In the context ofthe international situation at that time, Mori believed that the role ofthe Imperial System, with its long history, could not be ignored if Japan were to avoid being colonized and establish a modern state system. However, Mori, who had learned a great deal from Western intellectuals as a diplomat, also understood very well that the long-standing traditional culture of Japan related to the Imperial System (e.g. the concubine system) was regarded as unequal from the standpoint ofthe modern values in western cultures. Therefore, although Mori extolled nationalism, he was vehemently opposed to the brand of nationalism extolled by people like Motoda Nagazane, who viewed the Emperor as the nucleus of morality and sought governance based on the teachings of Confucianism. In this regard, Hasegawa Sei’ichi pointed out that Mori «should be called a nationalist in thesense that he wanted to create subjective citizens in Japan, rather than a nationalist in thesenseof someone who emphasized state power under rule by the Emperor» (Hasegawa, 2007, p. 330).
Experimenting with the senses (act.1). This activity appealed especially to those who like to try things, and to those with a more visual and musical intelligence. It also created a senseof intimacy. I introduced this activity to make a scientific topic more personal. Three pieces of music were played and needed to be associated with three images. Students were very active in this discussion and were genuinely surprised at how each of them had joined the music and the photos differently and still could justify why. The music and the photos triggered personal memories and feelings, and it was surprising how they shared them. Students said that they found it difficult to find “the right word” when trying to express feelings. I believe emotions are hard to express but they are not often brought into the classroom either. This activity was one of those moments when it is easy to forget you are in a class as there was a real conversation and a genuine wish to communicate.
How does the talante, the sensiblility of a country, limits the advantages of a European educational harmonization? One should be concerned that harmonization may: 1) create a greater cultural distance between the points of view ofthe social worker and those ofthe population at large; 2) suffocate or displace the native resources of help; 3) impose definitions of social problems as perceived from Central and Northern Europe; 4) result in unwittingly replacing a world view by another. These concerns are related to what has been observed in the USA. In that country there is a distance between the culture oftheprofession—liberal and “progressive”— and the traditional and religious cultures from which many social work clients come. On the one hand, social work students, in passing through the university, often loose their traditions, their inherited world view. On the other, they are taught to be sensitive towards the cultures of their clients, with the paradox that sometimes they must learn from the books about their own, cultures that they were taught to abandon in exchange for their university degrees. One must ask oneself if the harmonization of social work education carries similar risks in Spain, or even greater risks, since the cultural differences (linguistic, religious, legal, symbolic, of narratives and habits) among the European counties are deeper than those that can be observed within the US, in spite of its fifty states and its ethnic diversity. The idea of a standardized social work education through the European Union does not seem realistic, given the cultural content that must inform social work education.
During the last years the DRC has made itself known in the world for terrible acts of violence committed by armed men – militia and the regular army – against the civilian population. The voices ofthe soldiers and combatants have so far been absent in the accounts of this violence. This silence is problematic, both because it makes it harder to understand such violence, but also because it reinforces stereotypes of African warriors as primitive and anarchic, driven by innate violence and tribal hatred. Enquiry into the particular discursive as well as material circumstances ofthe armed conﬂict in the DRC, which might better redress the complex and interrelated context in which ‘ people in uniforms ’ commit violence, is consequently impeded. The story we recount here emerges from soldiers within the main perpetrator of violence in the DRC today : the Integrated Armed Forces. The soldiers’ interview texts challenge the dominant representation of soldiers and combatants in the DRC. The soldiers made senseofthe prevalence of violence (in which they too had participated) in several interrelated ways, none of which reﬂected any expression of ‘ natural ’ (if dormant) violent tendencies, hatred or vengefulness for the enemy.
of its own. In the process, Historia experienced a similar fortune ofthe majority of written materials ofthe Spanish colonial period by becoming a lost footnote or a book collecting dust in some forsaken shelf. Already Luis Leal (l973; l980; l993), Werner Sollors (l986), Martín-Rodríguez (2006, 2009), Lomelí (l983), Genaro Padilla (l992; 2010), Miguel Encinias et al (Villagrá 1992), María Herrera-Sobek (1999) and others have claimed that Historia distinguishes itself as the first American epic poem, preceding Captain John Smith’s General History of Virginia by fourteen years. Before its more contemporary resurgence in the l980s, only a few critics (i.e. John Gilmary Shea in l887, in “The First Epic of Our Country: By the Poet Conquistador of New Mexico Captain Gaspar de Villagrá,” and Gilberto Espinosa’s History of New Mexico by Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá in l933) dedicated efforts toward saving it from oblivion. The other instances (i.e., Francisco Pimentel, Erna Fergusson, George P. Hammond, Fray Angélico Chávez, etc.) were isolated cases of individual inquiry, but Luis Leal was the first to associate the work within early Chicano literary tradition. His critical assessments led to a revaluation of where to situate it in terms of literary history, giving it a new impetus as an antecedent of Chicano literature.
En los 80 en España la fotografía fue integrada en el relato de la movida, y se convirtió en el vehículo de transmisión de las nuevas identidades sociales. A diferencia de los fotógrafos de comienzos de los 70, como Cristina García Rodero, Alberto Schommer, Koldo Chamorro, Jorge Rueda o Xurxo Lobato, cuyo trabajo consistió en interpretar la pulsión de las tradiciones, en retratar el sentido de comunidad y analizar el choque entre modernidad y cotidianeidad. “Los fotógrafos de la movida articularon su mirada desde un ángulo más oblicuo, aparentemente alejado de un interés social o político” (Smith 2000, 46). Esta nueva estética fue muy apreciada fuera. Un ejemplo es la serie que realizó Mary Ellen Mark en 1985 para Rolling Stone: “The New Spain”. 1
The following paper describes the outcomes and insights ofthe first stage of an action research study aimed to explore ways in which CBP and NC strengthen senseof community and provoke actions to benefit that community is a public school located in a rural area. This work emerged from a needs analysis study in which students gave their opinions about the importance of English as a foreign language. Implementing CBP and Negotiated Syllabus as means to involve and foster students to be aware of their responsibility for the preservation ofthe school facilities, as well as educating the surrounding community, demonstrated the development ofsenseof community in the students. Throughout the use of questionnaires, surveys and journals, the outcomes revealed that students felt more motivated when they are taken into account in making curricular decisions. In addition, this study showed that a commitment from the entire academic community is possible when some academic and personal goals are established collaboratively and efforts are made to generate important changes.
In , it is presented a Riesz-type generalization ofthe concept of second variation of normed-space-valued functions defined on an interval [a, b] ⊆ R ; in particular, it is shown that a function f ∈ X [a,b] , where X is a reflexive Banach space, is of bounded second-variation (in thesenseof Riesz) if and only if it can be expressed as the (Bochner) integral of a function of bounded (first) Φ-variation. Moreover, there the authors obtained a Riesz’s lemma type inequality to estimate the total second Riesz Φ-variation of a function. In , is introduced the concept of second Φ-variation in thesenseof Schramm, for normed-space valued functions defined on an interval [a, b] ⊆ R .
los especialistas coinciden en que uno de los principales retos de la universidad actual tiene que ver con el desarrollo de una estrecha y eficaz cooperación entre éstas y el mundo em- presarial. Frente a dichas demandas que pueden traducirse en presiones e imposiciones políticas y económicas, los campus universitarios repre- sentan instancias y espacios para avanzar en el conocimiento respecto del desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías, como bien apuntan Okubo y Sjoberg (2000). De este modo, los proyectos estratégicos y los planes de desarrollo de las universidades en todo el mundo, incluyen de manera prio- ritaria la creación de nuevas tecnologías y las diversas modalidades de alianzas con el entorno social, particularmente con los agentes económi- cos de producción. El objetivo final tiene que ver con la creación de un modelo estructural que contenga la satisfacción, el compromiso y la participación que se desprenden de las relaciones entre universidades y empresas. La consolidación de este tipo de modelos ha te- nido gran éxito en países como Inglaterra, en donde se advirtió un alejamiento preocupante entre la universidad y el ámbito industrial. Para contrarrestar esta situación se generó el proyecto HESIN (1999), (Higher Education Support for in- dustry in the North), en el que se reunió a seis universidades del Norte de Inglaterra para sumi- nistrar a la industria conocimientos técnicos, en particular a las Pymes del país. Otro caso signi- ficativo de este tipo de alianzas lo representa la industria farmacéutica alemana Bayer, la cual, como señala Bower (1993), mantiene vínculos formales con diversas universidades alemanas y otras en el mundo, desde el siglo XIX.
Two years later, in 1969, Kutner first used the term ‘living will’ in the USA, arguing that a com- petent adult’s wishes for his or her future care should be recorded and respected(8). The issue was raised again in 1976, when the parents of Karen Quinlan successfully applied to have the ventilator removed from their daughter, who had been diagnosed as brain-stem dead, thanks to a New Jersey Supreme Court ruling that noted the ‘right to die with dignity and in peace’. This rul- ing prompted many ethical committees to enact living will statutes in the USA(9).
Analyses based on neural networks and ‘fuzzy logic’ (Baldwin, 1996): The ‘pattern classification’ is an analysis linking statistical and neural approaches (Schuermann, 1996). The fuzzy logic pro- vides interesting tools for data mining, mainly because of its ability to represent imperfect informa- tion, which is of crucial importance when databases are complex, and contain heterogeneous, imprecise, uncertain or incomplete data (Bouchon-Meunier, Detyniecki, Lesot, Marsala, & Rifqi, 2007).
Just as this extract stipulated, what this implementation is looking for it is to create a scenario where students could face, in first place, their own strength and weakness so they can be aware ofthe impact that each individual has inside ofthe community. Prieto (2001) states that there are many authors calling to a new type of school structure where it is possible to build a community able to learn from each other. If we consider the teacher as the authority inside ofthe classroom it might be relevant if we also consider the root of this word, which comes from augere; to increase, one who causes to grow. Having this meaning in mind, it is perfectly possible to think in Project- based learning as a tool to activate not only the correct use of English but also a more complete learning process for the students, where the teacher acts as a guide through out ofthe experience and each pupil get in charge of his/her role along the practice. Giving the students thesenseof responsibility on their own educational experience, enable them to acknowledge the importance of every single member in a community.
observable behaviours that may lead to learning. Initially, the participants tended to focus more on purely mechanical matters such as teacher-student interactions, possibly because ofthe systematic observation based on guidelines in the first stage of our study. However, as the number of lessons increased, techniques were observed in more detail, including the basis behind them, their theoretical foundations, and the ideal structure in class (Zacharias, 2012). The participants observed the teaching models to be followed such as interactions focusing on the pupil, accounting for pupils’ previous knowledge, and combining various language skills in one lesson. The student teachers were able to see the pedagogical sequences while observing the class as a whole. These findings indicate that classroom observations appear to lead student teachers to understand the teaching profession as a technical activity and that they developed their learning in terms of “knowing like a teacher” (Feiman-Nemser, 2001: 698). In the observations through the last stage, it is observed that it is not a student’s prism but a learner’s one to become a teacher. The findings focus on more subtle aspects such as the mechanism to motivate or reach all pupils. In our study, the continuous observation of pedagogic events led the participants to understand why a lesson worked properly and thus to develop an enquiring attitude toward pedagogic events.
Although we have explained some ofthe most important elements and constraints ofthe subtitling technique, let us clarify that there are still other significant aspects that – as motioned before- require further and profound knowledge and experience, which is why we haven’t applied them in this project. But most importantly is the lack of more reliable sources of information (most of which are found in the Internet) including the technical equipment or software to make subtitles. Therefore, the present translation exercise will elucidate only the basic notions of translation for subtitles and leave out aspects such as timing and synchronization.