One of the traditional lesson plan models in ESL teaching is the PPP model, which stands for Presentation, Practice and Performance, due to its characteristic regarding the introduction of a topic and language in a contextualized manner. Harmer (2008) explains that through this method of lesson plan design, the teacher introduces the language to be taught in a contextualized situation, in order to generate meaning. As finding meaning will make learning effective because it allows memory to establish more connections, this paper will consider this approach in order to analyse activities in traditional English as a Second Language classes through a memory-friendly lesson plan design. Indeed, it might be said that there is a parallel between how the PPP approach presents a topic and makes it move through each of its steps, and the way in which memory receives that topic and makes it move towards the long-term memory, as both paths search for meaning. What is more, the Primacy- Recency effect (Sousa, 2011) seems to match the stages in a PPP lesson plan.
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Any language teacher with experience would agree that a good command of the langua- ge is not enough for effective teaching (Cravens, 1996; Ellis, 2012; Freeman and Johnson, 1998; Phillipson, 1992), but neither is a vast knowledge of linguistic theory (Widdowson, 2000; Wu, 1992). My position is aligned with that of Johnston and Goettsch’s (2000), who claim that future language teachers must be trained in at least three areas that are intimately intertwined: 1) content (theoretical linguistics), 2) pedagogical content (language pedagogy or methods courses), and 3) second language acquisition theory (applied linguistics). The ACTFL Program Standards for the Preparation of Foreign Language Teachers mandate for teachers to not only be highly proficient in the language (Standard 1a), but also to “know the linguistic elements of the target language system, recognize the changing nature of lan- guage, and accommodate for gaps in their own knowledge of the target language system” (Standard 1b: 3). The rationale for such a claim is that this theoretical knowledge, which encompasses most areas of what is taught in an introductory Linguistics course (phonology, morphology, syntax, sociolinguistics, pragmatics…) will enable teacher candidates to “organize instruction, diagnose their students’ linguistic difficulties, and assist them in understanding linguistic concepts” (2002: 13).
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The musical-rhythmic intelligence has to do with the ability to perceive and appreciate rhythm, pitch and melody. The use of music in the language classroom is not new. In Suggestopedia, for example, the teacher tunes her voice to the classical/baroque music during the concert session. This tuning affects language in several ways: pauses between thought groups become more obvious, musical rhythm causes a slowing down in speech production and musical melody guides the teacher’s pitch variation. Research done on the effects of music in the classroom (Wood cited in Campbell, 1997; Lozanov, 1988) shows that students who had received musical education or those that had been frequently exposed to classical/baroque music had higher academic results. Rauscher, Shaw and Ky (1997) point to the effect of listening to music on the development of learners’ spatial/temporal intelligence. Music also has physical effects such as the adaptation of breathing to the musical rhythms, the impact on muscular energy and psychological effects as seen in its ability to induce a certain type of mood (Benenzon, 1995). In general, it can be affirmed that the development of musical intelligence in the second language classroom can have benefits such as helping students to concentrate and connect with their inner self, stimulating creative processes, cutting out the black noise, that is to say, eliminating distracting sounds from in or outside the classroom, and, above all, fostering a relaxed but motivating and productive classroom atmosphere.
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Including TV series in the second language classroom has been my hobbyhorse ever since I started teaching English in my current place of work. Attending English classes every other day seemed insufficient for some parents, who wanted their offspring to receive constant input. Consequently, the most commonly asked question in every single teacher-parent meeting was the way children could become more proficient in English. Playing games on-line and watching some of their favourite films and TV series in the original version were the obvious answers, but I was never able to test my hypothesis with any kind of studies other than with my personal experience as an adult learner and my infatuation with sitcoms. According to Lantigua (2016), the amount of time in front of the television ranges from 134 to 144 minutes a day, so I firmly believed it could be beneficial to use all that input so as to boost the level of English. Nonetheless, whereas the first option (playing on-line games) was always willingly accepted, some parents were reluctant to play TV series in the original version on the grounds that (1) children would solely focus on the pictures and forget about the language; (2) a few parents wholeheartedly believed it was impossible for such young kids to understand any single word; and (3) nearly everyone claimed that no sooner had they changed the language than their kids started to complain. Thus, most of the families gave up before trying.
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There is substantial research that addresses the role of the first language in second language learning and instruction. Some studies point to the positive effect of the first language on the learning environment. Schweers (1999) found that first language use in the classroom creates a comfortable environment, and therefore an environment that enhances learning. In fact, in a study where teachers and students were interviewed about the use of the mother tongue in the classroom, most of the teachers reported the use of Spanish (mother tongue) in the classroom to build relationships with students. Students reported that they would like Spanish to be used to explain difficult concepts, which would help them feel more comfortable and confident in the classroom. Furthermore, Burchinal, Fiel, López, Howees & Pianta (2012) demonstrated the importance of the use of the first language in the second language classroom. The study indicates that teachers who speak Spanish in the classroom may create a more culturally sensitive environment that enhances learning and communication for children.
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In a study of the University of Seville about nonverbal communication in English as a second language, Álvarez Benito (2002) concluded that this kind of communication is typical of a culture. Also, the meaning and the use of nonverbal communication is not something innate in human being because this communication is learned as well as verbal communication. The same study refers to another important aspect which said that students use nonverbal elements in the second language (English) more than in the mother tongue (Spanish). That is why the speaker felt the necessity of making up for the lack of verbal fluency. The problem will be in the bad use of nonverbal elements. So, because of that it is important to work nonverbal communication in class because it may help to have fluency in the second language and, it could help to decode the message. Besides, if students have a good use of nonverbal elements, their communication might flow naturally, as it does in their mother tongue.
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Different online communicational modes —e.g. e-mail communication, chat rooms, bulletin boards, wikis, social networks, face-to-face conversations through videoconferencing, among many others— offer the possibility of various forms and degrees of collaboration between participants in the learning act. Focusing on foreign language learning, Warschauer et al. (2000) present five main reasons why the Internet should be used for EFL teaching. The first reason is authenticity. As mentioned earlier, sociocultural theory and task-based language teaching suggest that learners learn best when engaged in real-world tasks, i.e. when learning activities take place in meaningful contexts. The Internet can make learning meaningful because it provides opportunities for authentic communication and publishing and it allows access to vast amounts of authentic materials. Students can, therefore, find that using the Internet is relevant to their needs and interests and those of others. The second reason to use the Internet as a medium for EFL teaching is related to the issue of literacy. In keeping with the principles of communicative and collaborative language learning, by introducing ICT in English lessons teachers can help students to master the communicational and interactional skills needed for academic and occupational success in the 21st century. The third reason is interaction. According to constructivists and sociocultural theorists, interaction constitutes learning. Interaction and communication are the cornerstone of current L2 pedagogy and as Warschauer et al. (2000) put it, ―all effective English teaching incorporates some kind of interactive communication in the curriculum‖ (p. 7). In this respect, the Internet provides students with opportunities for flexible and constant communication with native and non-native speakers worldwide twenty four hours a day, thus the opportunities for language learning through interaction are maximized in online environments.
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Two major techniques are being deployed in appending and amending the knowledge bases. First, the databases are filtered using available monolingual and bilingual lexical lists or dictionaries and the missing entries are added. Second, the tagger itself is used as an important tool of testing the comprehensiveness and accurateness of the database. As can be seen in the Appendix, if a word form is not lemmatized, it will not be underlined, if it is lemmatized yet its English equivalent is missing, it will not be in the bold type. Those forms which are lemmatized and equipped with the English equivalent will be bold and underlined. Testing the taggers with the texts from the most popular newspapers is used to train the knowledge bases.
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Avalos (2003) cites Cummins and Krashen’s views that bilingual students “have access to the low-frequency vocabulary and grammatical structures found in texts, as opposed to the high-frequency vocabulary and syntax of everyday conversational language” (p. 175). Very closely related to these findings, this study found through different interviews with preschool and primary directors, the sixth grade Spanish teacher, and the sixth grade English teacher, that these particular sixth grade students have been exposed to an array of fictional novels starting in third grade. They will continue to be exposed to American and British literature combined with biographies throughout their high school careers. Therefore, these sixth grade students have and will continue to develop stronger L2 reading abilities by extensively reading in their L2 as Cummins and Krashen state when cited by Avalos (2006).
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One image is worth a thousand words. Images facilitate written and oral information understanding because in this way contents are illustrated, so that, students can visualize theories in a more concrete context, by looking at a picture, learners can activate their previous knowledge in order to refer to new situations they have contact with. Regarding this assertion, Hill (1990) stated that images are used as a “stimulus for writing and discussion, as an illustration of something being read or talked about, as background to a topic and so on” (p.15). That is why, regarding English language and teaching; pictures, posters, videos, flash cards, etc., help students to remember topics within different situations and hold up student’s speech at the moment of speaking.
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When teaching English, most of the teachers want to attain a significant English learning process. And to do that, the use of supplementary material is a good tool to increase the chances to acquire knowledge of a second language; it is due to the fact that when a person listens to or reads information can retain a considerable amount of data, but when the same person listens to, touches, reads, sees, writes and reacts to a given input the possibility to retain it increases considerably. As a result, the student will get fundamentals in a better way than without the use of aids, especially when learning a foreign language, which really needs communicative and interactive activities more than some other subj ects.
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In this study it was observed that students with a func- tional level of English are, quite often, too self-conscious in their use of the language, being excessively concerned with the use of a norm that is accepted by the native com- munity, and unable to transfer what they learn in the classroom to communication in real contexts. They also tend to ridicule, rather than empathise with, other speak- ers of English as a foreign language. This has grave con- sequences for their self-esteem and views of themselves as members of the English-speaking community. Finally, they are unaware of the power asymmetries that affect the communicative interactions in which they participate or, if they are aware, they are incapable of tackling them. Ulti- mately, they aspire to attain power (in the form of linguis- tic competence) at some point of their learning process so they can exert it once they gain access to the privileged community. It seems plausible that these teacher trainees’ ideas on the relationship between language, power and identity will be transferred, once they become teachers themselves, to their students (Giroux and Purpel 1983). In order to avoid this, it is contended, a series of strategies are needed to empower students in the English language classroom.
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Both Long and Krashen see comprehensible input as a source of acquisition, although there are other researchers who argue that comprehensible input is necessary, but not sufficient to promote acquisition. Swain (1985) develops, therefore, what is called as “comprehensible output” and she studies the effect of pushing language learners into language. According to her “output hypothesis”, she suggests three functions of learners’ output which relate to accuracy rather than fluency. These three functions have also been the focus of attention of many other researchers.
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During the first session, in which an oral presentation was video recorded. YLs developed a monologue without preparing the topic at home. The purpose was to use the language to fill in YLs needs of communication. This oral task performance was not very accurate, but the purpose was to observe how YLs organize themselves to perform an oral task without preparing it. Following Oxford Taxonomy, Cognitive strategies were also observed by the teacher by using the video tape and class observation notes, during this stage of the project, while looking for CSs and about peer’s interaction. Some YLs took notes about what they want to say, others use web organizers or others just stand up and perform the task as they could.
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giving clear instructions and explanations together with explicit grammar rules. The latter takes place after the mistake has been made by the lear- ner. This reaction to error making can be implicit or explicit on the part of the language instructor, i.e. the way the language teacher corrects the mistake can be very explicit by telling the student that the sentence s/he has produced is wrong because of this and that reason. But it can also be an implicit way of correcting the mistake by repeating the ill-formed utterance, by using clariﬁcation requests, such as Pardon? Sorry?
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Similarities between First Language and Second Language Acquisition Children do not learn their mother tongue simply through imitation and practice; instead, they produce utterances that are not like those they have heard. Children’s language seems to be created on the basis of some internal processes and knowledge which interact with the language they are exposed to, allowing them to find out how the language system works gradually. Children’s early language seems best described as a developing system with its own internal and systematic structures, not just an imperfect imitation of the language they are in the process of learning. Finally, children’s language reveals there is an order of acquisition of English morphemes and also some other syntactic structures such as negation. For example, English children invariably first start using the –ing morpheme before they would ever come up with a plural –s form; or they start using the irregular past of some highly frequent verbs such as saw and went before they start using the regular –ed morpheme. When they start using the regular –ed morpheme, they also tend to overgeneralise its use and apart from saying called, they would also say comed. In acquiring English negation, children also go though a series of stages, some of which are not target-like (grammatical). At one stage, English children use pre-verbal negation in utterances like mummy no comb hair.
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explaining complex concepts or during pairwork and groupwork. Professional development encompasses the answers related to the respondents’ view of themselves as researchers and learners (Breen and Candlin, 1980). STT, or Student Talking Time, deals with the amount of oral output produced by learners. It is also essential to distinguish between Students’ participation and Students’ involvement: the former is related to students’ autonomy, activeness and agency whereas the latter refers to the extent to which students become involved in the FL learning process. Teacher’s practice in CLT clearly includes respondents’ teaching strategies which follow CLT principles. The label of the variable Use of textbook speaks for itself. Authentic materials refers to the use of images, comics, films, texts, the internet or any other genuine resource teachers resort to when designing learning tasks. However, tasks and procedures which look for recreating real-like or daily-life contexts, using authentic materials or not, are included in the variable Real life tasks. Those practices considered from the students’ perspective, taking into account their knowledge, learning styles, needs, interests, etc. are encompassed in the label Student-centeredness. The variable Encouragement to use FL does not only involve fostering students’ use of the foreign language, but also how the teacher uses it and for what kind of teaching activities. Communicative tasks denotes the importance given by the teacher to productive skills (speaking and writing) and the teaching of grammar through texts, following an inductive method. On the contrary, Non-communicative tasks entails an emphasis on receptive skills (reading and listening). Traditional teaching includes those practices related to teaching vocabulary or grammar in a decontextualized manner or the use of grammar drills. Unlike Students’ participation, Students’ autonomy is related to pairwork and groupwork and their ability to help each other and ask a classmate for help. Finally, Mixed ability measures the extent to which teachers deal with heterogeneous groups.
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First of all, one of the most remarkable aspects in the intervention was the existence of previously created routines established in the classroom opposite to the routines designed and implemented for the first time with the students. At the time when the proposal was put into practice, it was found that the students had already acquired many routines that they had internalized since the beginning of the course and in previous courses. This fact offered the advantage of being able to observe the functioning of different routines and the level of acquisition of the students, as well as the predisposition that the pupils had towards them. Working with previously implemented routines has the advantage that students have already acquired the ability to perform the routine in a practically autonomous way, however, one of the clear drawbacks is the fact to implement tasks that have not been designed by the same individual, that is , each person designs the routines in a particular way, knowing their own skills and ways of working, being much more complicated to acquire the form of work of another person, which on the other hand is which the students are already accustomed.
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Path analysis is a technique that permits a researcher to test a specific model of the relationship among a series of variables, and results in a diagram indicating the correlations between what are called exogenous variables and regression coefficients linking the endogenous variables with the exogenous variables and other endogenous variables. All of the coefficients shown in the model are significant, and as shown in the title to the path diagram the fit indices (GFI and CFI) are very good, with a value of 1 indicating an excellent fit to the data. The model indicates that Motivation has a positive influence on English Grades while Language Anxiety has a negative influence. It indicates too that Integrativeness, Attitudes toward the Learning Situation, and Parental Encouragement have a positive influence on Motivation while Language Anxiety has a negative influence. Note too that there are substantial correlations among many of the exogenous variables. In particular there are high correlations between Integrativeness, and Attitudes toward the Learning Situation, Instrumental Orientation, and Parental Encouragement, indicating a link between Integrativeness and these other variables. Finally, note that Integrativeness and Attitudes toward the Learning Situation have the greatest influence on Motivation. Taken together, these results highlight the role that both the educational context and the cultural context play in second language acquisition. Both have a direct effect on motivation, which in turn has a direct effect on language achievement.
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Future research, following these recommendations, therefore, could strengthen our understanding of the role of strategy use in the classroom and determine the accuracy of both teacher and student perceptions. Our interpretation here is that, to a considerable extent language achievement is associated with characteristics linked to integrative motivation, which the students bring with them to the class and is relatively independent of strategy use (Factor I). Teacher motivation is, however, influential in the use of strategies as perceived by the students and can influence their attitudes toward the learning situation and motivation (Factor II). Students and teachers both recognize the use of traditional strategies, but in these classes there is a tendency for this to be related to lower levels of English achievement (Factor III). Finally, teacher’s perceptions of innovative strategy use is characteristic of classes where language anxiety is low, probably because there is less concern with assessment in these classes (Factor IV). Thus, the question of the role of the teacher and the use of strategies can be seen to be more complex that normally thought when it comes to language learning.
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