or advanced vocational training course (one or two years respectively). The data presented here are part of the author’s PhD dissertation Anna M. Moreno-Bedmar, La literatura juvenil de ciència-ficció de Manuel de Pedrolo. Universitat de Barcelona, 2016. All citations refer to this text available online. The main objectives of the thesis were: to explain why the science- fiction works Mecanoscrit del segon origen and Trajecte final [Final Trajectory] are considered literature for young people, and to present the characteristics of a model reader from the established corpus comparing him/her with real readers from a class of fourth year secondaryschoolstudents (15-16 year olds), so as to understand how they update the books through their own references and make them relevant to life today. This article focuses on this process.
The fourth hypothesis presupposes that during the listening comprehension processes of perception, parsing and utilization, there are more efficient patterns of memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive and social affective strategies than others in upper secondaryschoolstudents of English. Only male participant 6 in the pilot study, and female participant 14 in the main study could attain comprehension of the problem solving involved in the oral text. Therefore, this work examines their listening strategy patterns because they are considered the most efficient in the two studies. Comparing figures 4-31 and 4-32, the most significant difference in cognitive strategy use between participant 14 and the rest of the female participants is an absence of Code Switching, and an increased use of Translating. In addition, it is worth noticing that participant 14 also makes a slightly higher use of Skimming and better quality Scanning than the other female participants. With respect to compensation strategy use, figures 4-33 and 4-34 show that unlike the rest of the females, participant 14 made less use of Guessing Intelligently Using Linguistic Clues, but relied twice as much on Guessing Intelligently Using Other Clues than the rest of the girls. Regarding metacognitive strategy use, figures 4-35 and 4-36 give evidence that all female participants employed Selective Attention and Self- Monitoring; however, participant 14 shows a higher amount of Selective Attention and a lower one of Self-Monitoring. Therefore, the most efficient listening pattern of cognitive, compensation and metacognitive strategies includes: Translating, Skimming, Scanning, Guessing Intelligently Using Linguistic Clues, Guessing Intelligently Using Other Clues, Selective Attention and Self-Monitoring. As mentioned before, memory and social affective strategies were absent in the main study.
A third learning context (G3) would be represented by cases whose agglom- eration coefﬁ cients are between 8.000 and 41.900 (see Appendix 4). These are stu- dents who mainly belong to the monolingual school. In this group 100% of the students only speak Spanish when communicating and their learning context does not promote the use of English in daily routines, they do not speak it when they go abroad either, it is not the common language used in entertainment activities, and it is not a matter of voluntary study. In addition, the vast majority of the stu- dents’ mothers have university degrees. Many work as teachers, vets and doctors, while only some of them work in catering services and commerce, and some others are unemployed. On the other hand, the level of education of the fathers of these students is quite high and almost all of them have studied at the university. In fact, they mainly work as engineers, businessmen and administrators, among others.
In fact, the data showed that the participants did not report any concerns beyond the sentence level. In spite of the differences in proficiency between the groups, none of the writers in the study showed real higher level concerns about the quality of ideas, the coherence of their texts or the clarity of the expressions used. This lack of textual concerns could be attributed to the nature of the task itself, the time for task completion or the students’ level of L2 proficiency. It could also be regarded as a by-product of the correction habits induced among the students over the years. The students were probably used to receiving feedback only on lexical and grammatical aspects of their compositions and, as a result, they tended to perceive these problems as those which were of paramount importance in writing. For all these reasons, the importance of this finding should not be underestimated. Its main pedagogical implication is that if teachers continue to use methodological practices that do not allow learners to notice areas of concern beyond the sentence level, they will not be helping their students become real “text” writers. As an alternative, students might be encouraged to make their annotations on computers. This procedure would turn annotations visible and would allow both teachers and learners (individually and in groups) to respond to them paying more attention to textual concerns.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the teaching of writing strategies in the EFL/ESL high school classrooms. This is reflected in how institutional programs and textbook series regard writing management as crucial in the L2 learning environment. In this sense, nonetheless, high school classrooms have become spaces for product writing processes in which time constraints have made writing as process and implementation of feedback very difficult tasks to achieve. This has resulted in lack of clarity and cohesion in essays of different types, not to mention the scarce provision of meaningful feedback to aid students accomplish better products. This study focuses on the use of online thesis generators to help 16 students in year 10 in an international school in Bogota (following the National Curriculum of England and Wales) write clearer thesis statements to achieve more cohesive and coherent persuasive essays. The study proposes a concrete methodology to create self-awareness of the pre-writing stage and the use of feedback to improve final products. Findings revealed that although the use of online thesis generators posed some problems to students in terms of accuracy, they were well-accepted because of the advantages to generate and organize ideas. Also, the provision of feedback was very much appreciated because of the possibility to improve linguistic competence despite the fact that it not always ensured students’ better performance in writing.
This document intends to describe the academic performance of the students of basic education and media of the Educational Institution Antonio Ricaurte (IEAR) of Florence, according to the basic subjects established in the General Law of Colombian Education (Law 115 of 1994), its stratum Socio-economic, gender and contact with the armed conflict. The study is framed in the research project "Social representations of students of the IEAR about postconflict" of the program ONDAS Colciencias, which conceives in one of its questions, to investigate if the armed conflict affects the academic performance of students. From the methodological scope, descriptive and correlational statistical analyzes of the variables were performed.
Objective: students should be able to learn how to say the date in French, as well as to learn some important celebrations in France, so as to develop cultura l values. In the Warm up of the lesson the first activity consisted on checking the given homework, in which they were supposed to find the equivalent in French for saying the months of the year. This homework was well carried out by students; they considered it was a very simple content to be learned by heart. Then, as a way of introducing the new content to be learned, the teacher considered appropriate to ask the students if they knew what the most important celebration on December month was. Very short information about the most popular celebration in December: Christmas was given to them. About this topic, they just received a piece of information that allowed students to establish a comparison between Cuban and French Christmas. Socio-cultural component was very present at this point of the lesson, since they could identify all the differences between French and Cuban ways of celebrating Christmas.
Third, the software of CALL programs is still imperfect. Ongoing computer technology mainly copes with reading, listening, and writing skills. Although some speaking programs have been developed recently, their functions are still limited. Warschauer (2004) stated that a program should ideally be able to understand a user’s “spoken” input and evaluate it not only for preciseness, but also for “appropriateness”. It should be able to distinguish students’ problems related to pronunciation, syntax, or usage and then reasonably decide among solutions.
Focusing on SecondarySchoolstudents’ use of particular request linguistic formulae, we may observe in Table 3 above that a total of 75.28% of the strategies employed were related to ability modal verbs distributed into the use of can, which amounted to 51.4% (more than half of the overall strategy use), and the use of could, which accounted for 23.88%. Furthermore, it is also worth noticing that the willingness strategies, which amounted to a 5.76%, were only expressed by the structure Would you ...?. Thus, in contrast to University students, who attempted to use more elaborate willingness structures, the SecondarySchoolstudents who tried to employ the expression Would you mind + V-ing ...? failed to used it correctly, as the verb was not in the gerund form, and none of the SecondarySchoolstudents employed the expression Would you be so kind as to ...?. However, like University students, SecondarySchoolstudents also produced questions, amounting to 4.92%.
Background: The School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) can be applied in different fi elds of psychology. However, due to the inventory’s administration time, it may not be useful in certain situations. To address this concern, the present study developed a short version of the SAI (the SAI-SV). Method: This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version (SAI-SV) using a sample of 2,367 (47.91% boys) Spanish secondaryschoolstudents, ranging from 12 to 18 years of age. To analyze the dimensional structure of the SAI-SV, exploratory and confi rmatory factor analyses were applied. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated for SAI- SV scores. Results: A correlated three-factor structure related to school situations (Anxiety about Aggression, Anxiety about Social Evaluation, and Anxiety about Academic Failure) and a three-factor structure related to the response systems of anxiety (Physiological Anxiety, Cognitive Anxiety, and Behavioral Anxiety) were identifi ed and supported. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were determined to be appropriate. Conclusions: The reliability and validity evidence based on the internal structure of SAI-SV scores was satisfactory.
This article discusses schooling processes among students attending public school in con- texts defined as vulnerable. The work also takes into account the implications of a narra- tive-based method, especially in terms of the relationships that can be built between researcher and research participants. On the understanding that the narrative approach has the potential to consolidate itself as a source of information on a particular social group, secondaryschoolstudents, we raise a debate about the representations young peo- ple make of school. In addition, we analyze future frameworks in light of schooling pro- cesses developed in disadvantaged areas. With regard to method, we weave a dialogue on the requirements and ethical implications concerning the relationship between researcher and participants. This text is based on biographical meetings held with two students aged 17, a boy and a girl, enrolled in a Portuguese secondaryschool. The results show that the students perceive school as a key place for learning, a site where socialization occurs and, especially, a refuge from problems. Despite supporting future projections, however, this same school cannot work as a social equity device.
This article has argued in favour of using digital storytelling as a tool to encourage a critical socio-educational focus in secondaryschool education and as the perfect tool to include multimodal explicit teaching in the curriculum. On the one hand, the result obtained from the analyses of 50 digital stories by secondaryschoolstudents proves that the digital story is a genre that allows students to work both individually and in groups to produce a critical opinion about a conflicting social issue.The valuation of the tool is therefore positive since it allows the use of the social environment as an educational medium in and from which the students learn. Consequently, the relationship between the context and the student, often ignored, is confirmed as a fundamental element in the production of a digital story, thus using multimedia technology to encourage the critical character of students. In sum, multimodal digital story telling fosters a socio-cognitive method of teaching (Castelló, 2002) and learning, in which students evaluate the reality that surrounds them and produce their own interpretation of it. This certainly contributes to the acquisition of knowledge-based skills and interaction with the physical world; social and citizen skills, and cultural skills (cf. BOE nº 174 de 21 de julio de 2007).
and nerdy while only few of them identified scientists as ordinary people. When reflecting about where this image comes from during the focus group, students associated it with the one showed by the media. Indeed, these beliefs about the universal traits and attributes shared by people who work in science have been largely and traditionally reinforced by fictional charac- ters (Long, Boiarsky, & Thayer, 2001). And these findings suggest that the way science is mainly portrayed by the media still contributes to unattractive stereotypes about scientists’ work, showing, for instance, that scientists work in isolation and conduct dangerous experiments (Tintori, 2017). In this sense, students mentioned traits related to the narrow view of science shown by the media, such as those situating scientists working in isolation or in specific areas mainly related to natural and experimental sciences like biol- ogy and chemistry and requiring lab tools or a microscope. By focusing on this simplified image of science, the media can be indirectly hiding the wide variety of jobs that can be reached through the study of STEM careers and, therefore, limiting the interest of young people for other scientific careers outside this scope. Such a distant and reduced representation of science by the media that is affecting students’ perceptions of scientists might also con- tribute to explaining why students’ motivation for pursuing STEM careers was so low across the three case studies before the intervention. If students view scientists as being far from “normal people,” they might see them- selves as being far away from “the science world.” Besides media, however, there are other factors narrowing the representation of scientists and foster- ing the salience of stereotypes about them. For instance, in the case of engi- neers and computer scientists, the way that their own institutions communicate their work and present their working environment (e.g., com- puter science departments decorated with science fiction books and Star Trek posters) is suggested as also strengthening this stereotyped image and particularly discouraging girls from these professions (Cheryan et al., 2015). In this sense, there is a need to continue broadening the representation of the scientific field by the media and academic institutions themselves, beyond scientists’ look, to shift the still prevailing stereotyped image among young people. Finding ways to alter these stereotypes so as to increase young peo- ples’ identification with scientists and their interest in science within the school context leads us to our second discussion point.
The implementation of the system of communicative activities was carried out in order to expand English language vocabulary in ninth grade students from “Antonio Guiteras Holmes” SecondarySchool. The proposal was implemented in a period of five weeks, during the controlled and free practice lessons of the English subject. Before the implementation of the activities only seven (30.4%) students were placed in the high rank, they were able to use basic vocabulary related to what they had achieved in the previous grade. Nine (39.1%) students reached a medium rank and seven (30.4%) were placed in a poor one. So taking into account what it is stated in the program of the subject it could be affirmed that the objectives of the previous grade were not fulfilled.
Third, and based on the philosophy of ‘slow science’ (Alleva, 2006), the ICIL project was planned on a long-term, flexible basis (3 to 10 years), had no performance targets, but some task deadlines. Such a long time frame facilitates the meshing of the agendas of both researchers, who often have a dense research schedule, and citizens, who typically pursue their own personal and professional lives. It may also allow transformative learning to take place. One cannot expect a full understanding of research values and methods with a few hours of lecture or even the best interactive workshops. Moreover, and contrary to what is required of most school projects, the absence of imposed research outcomes and deliverables does not means a lack of results or low performance. The ICIL project demonstrates students’ engagement in research led to meaningful contributions that are usually restricted to professional, academic research, such as publishing a peer-reviewed scientific article (Andujar et al., 2015) and participation in a researchers’ discussion at a departmental seminar (i.e., the
When the standards were first proposed, the reaction was generally positive. For example, textbook publishers began to label their books “standards based.” The National Science Foundation funded projects to develop new instructional materials for the middle school and high school grades. District and state curricu- lum standards began to be aligned with the NCTM standards, and politicians praised the NCTM for its leadership role in improving the curriculum. But gradually a backlash began to set it. Columnists and editorial writers began to complain about standards efforts, using terms like “fuzzy math,” “whole math,” and the “new-new math.” Standards supporters answered back, calling current school mathematics “parrot math.” Parents and some mathematicians told anec- dotes of students failing to learn “basic facts.”
mechanism or interconnecting network; an organized scheme or method. Also an organized set of ideas or theories or a particular way of doing something´´. The scientific result that emerged from the building up process is considered a system of lessons, because it is structured within the course syllabus, taking as starting points the objectives of the grade and the unit, the contents of the unit especially, the communicative functions with their corresponding grammar points. Moreover, the activities are graded according to the students’ characteristics and the level of complexity of the contents, always departing from the easiest exercises to the most difficult ones in the lessons, but there is a close interrelation and interdependence among all those elements that function as an indissoluble whole, giving the proposal a systemic character. 2.5.3 Description of the proposal.
The U5MR has several advantages. First, it measures an end result of the development process rather than an ‘input’, such as school enrolment level, per capita calorie availability or the number of doctors per thousand popu- lation – all of which are means to an end. Second, the U5MR is known to be the result of a wide variety of inputs: antibiotics to treat pneumonia; insecticide-treated mosquito nets to prevent malaria; the nutritional health and the health knowledge of mothers; the level of immunization and oral rehydration therapy use; the availability of maternal and child health services, including prenatal care; income and food availability in the family; the availability of safe drinking water and basic sanitation; and the overall safety of the child’s environment. Third, the U5MR is less susceptible to the fallacy of the average than, for example, per capita gross national income (GNI). This is because the natural scale does not allow the children of the rich to be one thousand times as likely to survive, even if the human-made scale does permit them to have one thou- sand times as much income. In other words, it is much more difficult for a wealthy minor- ity to affect a nation’s U5MR, and it therefore