random Fields and Markov Networks are direct graphical models that have a simple independence definition. They consider that two nodes of set of them, A and B, are conditionally independent from a third node, C, if all the arcs that joined A and B are separated by node C. However, these kinds of networks can represent significant attributes impacts using independent logical formulas weighted by their relationships . On the other hand, Bayesian Networks are directed graphical models. They have a mode complex independence notion because they consider arc directionality, as it is explained below . Undirected graphical model are usually used in physics and optical communities and directed models in AI and statistic ones. These kinds of models are called chain graphs. Furthermore, if a more careful study of relationship between directed and undirected graphical models is expected, it is necessary to review references from [38–40].
This study’s limitations and potential mainly have to do with two areas. On the one hand, the content analysis of the kanban board covered an early stage of its adoption, but in comparison to the Telegram chat activity not all participants used the system with the same level of intensity and engagement. As explained in the results section, however, the relative coincidence with per- centages of strategic-related terms between both channels suggests it worked as a relevant source of data for assessing the imple- mentation of the strategic plan. In relation to the co-creation process, this limitation (related to an unequal adoption of APM coordination by the majority of the group), represented a chal- lenge for some participants, and probably affected its impact during the implementation stage of some of the strategic goals. As mentioned, the degree of familiarity with digital tools for project coordination, as well as with internal discussion processes and personal positioning in research projects, seems a key factor that also requires future analysis in other academic contexts, to determine to what extent similar processes of co-creation and strategic thinking can be applied in the ﬁeld of social sciences and in other disciplines. On the other hand, following this type of exploratory analysis, the need to observe and compare data gen- erated by other research groups that apply similar (or different) methods for project managementand strategic planning creates in our opinion a potential for future research, and would allow for further understanding of such an important area of meta-research. In this line, another analysis based on the case study of the Dimmons research group for a different period in the near future, in order to compare the evolution of KPI in parallel to commu- nication and coordination related to tasks until 2023, would be needed to conﬁrm some of our initial results.
As teachers, we have most probably experienced a wide range of different feelings when interacting with our students, from enthusiastic excitement to depressing gloom. In recent years, we have noticed an increase in students’ challenging attitudes at higher education level, which could be partly derived from the fact that attendance is compulsory for continuous assessment. When attendance was optional, those students with a negative predisposition regularly avoided contact with the teacher and the typical imposing situations involved in teaching. Their negative attitude has consequences in our mood but also in the interaction patterns established and hence, in their learning process. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between teachers-learners interaction and L2 learning (Boulima 1999, Chaudron 1988, Gass & Varonis 1991, Hatch 1978, Tsui 1995), which stresses the importance of negotiated interaction in learners’ formulation of hypotheses about the target language as an essential step for acquiring it. Unfortunately, when students bring a negative predisposition to the classroom, they limit interaction and learning opportunities at the same time. Such negativity may be brought to our first class session or even emailed before meeting and thus, it may have nothing to do with our particular behavior or personality but be related to their challenging attitude towards the teacher’s role and identity. Some of the discourse acts we are expected to perform in our role may be considered face threatening by students, as they can threaten students’ “face wants”, using Brown and Levinson’s (1987: 13) term to refer to humans’ two basic needs “to be unimpeded in one’s actions” (negative face) and “to be approved of (positive face)”.
Threats to the habitats and ecological communities of wetlands in the Basin include increasing salinity, rising water tables, inadequate flooding regimes, drainage, vegetation clearance, invasive species, and barriers to movement of water and biota. Much wetland area has been lost and many have been degraded as a consequence of water being diverted for irrigation. The period up to the 1990s was marked by increasing water withdrawals for irrigation and continuing declines in the ecological health of the river system, including the collapse of river fisheries, threats to the survival of many species and increasing salinity. In 1991 a toxic blue- green algal bloom that extended for 1,000 kilometres along the Darling River was the clearest indicator that the health of the river system was reaching a crisis. In response a cap was paced on surface water extraction rights from the Murray-Darling at 1993/1994 levels, and programs commenced to ameliorate some of the problems, including interventions to reduce salinity levels, blue-green algae blooms, restore native fish populations and provide environmental flows. However, these interventions failed to substantially slow the decline.
1.2 Withdrawal of reservations by Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium and Austria (March 2009) 1.3 The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Peer Reviews 1.4 List of tax havens (Progress reports on the jurisdictions surveyed by the OECD Global Forum in implementing the internationally agreed tax standard on exchange of information on request)
1.1 Council Directive 77/799/EEC, of 19 December 1977, concerning mutual assistance by the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of direct taxation and taxation of insurance premiums; and related case law of the European Court of Justice (EU and non-EU approach) (C- 267/09, Commission vs Portugal; C-436/08, Haribo; C-418/07, Papillon; C-248/06, Commission vs Spain; C-451/05, Elisa; C-540/07, Commission vs Italy; C-72/09, Établissements Rimbaud).
Rural landscape carries unique natural and cultural significance. It should be carefully designed and planned to satisfy psychological needs and aesthetic perception of the audience. Based on behavioral psychology, this paper aims to disclose the influence of psychological needs and aesthetic perception on rural landscape planningand design. First, the author introduced rural landscape and landscape aesthetic perception. Then, the rural landscape design strategy was discussed based on behavioral psychology. After that, 21 natural villages in Jiangxi province, China, were selected to evaluate people’s psychological needs and aesthetic perception of rural landscape planningand design. The expert scoring method was adopted to evaluate the elasticity, endurance and vulnerability of rural landscape in the study area. The results show that both rural landscape and visual aesthetics of the audience change dynamically; the first impression of rural landscape determines the overall perception; among various elements of rural landscape, riverbank and slope cultivated land best suit the psychological needs and aesthetic perception of the audience. This research promotes the application of behavioral psychology in rural landscape planningand design.
6 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:2003L0048:20070101:EN:PDF - Agreements between the European Community and five European countries (the Swiss Confederation, the Principality of Andorra, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco and the Republic of San Marino) providing for measures equivalent to those laid down in Council Directive 2003/48/EC on taxation of savings income in the form of interest payments
Figure 3 is an anti-war poster from a communist organization in Great Britain, which circulated in 1920. The argumentation appeals to an inductive logic (exemplum). The represented scenes (black figures on red background) correspond to World War I; the contrasting typography, “Never again”, makes the inscription to stand out. The argument reminds the death and the horror of combat in the battlefield, in order to dissuade the society of a possible relapse (it was unsuccessful, we know). The used resource is the synecdoche (a part for the whole), because a partial situation is shown to represent the whole, war. Colors work in a metonymic way, showing the cause to signify the effect. The darkened figures represent death. The red of fire in the battle is the blood shed by the combatants. The white typography represents neutrality, the construction of a clear and reassuring future, antithetically opposed to the dark recent past.
One of the properties of metadata is that it can be organized in layers, that is, metadata can refer to raw data, (e.g. coming from an instrument or being available in a database), refer to information about the process of obtaining the raw data, or refer to derived data products. This allows distinguishing different layers (or chains) of metadata: primary, secondary, tertiary, etc. As an example, let us consider an application in the satellite imaging domain, such as the one described in . Raw data coming from satellites (e.g., images taken by instruments in the satellite) are sent to the ground stations so that they can be stored and processed. A wide range of metadata can be associated with these data, such as the times when they were obtained and transferred, the instrument used for capturing them, the time period when the image was taken, the position to which it refers, etc. This is considered as the primary metadata of the images received. Later on, this metadata can be used to check whether all the images that were supposed to be obtained from an instrument in a period of time have been actually obtained or whether there are any gaps, and new metadata can be generated regarding the grouping of pieces of metadata for an instrument, the quality of the results obtained for that time period, statistical summaries, etc. This is considered as secondary metadata, since it does not refer to the raw data being described, but to the metadata that refer to the analysis, summaries, and observations about the raw data, so that it forms a set of layers or a chain of metadata descriptions. Another common example of this organization of metadata into layers is that of provenance, which is described in the next section.