al health insurance categories –Civil Servant Medi- cal Benefit Scheme (CSMBS), Social Security Scheme (SSS), and Medical Welfare Scheme (MWFS). CSMBS includes all civil servant officers with close family which individually reimburses medical expenses from the Controller General’s De- partment. SSS includes all Thai employees who are registered to the National Social Security Fund. MWFS includes all the remaining Thai citizens in the national database, which can access public health services from public hospitals and private hospital registered with The National Health Secu- rity Office. All national health insurances cover ba- sic healthcare services, however there are some differences between them. CSMBS covers some medi- cations that are part of the National List of Essen- tial Medicines, and liver transplant, whereas other schemes do not cover this. There are also some dif- ferences in hospital room fee reimbursement rules among these insurances.
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For the long-run economic development in Mexico it is important to be aware of and account for the economic consequences of foreseeable demographic changes in discussions about the redesign of the social security system. As is well-documented, Mexico has, similar to many other OECD countries, an aging population (Burniaux et al., 2004; Wong, 2001; Zúñiga Herrera, 2004). One of the consequences of an aging population is an increased pressure on pension plans. On the one hand there are more people who have the right to claim from the plan, while on the other hand the number of people who contribute to the plans is likely to decrease due to a decreasing labor force. The latter however can be compensated if the low participation rates in pension plans would increase. Currently the income situation of elderly in Mexico is not very good (e.g. Pedrero Nieto, 1999; Parker and Wong, 2001; Wong and Espinoza, 2003; Rodriguez-Flores and DeVaney, 2006), partly due to a lack of access to a retirement pension. Another consequence of an aging population is that the costs for health care services can be expected to increase, because in general elderly people have more health problems. The larger number of elderly is therefore likely to increase the pressure on health expenses (e.g. Ham Chande, 1999), which are paid from social security plans that are filled by working people and increasingly through tax-financed social protection (Seguro Popular). It implies that the younger generations (whose size will decrease in the long run) have to contribute more to the social security or protection plans in order to cover the health expenses for the older generations. This may create additional incentives for informality, avoiding taxes and contributions to social security (Levy, 2008).
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the sociological functionalism. As stated in several studies, concurrently with the episte- mological crisis of the field of preventive and social medicine, there was a generalized crisis sparked in the health care services that, in the case of Brazil, added up to the transformations of the social security system. This scenario took place in a political context characterized by authoritarianism, political repression, press censorship, persecution of educators and activists’ detentions. We should bear in mind that military dictatorship in Brazil lasted from the 1964 coup d’état up to 1985 when Tancredo Neves, former governor of Minas Gerais, was elected as President by indirect voting through the Electoral College; he died before taking office. Therefore, Vice-president José Sarney was sworn in as President of the Republic of Brazil.
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Copyright © 2015 Pedro Castillejo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based on wearable devices are being used in a growing variety of applications, many of them with strict privacy requirements: medical, surveillance, e-Health, and so forth. Since private data is being shared (physiological measures, medical records, etc.), implementing security mechanisms in these networks has become a major challenge. The objective of deploying a trustworthy domain is achieving a nonspecific security mechanism that can be used in a plethora of network topologies and with heterogeneous application requirements. Another very important challenge is resilience. In fact, if a stand-alone and self- configuring WSN is required, an autosetup mechanism is necessary in order to maintain an acceptable level of service in the face of security issues or faulty hardware. This paper presents SensoTrust, a novel security model for WSN based on the definition of trustworthy domains, which is adaptable to a wide range of applications and scenarios where services are published as a way to distribute the acquired data. Security domains can be deployed as an add-on service to merge with any service already deployed, obtaining a new secured service.
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ve force are the most significant element of the enti- re healthcare system that benefits all. The mural also tells us that the populace and its organizations must be aware of the modern entrenched bureaucracies and political groups that (for different reasons) attempt to block access to widely needed medical care and social security. The focus on the depiction of adults and chil- dren as part of the struggle for better health stimula- tes the notion that for the youth something has to be done in the present to secure their future and that tho- se children are the group most vulnerable to failures in health systems. The portrayal of children also suggests regeneration and that with time, new generations will have the choice to physically manifest what is created in the present. There is no doubt that the message of Rivera in this mural regarding health care for all conti- nues to be relevant today in Mexico and the rest of La- tin America. In these countries, more than 200 million people are currently without access to medical care, and in coming years, 80 million retirees will increase the numbers of people with limited access to this hu- man right 23 .
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temperature. However, under start-up conditions, dioxins and furans can be stopped from entering the atmosphere by use of wet scrubbers . Dental wastes consist of extracted teeth and other human parts which are usually loaded with micro-organisms and hence Dental waste must be rendered non-infectious before disposal which is regarded as the process of waste treatment. If this is not achieved the dispersal of dangerous infectious materials will ensue. Waste treatment is determined by waste type and the type of treatment appropriate for it. Incineration is just appropriate for dental waste. The volume and weight of incinerated dental waste is reduced to above 90% making the eventual disposal of a less problem when compared with other methods. Incineration is the best technology to date yet it has its own short comings such as high capital and running cost, operating charges, sterilisation efficacy, maintenance and operator skills, control of air and water emissions. Lastly, it cannot take care of radioactive materials from X-ray rooms. Management of dental waste can be done by treatment first, recovery of useful materials such as Mercury, Silver and other metals, modi‐ fication of characteristics of the waste, making exposure free of harm and environmental friendly. Basically there are two types of incineration namely large and small scale systems. The large scale systems utilises any of the followings: fluidized bed combustors , starved and excess air incineration and rotary kilns; while the small scale systems uses chambers which can be single or double chambers. Incineration can be used to heat water for the use of both the patients and hospital. Dental local anaesthetic cartridges, ampoules, glass wares that are not combustible can be treated with steam autoclaving, microwave irradiation, chemical treatment and radiofrequency irradiation .
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This approach is studied as a way of limiting the extension of the damage an intruder may cause and constitutes the foundation of a type of security tools whose objective is to protect neighboring systems by blocking intrusion attempts launched locally toward them and by alerting them about the fact that they are the target of an attack. Therefore, for the sake of its own security, a system could be interested in other hosts having such a monitoring system in place. In particular, instead of modeling the intruder’s behavior (i.e., human behavior) as the way of identifying abnormal activity, our solution approach focuses on the modeling of surveillance and attack tools (i.e., program behavior.) Attack software constitutes a repository of security information readily available on the Internet which has remained greatly unexplored and that could help improve the development of security tools. By detecting a rogue program in execution we expect to be able to protect other systems from being victims of a break-in. Further incidents could be prevented by countering the attack at the root or at an intermediate point instead of just assuming the defensive role of the target.
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Abstract. In the last few years we have witnessed a sustained rise in the popularity of online Social Network Sites (SNSs) such as Twitter, Facebook, Myspace, Flickr, LinkedIn, FriendFeed, Google Friend Con- nect, Yahoo! Groups, etc., which are some of the most visited websites worldwide. However, since they are are easy to use and the users are often not aware of the nature of the access of their profiles, they often reveal information which should be kept away from the public eyes. As a result, these social sites may originate security related threats for their members.
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Fallahpour, M.; Megias, D. (2009). High capacity method for real-time audio data hiding using the FFT transform. Paper presented at the Advances in Information Security and its Application; Communications in Computer and Information Science; 3rd International Conference on Information Security and Assurance, 25th-27th June 2009, Seoul, South Korea. 36, 91-97 (De 1 a 2 cites)
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, which is none other than today’s system for protecting unemployment being absolutely incapable of facing a situation in which someone needs a job (even in the more restrictive sense, when someone loses their job) in the new labour market context where a wide margin of flexibility in managing labour already seems irrefutable, especially when this margin actually exists in the present-day, either because the legislator has made several of the mechanisms from which it derives flexible—for both entering and leaving the labour market—or because the labour market itself has actually found its own channels (multiservice companies). Although classical regulations, based on the in- surance technique, have been complemented by the welfare protection configured beyond it, but are clearly and subjectively limited to those from this first level, it has been proven insufficient to face new forms of work or- ganisation. It is not a case of it being ineffective at facing new forms of providing services or work, but the whole productive system is organised in such a way that it is necessary to talk about new forms of work organi- sation because traditional techniques are now rendered insufficient. It is true that this statement is not exclusive- ly limited to employment protection, but it is here where we can possibly and more urgently realise the need to arbitrate solutions as loss of this job also conditions obtaining protection when faced with social risks, especially when facing retirement.
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The primary objective of the program is to improve standards of living, particularly health, through improvements in the physical environment in which families live. Replacing dirt floors with cement floors improves the cleanliness, warmth and aesthetics of the home environment. Most parasites live and breed in feces and are transmitted to humans when ingested. Fecal matter enters the house through various modes of transmission, including on the shoes of people, through animals, spillage of unclean water, and from young children with inadequate diapers. Dirt floors provide a vector for parasites to infest people, especially young children, since fecal matter tends to remain on the floor because it is less easy to spot and dirt floors are not easy to clean. Emma Marianela Morales-Espinoza, et al. (2003) find that among deprived households in Mexico, ceteris paribus, children residing in houses with dirt-floors are more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. Similar evidence is found for other Latin American countries (see, among others, M. I. Gamboa, et al. (1998) for Argentina; Kathryn H. Jacobsen, et al. (2007) for Ecuador; and Adriana S. Lopez, et al. (2003) for Haiti).
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Only 3% of firms have a comprehensive occupational health service although 15% have more basic support. Larger companies are more likely to have higher levels of support (Health and Safety Executive, 2002). The World Health Organization has described occupational mental health as a “Cinderella subject”, particularly in countries like Britain where responsibility for public health and for occupational health and safety is split between two Government departments (Cox et al., 2004, p.180). Many occupational health workers have limited knowledge of the nature, impact and treatment of mental health problems although there are exceptions (see Box 6). As well as high quality training, occupational health workers require support from mental health professionals if they are to identify and manage mental health problems in their workers. However, few mental health workers have direct experience of occupational health practice. Also, the priority for specialist mental healthcare services is people with severe mental illness and not those with the common mental disorders that are most prevalent in the workplace.
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With respect to disasters, which are increasing globally, the report shows that, between 1974 and 2003, 6367 natural disasters occurred globally, causing the death of 2 million people and affecting 5.1 billion people. A total of 182 million people were made homeless, while reported economic damage amounted to US$1.38 trillion. The report also shows that the aggre- gate impact of small-scale hazards on urban dwellers can be considerable. For example, traffic accidents kill over 1.2 million people annually worldwide. Factors rendering cities particularly vulnerable include rapid and unplanned urbanization; concen- tration of economic wealth in cities; environmental modifications through human actions; expansion of slums (often into hazardous locations); and ineffective land-use planning and enforcement of building codes. An increasingly important factor is climate change. There has been a 50 per cent rise in extreme weather events associated with climate change from the 1950s to the 1990s, and major cities located in coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise. Cities have been able to reduce disaster risk through, among other approaches, effective land-use planning and design of disaster-resistant buildings and infra- structure, improved risk mapping, institutional reform and training, establishment of effective communication and emergency response systems, as well as strengthening of reconstruction capacity. At the national level, governments are putting in place disaster risk reduction legislation, strengthening early warning systems, and instituting inclusive governance and planning in order to strengthen the resilience of cities and communities.
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tion states should be committed to providing for their citizens. Some form of socialized and equitable health care is provided in all western European nations and in Canada. Regrettably the example of medical care (as a marketable commodity - albeit with considerable state as- sistance for the poor and the aged) set by one the wealthiest nations in the world (with dam- aging effects on that society that are increas- ingly being acknowledged in the USA(30)) has been followed by many developing countries. Such privatization of medical care, aided and abetted by structural adjustment programs pro- moted by the IMF and the World Bank, has adversely affected health in many poor coun- tries. Acknowledging the need for, and the right to, universal access to a basic health care pack- age and achieving this goal pose challenges for the future. The WHO’s renewal strategy for health-for-all places emphasis on equity, soli- darity and appropriate technical, political and economic strategies that could promote health and sustainable health care systems as central requirements for development(31).
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Energy was the sector which has most leveraged the ML and DL methods in development of smart cities as four out of the 5 methods concerned in this study (arti ﬁ cial neural networks, support vector machines (SVMs), Ensembles, Bayesians, hybrids, and neuro-fuzzy, deep learning) are applied to provide different solutions for this sector. After energy, health, urban transport, and evaluation and management of smart cities are the other smart cities domains that have had most attention by the researchers in the standard ﬁ elds of ML and DL methods and smart cities where at least three different ML and DL methods are applied to address their research questions. This paper also reveals an unexpected result, i.e., the immense popularity of DL methods. The DL methods have been seen dramatically popular in smart city applications mainly published in 2018 and 2019. This paper further identi ﬁ ed future trends in the advancement of learning algorithms for smart cities. The trend in smart cities have shown to follow the trend in the overall trend which is a shift toward the advancement of the more sophisticated hybrid, ensemble and deep learning models, as also shown in [80 – 88].
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All these services and facilities create a setting where women have the choice and opportunity to enjoy their social, economic and political human rights equally in all walks of life. Women have a choice whether to have children or not, at what stage of life to have them, and how many to have. These kinds of social policies also bring women into the labour force as contributors to national econom- ic growth. Such “feminization” of society is sometimes described as “state femi- nism” run by “femocrats”, meaning femi- nist bureaucrats in public service. On the contrary, the femocrats see that progress is slow and that it occurs in response to the initiatives and aspirations of women’s movements and organisations.
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In 2014, both Resolutions were reinforced with the implementation of a National System of Occupational Risk Prevention Management  (SGP), again forcing employers to perform self-audits on the risk prevention management of their businesses to reduce occupational accident rates through the identification, measurement, evaluation and control of the existing workplace risks .
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Inequity in receipt of specialty services is much greater than in receipt of primary care services, even in countries with relative equity in use of primary care services (15, 22, 28, 29, 32, 99, 102). Therefore, interventions that give preference to specialist services are likely to in- crease inequity. In Spain, use of specialists is greater for younger, healthier, and more edu- cated people (74). In Scotland, lower-class in- dividuals are equally likely to receive cardiac surgery if they are judged as equally urgent, but they are less likely to be judged as urgent (67). In Ontario, Canada, where there are dis- incentives for specialists to see patients without a referral from primary care, family income is unrelated to the seeking of care or frequency of visits to either primary care or specialists af- ter controlling for morbidity burden (7, 35). In the United States, black patients waiting for re- nal transplants are much less likely to receive them; patient characteristics, such as histocom- patibility, account for only 14% of the inequity (38). The authors did not examine the extent to which differences in primary care afﬁliation were associated with these inequities. In clini- cal care, in which discretion plays a role in deci- sions about interventions in individual patients, patterns of inequity may vary. For example, in ischemic heart disease, there are differences in the interventions used in different population groups. Asians in the United Kingdom were found to have more angiography than other population groups (45). In western Australia, there were no socioeconomic differences in re- ceipt of coronary procedures in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In contrast, among patients with angina, more advantaged women were more likely to receive angiography (50).
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Accordingly, we will exam ine how Libya deals wit h t he securit y issue wit hin it s regional set t ings. I nit ially , t his requires t hrowing ligh t on t he un derlying fact ors t hat heav ily det erm ine th e preference and priorit y of which regional securit y arrangem en t t o adhere. I n t he Lib- ya case, t here are a num ber of alt ernat iv es. This include: t he Arab world, t he Middle East , Nort h Africa, the Arab Maghreb and t he Medi- t erranean Region.
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Cyberspace is in a stage of development similar to the years between World War I and World War II, when airpower emerged as a powerful military tool. It is essential to guide CSDP properly since “cyberspace reaches its full potential as a warfare domain equal to the traditional ones” (Lee, 2013, p. 59). Valuable lessons from the early years of the aerial domain can be applied to the cyberspace because, without any doubts, as we become involved in a new operating environment, we will find many of the same intellectual puzzles (Hurley, 2012). Nonetheless, we must avoid just expressing existing doctrine in a different way by using the word “cyber” instead of “air” or “space”. It can be guessed that now there is a need for resilient and long-lasting
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