stage, for example), I recycled the different stages in the lesson plan. The fact that the flexibility of class sequence needed in certain situations was implemented, let the facilitator go and come during the lesson development in order to enhance the students’ progress in the language and in the content, which is the main aspect of this strength. Evidence of it is when in one of the sessions the students were asked to color and identify some parts in the cell; however, some of the students had problem with recognizing the parts of the cell in the cell, so the teacher had to re-present the information again to the students as the evidence presents (see annex VI). This matches what Harmer (2007) states: ‘a boomerang lesson procedure, with the order EAS, the teacher gets students engaged before asking them to do something like a written task, a communicate game, or a role play. Based on what happens there, the students will then, after the activity has finished, study some aspects of language which they lacked or which they used incorrectly’. From this, I learned that the flexibility that offers the boomerang procedure proposed by Harmer, should be almost mandatory in the content classes as a result of the fact that the students are provided with the possibility of acquiring the content and language as well as with the possibility of receiving instant feedback of their performance, which helps the content classes to become a meaningful learning environment. I also learned that during the content classes, the students enjoyed the idea of working not only with active activities but also with passive activities; they were engaged in the class development because they were eager to face the next task in the class.
and meetings that will help teachers get the necessary training to teach in a CLIL context; inprimaryschool, at least two subjects are taught through the CLIL approach (Science and another one which depends on the teaching staff available), while in secondary school, any subject is susceptible to being taught via CLIL; with relation to assessment, inprimaryschool, students are evaluated for their content learning, while in secondary school, CLIL and non-CLIL subjects are assessed following the same criteria; the English language level of primaryschool pupils, according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), starts as an A1 and ends as an A2 or B1, and the secondary school students’ level starts as an A1 and ends as a B2; there are several reasons for the implementation of the CLIL programme, which are a bit different inprimary and secondary schools. In the former, it is implemented to build intercultural knowledge, to enable students to get international certifications, and to encourage the learner to be more motivated towards learning English; in the latter, it is put into effect to give further value to content learning, and to prepare students for their future careers; with regard to materials and methodologies, the Internet has become the favorite source of teachers for getting educational materials – including games and songs, among others –, since the translations into English of textbooks of CLIL subjects do not help students to learn the content in an effective way; finally, there are some visible results of the CLIL approach, such as promotion of intercultural understanding, learners’ increase in motivation towards learning English, as well as improvement of communication and expression skills, and creation of new methodological approaches.
The Trust has also developed a pro- gramme titled B.E.A.C.H., which is the acro- nym for Building Environmental Awareness and Appreciation of Coastal Habitats. This programme is the umbrella under which all environmental awareness and education proj- ects of the Trust will take place. The scope of the B.E.A.C.H. programme will span primary and secondary schools, youth groups and the community at large. Under this programme, the Trust has begun educating primary and second- ary school students about the marine environ- ment. Currently, upper level secondary students are participating in a vacation programme titled “Sea, Sun and Science – a Marine Science Experience,” which exposes them to the marine environment in a hands-on manner and intro- duces them to potential career opportunities of local relevance. Some primaryschool students in Tobago have also been exposed to marine environmental education.
introduced again in 1998, with the Polite project (Equal Opportunity in text- books) in an attempt to recover lost ground and catch up with other European countries. Polite, a European self-publishing project for schools, was created with the aim of promoting cultural reflection in teaching and publishing, re- thinking textbooks so that men and women, protagonists of culture, history, politics and science, would appear in the textbooks without gender discrimina- tion. The project – which was promoted by the Italian Presidency of the Council of Ministers- Department for Equal Opportunities and in collaboration with the IEA (Italian Publishers Association) – forms part of the «IV Programme of a community action in an average time period», which gathered the requests of the Intergovernmental Conference in Peking (1995), especially in the field of mainstreaming and promotion of women taking part in decision-making. Polite was developed through two subsequent editions. In the first project edi- tion (1998/99), a preliminary study was conducted in different European coun- tries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, UK, Sweden, Spain, Portugal) in order to detect equal opportunity policies adopted with regard to textbooks. Based on the results of European research, they later drafted a Code of Practice for editors aimed at providing some guidelines to ensure that the gender perspective became a guiding criterion in the writing of textbooks. The Code is not intended as a legal guideline or censorship; on the contrary, it relies on the innovative skill of pub- lishers, authors and writers, and assigns them the task of creating new texts and teaching tools according to their own freedom and culture 2 .
It is important take advantage of this approach due to the fact that it can be useful since the CALLA approach works thought a comprehensible lesson plan based on cognitive theory and efforts that integrate academic language and learning strategies with content. However, one of the arguments against CLIL is the fact that students who speak Spanish and who are learning English language face enormous challenges in content areas such as science, mathematics or social studies. Even though, the inclusion of these areas in the long term will improve language learning and will guarantee social and academic success, which according to Cummins (1979), includes Basic Interpersonal Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP); both of them comprising part of the basis for CLIL. BICS Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skill such as a young girl who is able to recognize colors after mixing them but she is not able to say or explain why the transformation of the color and CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. For example, a guy who is learning a new language, so this learners is able to explain the process of mixing colors, within both in L1-L2, with the same level of quality, fluency and proficiency.
The second sample is a group of four teachers from a subsidized schoolin Pudahuel, Santiago. In this school, the students come from largely low socioeconomic backgrounds. The teachers surveyed work inprimaryschool teaching different subjects including science. The teachers of both samples work inprimaryschool from first grade to fourth grade. Both samples are chosen because there is an easy access to meet them and it is possible for them to complete the survey. As well as this, it is important to survey groups of teachers from both contexts is to see if there are any points where the two sets of teachers coincide. These points (if there are any) will provide the common basis for implementing CLIL in a subsidized school. Another point of the survey is to find the 'elements of an Immersion system that can be implemented in a subsidized school despite the fact that the students have a lower level of English as well as possibly a lower achievement inScience.
The planetarium may have been presented as an entertaining place to learn science and seen by primaryschool children as an occasion to have fun. However, while children were in a school group, usually enjoyment came second to the educatio- nal objective of standing silent while being told about sciences and technologies. The guides characteristically behaved like an extension of the teachers in the classroom. Although each guide had her or his style, they all behaved like teachers who knew the information needed for a particular activity (reproducing the patterns they learned at school). The guides were experienced in controlling the groups, including the punishment involved (maybe also as learnt from school). Respect for the guides or reprimand by the teachers enforced the fear of punishment that the students seemed used to. In contrast, the joy of playing was sustained as the external reward; as the motivational side of attending a science or history class. Play, enjoyment and food would come later, but it was expected that the group behaved properly during the guided session.
In relation to the role of parental involvement in homework, Patall, Cooper, and Robinson (2008) observed positive effects of parental involvement, among other variables, in student homework attitude. In three longitudinal studies, Van Voorhis (2011) found a positive relation between parental involvement guided by a systematic intervention and student achievement in mathematics, science, and language. On the other hand, while some studies using structural equation models (SEM) reported a positive relationship between parental involvement and achievement (Cooper, Jackson, Nye, & Lindsay, 2001), others found a negative relation, or mixed results (Dumont et al., 2012). In particular, Dumont et al. found both positive and negative relationships depending on the quality of parental involvement and on the different measures of educational outcome (achievement, self-concept, and attitudes). Moreover, they obtained a stronger positive relationship with student motivation than with achievement. The relationship is also different depending on the type of parental involvement (Cunha et al., 2015; Karbach, Gottschling, Spengler, Hegewald, & Spinath, 2013; Núñez, Suárez, Rosário et al., 2015; Suárez, Regueiro, Tuero, Cerezo, & Rodríguez, 2014). In the present study, we found that homework parental support was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and deep student engagement in homework.
Dual Language Program (DLP) is a program introduced under the Enhancement of Bahasa Malaysia Empowerment English Language (MBMMBI) policy which has been approved at the National Economic Council Meeting Bill. 21/2015 on October 13, 2015 and announced by 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia in 2016 budget presentation on October 23, 2015 which gives the choice of schools that meet the criteria for conducting teaching and learning sessions in full English other than Bahasa Malaysia for Mathematics, Science, Information and Communication Technology, and Design and Technology (JPN Selangor, 2015).
This dissertation is divided into three chapters: the first one is the theoretical and conceptual framework which will describe basic definition used throughout this thesis; what teaching materials are, their types and roles in a language class. Also, there will be a description on how to analyze textbooks. It will also include a summary of different approaches and methods such as CBI (Content-Based Instruction), CALLA (Cognitive Academic Language Learning) and CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) used nowadays in many schools to teach content subjects. These approaches support the idea of teaching a different subject other than English in this language so as to reinforce learning of the language. This chapter also illustrates the objectives and aims of these approaches. In this chapter, the theories of children’s cognitive development will be included. Especially the ones form the psychologists Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky
13 distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers" (Vygotsky, 1978). For most children, the transition from assisted learning to independent learning requires a great deal of assistance and time until no assistance is needed. To facilitate this transition, a teacher needs to scaffold 3 students providing assistance at the appropriate times. These theories also lead us to a very important point to have into consideration. The fact of teaching kids something that implies a challenge or difficulties, since they have to try to achieve the learning by their own, motivates them, which will make the process more successful.
Numerosos estudios centrados en un contexto educativo giran en torno a la elaboración de herramientas que ayuden a recopilar datos e información significativa para el investigador así como a facilitar el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje (Buendía Eisman, 1998; Ruiz Bolívar, 2002; Albert Gómez, 2007; Alfageme González y Miralles Martínez, 2009; Garrido Guzmán, Zagalaz Sánchez, Torres Luque y Romero Granados, 2010; Alfageme González, Miralles Martínez y Monteagudo Fernández, 2011; Sánchez Rodríguez, Serrano Pastor y Alfageme González, 2011; Marín Uribe, Guzmán Ibarra y Castro Aguirre, 2012). En este sentido, resulta frecuente la formación de grupos de discusión, organización de entrevistas o confección de cuestionarios como procedimientos habituales en el ámbito educativo investigador. En el estudio que nos ocupa se pretende elaborar un instrumento válido y fiable, concretamente un cuestionario, para analizar la implantación de la metodología CLIL (Content Language Integrated Learning) en las asignaturas de Science y Social Science para 1º y 2º de Educación Primaria en los colegios bilingües de la Región de Murcia. Para su planificación previa y posterior aplicación es esencial determinar una serie de factores que delimitarán en mayor o menor medida su grado de alcance y precisión, tales como cuál es el problema de la investigación, las hipótesis centrales del estudio, los objetivos derivados de estas, el marco teórico que rodea al tema y, por supuesto, su concreción en un contexto determinado.
Resumen: Este texto tiene como objeto de estudio las escuelas de primera enseñanza, de carácter público, de Almudévar (Huesca, España) que fueron proyectadas y/o construidas durante los años de la dictadura primorriverista y de la Segunda República. Interesa analizar, a partir de la documentación consultada en el archivo municipal de esta localidad y de la visita in situ a estos inmuebles, el compromiso de la corporación municipal para atender a las necesidades de la población infantil en materia de edificios adecuados para su escolarización. Este estudio se emprende teniendo presente la normativa sobre instrucción primaria en vigor en aquellos momentos, así como los modelos de escuelas desarrollados para conseguir construcciones escolares con las mejores condiciones de salubridad e higiene.
challenges in terms of learners’ attitude which more than representing failure, they provided a way of motivation. During the process we learned Students were capable of expressing themselves with chunks and short sentences to express their opinions, not only at the end but during the whole process. On the other hand, we also learned that the pronunciation was not a strength for them but if we make emphasis on pronunciation it will show many positive results, however, we need to be careful when giving drillings and making sure constantly that learners comprehend and they are aware of the correct pronunciation. As stated by Lynne Cameron (2001), the way how we pronounce and we write in english is different, it is so important to know because for young learners the spoken part is priority than the writing part due to pupils need to hear a new word in isolation also in the context since they can notice the sound of the word, the stress and the syllables of the word. In conclusion the students need to be exposure to the words as much as possible, using drillings, spelling, intonation and
The high sedentary rate of children and youth in Spain encourages us to identify possibilities and propose alternatives to reverse this situation.The ex-post facto, retrospective and comparative cross-sectional study basically consisted of identifying and comparing the level of physical activity (PA) achieved in Physical Education (PE) by 43 boys and 37 girls 6th grade Primary schoolchildren (11.86 ± 0.34 years) randomly selected from 26 centers of the Community of Madrid, according to the recommended level. For the PA analysis, the heart rate (HR) was continuously recorded by means of Polar® monitors during the PE classes in a school week, deriving from the recorded HR data the amount of time spent in an effort of ≥50% HR reserve which is equivalent to a heart-healthy PA of moderate to vigorous intensity (MVPA). The main results of the statistical analysis, whose level of significance was established at p <0.05, showed that the subjects accumulated in MVPA an average time equivalent to 21.3 ± 18.1% of the programmed weekly PE time, being similar in boys, 21.1 ± 18.9%, and in girls, 21.5 ± 17.5% (p = 0.77).In the literature, a great diversity of results is observed. However, our findings are similar to some studies that, like ours, show that the level of PA reached by schoolchildren is lower than ≥50% of the PE time recommended. The results show that the boys and girls of the sample spent in MVPA a similar proportion of PE time, a level that, in addition, is considered insufficient to generate benefits in cardiovascular health.
packaging are more developed or whose quality is better, rather than in an increase of their quantity. This finding can be attributed partially to the fact that subjects who have completed a higher grade inschool are more apt to follow dietary recommendations and to change their behavior to avoid risks than subjects who have a lower level of education. However, in the poorest population groups, diet tends to involve a higher number of calories and is characterized by a very high fat intake. Vegetables, fruits, and whole grain cereals, which are generally more expensive, are eaten in lesser amounts. 26
However, nowadays their needs to be a balance between the development of oral and written skills in the field of learning and teaching foreign languages. In the same vein, it is generally recognised that writing is important from a very early age in foreign language classrooms. For that reason, it is necessary the study of different methods to know what is the best method to start teaching this skill inprimary education. Recent studies have focused on the process of writing, an area where the use of the first language (L1) during the composition process has been one of the main issues in research (Abisamra, 2003). Most of the studies related to teaching writing both in second language or foreign language acquisition appear mainly in the form of case studies of learners studying at universities and colleges (Ridha, 2012; Alhaysony, 2012; Chan, 2004 and Huang, 2001, 2006). Moreover, all of them were devoted to analysing the common types of errors that students made. Therefore research with beginner-level learners involving written production, especially instructed learners, is still needed and even studies which analyse writing teaching methods.
In addition to this, table tennis is acknowledged as a meticulous and cognitively-engaging sport (Best, 2010; Wang et al., 2016). Table Stars includes age-adequate, but relatively complex motor tasks that are closely connected to table tennis. The more complex skills or coordinative exercises are found to be more effective to improve concentration and attention tasks than simpler exercises (Budde et al., 2008). Moreover, nearly all forms of cognitive functioning involve attention (Best, 2010). Particularly selective attention, in which attention is directed to a specific relevant object (and not to the disruptive irrelevant ones), seems crucial in table tennis. Due to this specific characteristic of the sport, most exercises in table tennis practice are considered to require a relatively high level of attention. Also the exercises within Table Stars @school challenge the children’s ability to focus on a certain task; only with a sufficient level of attention it is possible to fulfil the task successfully. Consequently, it is suggested that children might benefit from Table Stars @school also regarding their attention skills.
Abstract: Many studies have dealt with issues related to school textbooks as a significant vehicle of open or hidden gender signals, but in Slovakia this issue has only recently gained ground. To date, textbooks for lower secondary and secondary schools have been at the centre of interest of experts in this area. Ironically however, textbooks for primary schoolshave remained on the periphery of interest of Slovak experts. This study analyses primary level readers and mathematics textbooks in the Slovak Republic. Our aim was to provide a picture of gender stereotypes and gender preferences in given textbooks, through the qualitative research methodology, in particular the method of in-depth textual analysis. In the case of mathematic textbooks it was primarily the analysis the assignment of verbal tasks, readers’ analysis was focused on the content of artistic text. Our intention was not to map the frequency of occurrence of gender stereotypes, but rather the nature and content of displaying the culture-conditioned male and female roles as they are presented in the public and private sphere of life. We are convicted that such model depictions are rapidly, automatically and intuitively acquired by pupils of primary education, which also affects the perception of that subject during adulthood. We believe that our study will contribute to the initial discussion of the issue and the role of textbooks in the educational and general acculturation process of primaryschool pupils.
A number of definitions, classifications and typologies have been developed within the context of educational use of ICT (Tondeur, van Braak and Valcke, 2007). For example, Prestridge (2012) conducted a study using the “Digital Age Learning Matrix” designed by Starkey (2009) where the author compared possible uses of ICT (accessing, presenting, processing, playing and communicating information) and learning levels promoted, which were, from least to most complex, doing, thinking about connections, thinking about concepts, criticising and evaluating, creating knowledge and sharing knowledge. Tondeur van Braak and Valcke (2007) conducted a factorial analysis on a sample of 352 primaryschool teachers, with the aim of developing a possible typology of uses at that educational level. The structure found revealed three factors: one referring to the use of ICT as information tools, another as learning tools, and a third focusing on developing basic skills (psychomotor). Coll and Monereo (2008) designed a typology of uses focusing on the teacher-learner-content interactive triangle, in an effort to overcome those focusing only on ICT potentialities and characteristics (Squires & McDougall, 1994) or on major pedagogical and didactic issues (Salomon, Perkins & Globerson, 1991). They also avoided neutral description (as in Twining, 2002), taking a firm stand from the socio-constructivist approach, which serves as reference for identifying the principal dimensions of educational practice.