Second Generation Immigrants

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Cultural identity : different ways of constructing identity for first-and-second generation immigrants in The namesake, by Jhumpa Lahiri

Cultural identity : different ways of constructing identity for first-and-second generation immigrants in The namesake, by Jhumpa Lahiri

refuses to keep the paintings he has drawn in the cemetery. Consequently, Gogol puts them “where he knows his mother will never bother to look, and where they will remain, ignored but protected, gathering dust for years to come” (p. 71). Lahiri’s almost ironic description of Gogol’s idea to keep his drawings shows that sometimes immigrants are left out of the mainstream society and group themselves in communities or neighborhoods where they have a sense of protection, but, at the same time, remain neglected by the rest. Lahiri examines Gogol’s struggles to straddle two cultures when Gogol gets caught up in a dilemma regarding the introduction of his American girlfriend, Ruth, to his parents: “he cannot picture her at the kitchen table on Pemberton Road […]. He cannot imagine being with her in the house where he is still Gogol” (p. 115). Gogol knows his parents would not approve of an American girlfriend and this makes him feel unhappy. However, Ashoke’s sudden death makes him realize that the links his parents have created with other Bengali immigrants are true and strong. This is seen when his parents’ friends come even from other states to pay their respects. Gogol’s realization that he cannot ignore his Indian roots culminates with his marriage to Moushima, a Bengali girl who is the daughter of one of his parents’ friends. Eventually, Gogol comes to terms with his hybrid identity and learns to accept his American as well as his Bengali social affiliations.
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Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Abstract Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish–English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18–39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were native Spanish speakers and the home language was Spanish; 37 were born in the United States and 21 were born in a Latin American country, but arrived to the US before the age of 10. Equivalent reading and writing tests were administered both in Spanish and English. Performance was significantly higher in English than in Spanish in the following tests: reading aloud (speed and errors), writing sentences, spontaneous writing number of words, and spontaneous writing errors (spelling and grammatical). When comparing those participants born in the US and abroad, no significant differences were found in Spanish, but in English; participants born in the US did better in reading aloud (errors), and spontaneous writing errors (spelling and grammatical). It was concluded that reading and writing abilities are in general higher in English than in Spanish in this group of bilinguals, which is correlated with the language used in the school they attended. This study emphasize the importance to analyze not only oral but also written bilingualism. Toward the future, it would be particularly important to study written bilingualism in other types of bilingualism.
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2019 Ardila et al Oral and written language abilities in young Spanish:English bilinguals

2019 Ardila et al Oral and written language abilities in young Spanish:English bilinguals

In addition to oral bilingualism, it is important to analyze the writing abilities in each language of first- and second-generation immigrants. Written bilingualism represents a distinct query of linguistic research. Studies have found that first-generation immigrants often learn the functional second-language oral skills that allow immigrants to meet basic needs and maneuver in informal job markets. However, developing skills in second-language literacy is a difficult task. Glenn and de Jong (1996) and Carbonaro (2006) examined second-language literacy across several nations by analyzing the educational systems and models that have been established for immigrant children. Immigrants’ children usually acquire full literacy in the L2 because they generally attend schools taught in this language. According to Duursma et al. (2007), the bilingual population is unique, as exposure and experiences of literacy in both languages are required in order to achieve the highest levels of bilingualism and bi-literacy. Research has shown that for second-generation Spanish- speaking immigrants in the USA, oral and written proficiency in English does not require parental use of English at home, but oral and written Spanish proficiency requires linguistic reinforcement in both school and home environments.
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Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Writing and reading knowledge of SpanishEnglish second-generation bilinguals

Abstract Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish–English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18–39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were native Spanish speakers and the home language was Spanish; 37 were born in the United States and 21 were born in a Latin American country, but arrived to the US before the age of 10. Equivalent reading and writing tests were administered both in Spanish and English. Performance was significantly higher in English than in Spanish in the following tests: reading aloud (speed and errors), writing sentences, spontaneous writing number of words, and spontaneous writing errors (spelling and grammatical). When comparing those participants born in the US and abroad, no significant differences were found in Spanish, but in English; participants born in the US did better in reading aloud (errors), and spontaneous writing errors (spelling and grammatical). It was concluded that reading and writing abilities are in general higher in English than in Spanish in this group of bilinguals, which is correlated with the language used in the school they attended. This study emphasize the importance to analyze not only oral but also written bilingualism. Toward the future, it would be particularly important to study written bilingualism in other types of bilingualism.
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14 Lee mas

Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants

Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants

“Future” content is to a large extent, not surprisingly, digital and technological. But while it includes software, hardware, robotics, nanotechnology, genomics, etc. it also includes the ethics, politics, sociology, languages and other things that go with them. This “Future” content is extremely interesting to today’s students. But how many Digital Immigrants are prepared to teach it? Someone once suggested to me that kids should only be allowed to use computers in school that they have built themselves. It’s a brilliant idea that is very doable from the point of view of the students’ capabilities. But who could teach it?
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First And Second-Generation Cryoballoon Ablation Efficacy Restoring And Maintaining Sinus Rhythm In Patients Electrically Selected And Treated For Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation After Acute Complete Electrical Disconnection Of Pulmonary Vein

First And Second-Generation Cryoballoon Ablation Efficacy Restoring And Maintaining Sinus Rhythm In Patients Electrically Selected And Treated For Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation After Acute Complete Electrical Disconnection Of Pulmonary Veins From The Left Atrium Demonstrated

This study has several limitations. First: this is a non-randomized, single center study. Second: this study includes a small sample size. Third: the previous electrical selection of patients likely to limit the outcome that can be extended to the entire LSPAF population group. And, fourth: as a significant number of pts from this group, felt no symptoms, along with the wide interval range (30 days) in between holter ECG recording, the final outcome results might be overestimated.

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Atrazine in drinking-water

Atrazine in drinking-water

In a two-generation rat study utilizing technical atrazine (97% active ingredient) in doses of 0, 0.5, 2.5, or 25 mg/kg of body weight per day, pup weights in the second generation at the two highest doses were statistically significantly lower than those of the control group. Both parental animals had significant decreases in body weight, body weight gain, and food consumption at 25 mg/kg of body weight per day. In addition, a statistically significant increase in relative testis weight was seen in both generations at this dose level. Thus, the reproductive NOAEL was 0.5 mg/kg of body weight per day, and the parental NOAEL 2.5 mg/kg of body weight per day (23).
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Aproximación a las migraciones históricas a través del estudio de la información nominal

Aproximación a las migraciones históricas a través del estudio de la información nominal

on the surnames apparition, permanence or extinction. See for instace, Jordà et al. (2015). It should be noted that  although  this  approach  is  valid  for  estimating  immigration  (Sánchez‐Adell  1978,  Redal  1986,  Mas  and  Miralles  1992,  Cuadrada  2003,  Ferrer‐Navarro  2008,  Aparici  2009),  the  assumption  that  one  of  the  main  reasons  for  the  disappearance of  surnames  is emigration  in this  case  is not without  limitations.  Thus, the  fact that a  surname  is  passed down from fathers to their children patrilineally  meant the extinction in the span of one  generation  of all  the female branches of the line, and its definitive disappearance from the records if the mother's surname is rare  (Jordà  et al. 2015). Similarly, the negative natural growth  that occurred in many late medieval cities as  a result of  poor  living conditions  (Lucassen and Lucassen 2009)  may  have  caused  the  extinction,  through the  death  of their  bearers, of other  rare surnames (Jordà et al. 2016). Thus in this study, in the absence of variables to control for the  effects of other demographic phenomena that might have altered the anthroponymy, such as mortality or fertility,  no  direct  correlation  between  the  disappearance  of  surnames  and  migratory  flows  is  claimed.  However,  it  is  possible to illustrate the high anthroponymic variability of the period. 
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235 Lee mas

Second-generation gioethanolo production

Second-generation gioethanolo production

These findings suggest that one can consider the fol- lowing reaction mechanism as follows. The gaseous atmosphere surrounding the sample heated to 1800 K by the Xe-beam irradiation has a fairly lower oxygen partial pressure due to the successive generation of the metal zinc vapor. This successive vaporization would be facilitated by the rapid removal of the vaporized metal Zn by the oxidation with O 2 gas in the air that

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Reading as a means of promoting social interaction: an analysis of the use of literature circles in EFL teaching

Reading as a means of promoting social interaction: an analysis of the use of literature circles in EFL teaching

Data was collected in order to analyze the students’ reactions to literature circles and the development of the activity in general. Observational field notes were taken in class and data was obtained from the students’ role sheets, their book projects, and their assessment grids. In addition, a questionnaire was designed to gather information about the students’ opinion and comments on literature circles (see Appendix 4). The questionnaire is divided in two parts. The first part contains five scaled questions about language learning. The second one deals with the students’ opinion on literature circles. There are four scaled questions about the activity, an open-ended question on whether they would like to do this activity in the future, and a blank space for comments and suggestions.
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A book publisher’s manifesto for the 21

A book publisher’s manifesto for the 21

Publishers are also slowly waking up to the idea that, whilst the book online can no longer always afford to be an island, neither can the publisher. Consumers of books care very little, if at all, about publisher brands. Some authors are brands, but publishers have largely remained invisible to consumers in terms of branding. In the online space, publishers need to recognise that readers simply want the content they require – and fast, simply, without barriers or walls ring-fencing random selections of content purely because one content set belongs to one publisher and another set to a second, different publisher. A useful network of books will almost always, inevitably, cross the boundaries between a number of publishers. In the journals world this has been recognised and resolved by cross-publisher platforms and linking systems such as CrossRef (www.crossref.org) and IngentaConnect
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Spatial structures in nonlinear optical cavities at IFISC

Spatial structures in nonlinear optical cavities at IFISC

In all-optical image processing the image is represented in the transverse plane of a light beam and processed by means of the interaction of light with different elements. All-optical processing has some advantages over computer based image processing because it avoids pixelation and it is intrinsically parallel. We have studied a scheme for all optical image processing using Type II Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) in an optical cavity, first in a plane mirror configuration [29] and later in the case of spherical mirrors [30]. The proposed processing scheme is sketched in Fig. 5 the image is inserted in an optical cavity filled with a nonlinear medium. Inside the cavity, the image processing occurs because of the interaction of the light with the nonlinear medium. Finally the processed image is obtained at the output of the cavity. The use of a Type II SHG cavity allows for the transfer of the image from the fundamental to the second harmonic, contrast enhancement, contour recognition and image inversion.
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Diseño de un Sistema Informático de Diagnóstico y Corrección de Fallas Referentes a la Inyección Electrónica con Protocolo OBD LI en los Vehículos  de la  Línea Chevrolet

Diseño de un Sistema Informático de Diagnóstico y Corrección de Fallas Referentes a la Inyección Electrónica con Protocolo OBD LI en los Vehículos de la Línea Chevrolet

Para controlar el funcionamiento de este sistema de inyección durante los años 70 y principios de los 80 algunos fabricantes empezaron a usar componentes electrónicos de control y diagnóstico de errores en sus automóviles. Al principio fue solo para conocer y controlar las emisiones del vehículo y adaptarlas a los estándares exigidos, pero con el paso del tiempo estos sistemas fueron volviéndose cada vez más sofisticados, hasta los años 90, donde surgió el estándar OBD II. Como su nombre indica “On Board Diagnostic Second Generation”, es un sistema que permite diagnosticar los errores que se producen en el vehículo sin necesidad de desmontar partes para descubrir la procedencia de dicho error. Este sistema de codificación única se encuentra actualmente implantado en todos los vehículos de turismos y vehículos industriales ligeros que se producen y a diferencia de otros sistemas desarrollados antes de 1996, este se caracteriza por ser un sistema estandarizado, que permite, de manera fácil, ver que errores se han producido en un vehículo cualquiera utilizando una única codificación y claro está, un conector estandarizado.
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Evidence of the Second Harmonic Generation on Semi Organic Glycine Erbium Nitrate

Evidence of the Second Harmonic Generation on Semi Organic Glycine Erbium Nitrate

Second Harmonic meassurement: Once the samples were placed into the glass slides, a Nd:YAG Quanta ray INDI series laser with wavelength of 1064 nm which generated an 8 ns pulse and was operated at 6 mJ/pulse and at rate of 10 Hz was shot at the proper angle and distance in order to see the SHG in green (532 nm); the

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Second vs. first generation drug eluting stents in multiple vessel disease and left main stenosis: Two-year follow-up of the observational, prospective, controlled, and multicenter ERACI IV registry

Second vs. first generation drug eluting stents in multiple vessel disease and left main stenosis: Two-year follow-up of the observational, prospective, controlled, and multicenter ERACI IV registry

generation DES versus the 1st generation were conducted. All of them consistently showed a significant reduction in the incidence of cardiac late events including cardiac death and/or MI, death/MI and very late stent thrombosis with the newer DES [7-10]. One of the major limitations in these studies was the fact that they were performed generally in well selected low risk populations and there is limited information [11, 12] at the present time on whether these new devices will also be able to improve outcome in patients such as those included in SYNTAX and FREEDOM, with multiple vessel CAD, unprotected left main, diabetes and/or with intermediate or high Syntax Score (SS). The ERACI IV study was a prospective, multicenter, observational, and controlled registry in patients with multiple vessel disease and left main, treated with second generation DES, and a conservative strategy during DES implantation which was compared with ERACI III, a study with a similar population treated with 1st generation DES.
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Fluorescein labelled cationic carbosilane dendritic systems for biological studies

Fluorescein labelled cationic carbosilane dendritic systems for biological studies

Metabolic activity assays of dendrimers 19-21 alone were tested by MTT (Figure 2). Generation- dependent data were obtained, with cellular viability over 80%, below 20 μM for 19, 5 μM for 20, and 1 μM for 21. The interaction between dendrimers 19-21 and siRNA Nef was determined by gel electrophoresis at time of 24 h (Figure 3). From this study, complete dendriplex formation was observed for +/− ratios of 12/1 for 19 and 20 and of 8/1 for 21. Furthermore, cell viability of these dendriplexes measured by MTT analyses showed that they were not toxic at the concentration chosen for further analyses (100 nM of siRNA Nef corresponding to 8.4 µM for 19, 4.2 µM for 20 and 1.4 µM for 21) (Figure S13, Supporting Information).
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Enfermedades infecciosas importadas en inmigrantes internacionales  Dos décadas de experiencia

Enfermedades infecciosas importadas en inmigrantes internacionales Dos décadas de experiencia

Once NTDs are imported into non-endemic areas, the possibility of transmission and the resulting impact should be considered. In general, the epidemiology of infectious diseases will be influenced by the interactions between pathogen, host (human, animal or vector) and the environment [24], and most of these infections will have only limited transmission as the required vector may be absent and the environmental conditions unfavorable. However, there have been rising concerns regarding the emergence of some pathogens due to infectious agents being imported into novel non-endemic areas and the possibility of accidental spread of disease vectors between areas which may act as drivers for the emergence of infections [24]. Local vectors may become infected with imported infectious agents resulting in local cases as occurred in the first outbreak of chikungunya virus infection in a temperate country which was registered in Italy, where the vector, Aedes albopictus is already established [25]. Similar outbreaks could theoretically occur in other non-tropical countries and involving other vectors and other imported infectious pathogens. The prospect of possible future spread of some of the NTDs outside their usual geographical areas should therefore not be dismissed. Global changes in climate and temperatures may affect the distribution of vectors and trigger disease outbreaks and the possibility of non-vectorial transmission also emerges [24,26]. Chagas disease, paradoxically, is an NTD with a reported decreasing health and economic impact in endemic countries due to the success of multi-national control programs aimed principally at the interruption of vectorial and transfusional transmission [27], but the disease now appears to be emerging outside these areas [28]. In Europe, and especially in Spain, cases of Chagas disease have been increasing due to the recent increase in immigration from Latin America and the disease may become an important cause of cardiomyopathy in the near future [28]. Tainted donor blood or organ grafts and vertical transmission would be the main modes of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi imported by immigrants in countries where vectorial transmission does not occur. This growth in immigration has had sufficient impact to warrant changes in national legislation with respect to the screening of blood donations [29], and yet pregnant Latin American women
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Comparacin de los resultados clnicos con respecto al uso de stents recubiertos de xido de titanio (Titan) versus stents liberadores de zotarolimus (Endeavor) en pacientes con infarto de miocardio por elevacin del segmento ST (STEMI): Una experiencia de un

Comparacin de los resultados clnicos con respecto al uso de stents recubiertos de xido de titanio (Titan) versus stents liberadores de zotarolimus (Endeavor) en pacientes con infarto de miocardio por elevacin del segmento ST (STEMI): Una experiencia de un centro cardiaco de Tercer nivel de atencin

Main limitations in this study are as follows: Retrospective nature, analysis performance in one single high specialty unit, which outcomes might not be considered as reproducible in other healthcare facilities or to overall patients, as well as the number of examined patients and limited one-year follow-up. Despite such limitations, this study provides a general overview of clinical outcomes in our patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) subjected to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and treated with Titan bioactive stent against second- generation drug-eluting stent (Endeavor stent).
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El papel y los atributos de los empresarios en el mayor festival de arte de Sudáfrica.

El papel y los atributos de los empresarios en el mayor festival de arte de Sudáfrica.

Abstract: The Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK) in Oudtshoorn, South Africa, is the largest arts festival in South Africa. The purpose of this research was to determine the attributes and role of the entrepreneurs at the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival. This was done by means of a questionnaire survey (N=249). After data capturing was completed, two factor analyses were conducted. The first factor analysis revealed six factors (entrepreneurial attributes), namely organisational skills, resourceful- ness, self-edification, explorative, acquired skill and drive, of which resourcefulness had the highest mean value. The second factor analysis identified the role of entrepreneurs at KKNK and revealed three primary roles, namely festival promotion, product promotion and income generation, of which product promotion had the highest mean value. This is the first time that the roles of entrepreneurs at festivals were investigated in South Africa.
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Evolution of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds and their role in everyday practice

Evolution of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds and their role in everyday practice

In this study, follow-up analyses using multi-modali- ty imaging such as multi-slice CT, angiography, intra- vascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence to- mography (OCT) were performed. At 6-months, the angiographic in-stent late lumen loss (LLL) was 0.44 mm and mainly due to a reduction of the scaff old area (-11.8%) as measured by IVUS. Th is appeared to be more prominent in lipid-laden and fi brofatty plaques [5]. However, vasomotion appeared to be restored with vasoconstriction induced by methyl ergonovine male- ate and vasodilatation induced by nitroglycerin pos- sible in the treated segment. 6 Th e second generation
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