Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

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Evolución arquitectónica y enriquecimiento artístico de la Parroquia de Tijarafe en los siglos XVI y XVII / The Architectural Evolution and Artistic Enrichment of Tijarafe Parish in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (La Palma, Canary Islands)

Evolución arquitectónica y enriquecimiento artístico de la Parroquia de Tijarafe en los siglos XVI y XVII / The Architectural Evolution and Artistic Enrichment of Tijarafe Parish in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (La Palma, Canary Islands)

Yten se la pasan en quenta quinientos reales por lo que hiço de costo la jornada [...] que el dicho maiordomo hiço para encalar la Yglecia como de pressente lo esta y aderesar el texad[r]

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The case for prophecy: politics, gender and self-representation in 17th-century prophetic discourses

The case for prophecy: politics, gender and self-representation in 17th-century prophetic discourses

us to reassess our preconceptions of what women’s writing is, and of what it has been over history. No doubt this is the result of the enormous variety of these texts: along with the general impulse given to writing by the spread of Protestantism, there were multiple and often incompatible traditions of belief that developed in Britain during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the very act of writing had different meanings and connotations in each of these traditions, and this applies as well to the concept of “self” expressed in autobiographical texts. The massive extension and dissemination of prophetic utterances that is intimately characteristic of the climate of dissent in seventeenth-century England compels us to review the interrelation between contemporary politics, religion and the public sphere. Orianne Smith, in her study of the female prophetic tradition, contends that “these women and many others believed that they were writing and prophesying during a critical juncture in English history – a point in which sacred and secular history converged – and this shared belief gave their prophetic discourse a political edge and provided them with an audience willing to listen to their interpretations of God’s will”. (Smith, 2004: 87) At the same time, drawing on the Old Testament prophetic tradition, the act of prophesising necessarily bears implicit a political pronouncement of some sort. According to the Oxford Companion to the Bible (1993: 621), “prophecy in Israel represents the true prophet as the agent and defender of Yahweh in opposition both to religious apostasy and syncretism and to the authority of kings when these failed to uphold the cause of Yahweh or flouted his moral demands”. This definition suggests that the political substance of prophetic writing is an imperative of the genre, and that both divine inspiration and political counsel to ruling authorities are embedded in the prophetic text.
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Playing by the rules: Gambling and Social Identity in Early Modern German Towns

Playing by the rules: Gambling and Social Identity in Early Modern German Towns

exist rarely consider the arguments of gamblers among the lower orders, or the dialogue between gamblers and authorities that can occasionally be gleaned from court records and supplications. The polemic of moralists and authorities appears in a new light when viewed within the context of records of arrest and interrogation of German townsfolk during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. These records provide evidence not only that the authorities themselves were more tolerant of popular norms, and more consistent in their aims, than their instruments of control would suggest; they also show that certain values generally associated with the nobility of the eighteenth century had deeper roots that were unrelated to noble status. Evidence from both printed and documentary sources from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries support the conclusion that the authorities as well as the populace recognized in gambling an opportunity to display positive values such as courage, honesty, risk- taking, economic stability, and good character – and this was true for common craftsmen as well as for nobles or patricians. These norms, however, are often obscured by the preponderance of attacks on gambling that appeared during the early modern period in the form of moralist tracts and sermons, critical broadsheets, and ordinances and decrees issued by local and regional authorities.
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TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

TítuloA multidimensional analysis of late Modern Englis scientific texts from the "Coruña Corpus"

In line with this idea of continuity, Shapin (1996: 1) opens his analysis of the Scientific Revolution by stating that “[t]here was no such thing as the Scientific Revolution”, but, rather, “some self-conscious and large-scale attempts to change belief, and ways of securing belief, about the natural world” (1996: 5). This reformulation – or, even, negation – of a widely accepted historical term reflects a more analytical, less anachronistic, and perhaps less enthusiastic perspective on what has traditionally been considered a groundbreaking change from “old” to “new” science (Hall 1954; Kuhn 1970). Moreover, it might be argued that Scientific Revolution is also an unsuitable term because, strictly speaking, there was no such science, as used in the modern sense of the word, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (Shapin 1996; Park & Daston 2006; Camiña-Rioboo 2013). Instead, there were a variety of branches of knowledge, presenting a wide range of problems, theoretical and practical, which at that time belonged to what was called natural philosophy. Likewise, “proper sciences” and “pseudosciences” (Shapin 1996: 6) such as astronomy and astrology, or chemistry and alchemy, still coexisted and were not entirely distinguishable. However, Shapin (1996: 5) subsequently counteracts his earlier attack on the idea of a Scientific Revolution, defending that it was precisely at that time – in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries – that a group of natural philosophers from different corners of Europe decided to step forward and proposed new ways of approaching the study of the natural world; new ways that, in comparison to those of the “ancients”, would revolutionise science. In essence, the decision to make experiment an indispensable part of scientific practice caused not only a notorious advancement in technology, with the growing need for innovative instruments such as the telescope and the microscope, but also a gradual change in the conception of scientific “experience” itself (Dear 1995: 13). If at the beginning of the seventeenth century experimentation was still conceived of largely in its Aristotelian sense – i.e. the statement of facts “known to the senses” –, at the end of the century experiments will be carried out expressly for the scientific study and will be meticulously described in the writings of natural philosophers. The modern conception of scientific method will thus have changed forever since.
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Impacts of land abandonment and climate variability on runoff generation and sediment transport in the Pisuerga headwaters (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain)

Impacts of land abandonment and climate variability on runoff generation and sediment transport in the Pisuerga headwaters (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain)

We analysed the different components of Global Change in a catchment of 233 km2 extent, that has passed from 15 to 2 habitants/km2, from multiple data sources. Evolution of land use and land cover was reconstructed from old manuscripts, aerial photographs, and remote sensing. The climatic parameters have been studied through

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Haciendas, ranchos and indian communities : new perspectives on the agrarian question and popular rebellion in Veracruz

Haciendas, ranchos and indian communities : new perspectives on the agrarian question and popular rebellion in Veracruz

My purpose here is to examine the major studies that have appeared over the past decade on the Veracruz agrarian question in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and show how [r]

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Vista de A Mughal Princess in Baroque New Spain: Catarina de San Juan (1606 1688), the china poblana
							| Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas

Vista de A Mughal Princess in Baroque New Spain: Catarina de San Juan (1606 1688), the china poblana | Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas

in viceregal painting in the seventeenth century, and also echoes a famous visión of María de Agreda, who witnessed the Virgin Mary receiving Com- munion at the hands of the ángel Gabrie[r]

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Historiografía y museografía en el  Museo Colonial de Bogotá (1999-2012)

Historiografía y museografía en el Museo Colonial de Bogotá (1999-2012)

called The game of identities before the Indepen- dence, ‘shows the emergence of new identi- ties in La Nueva Granada during the XVIII century, the transformation of the notion of individuality and the place of old and new kinds of knowledge within society’. The dis- play of this collection has a strong influence from postcolonial studies. Therefore, its way of approaching the past is not guided by epistemological reasons but by political ones. The book of Colombian philosopher Santiago Castro-Gomez titled The hybris of point zero: science, race and Enlightenment in La Nueva Granada (1750-1816) (2005) was a significant referent to this curatorship. As Rojas affirms, this exhibition makes visitors think of their own present and the way they construct their identity. In that sense, Rojas and his team believe that the public should also ‘assume an active role in the configuration of the past’. To turn this project into a reality, the curatorial work of this exhibition room exhibited the artworks in different settings that pretended to create an interaction between the objects and the public. According to Rojas, ‘insofar as the Museums modify their ways of approach- ing the past, it will be possible to talk about a citizenship with historical consciousness. In this respect, these institutions have to learn to negotiate with the contemporary society without trying to dogmatize it’. Set- tings like a baroque altarpiece, in which in- stead of saints one can find national heroes, or a XVII century bed where a document that proves the purity of blood of a family is projected, are some examples of this kind of display.
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Revista Ingeniería Investigación y Tecnología | Facultad de Ingeniería UNAM

Revista Ingeniería Investigación y Tecnología | Facultad de Ingeniería UNAM

in the restoration and construction of monuments in the city of Guanajuato (Los Morados, La Veta, Coleto, El Blanquito, El Moyejón, El Verde, La Per- la, and La Cema), the names assigned to the lithofacies are informal and were called so by local stonemasons. This lithofacies were investigated by the techniques of optical microscopy; X-ray diffraction and Scanning Elec- tron Microscopy (SEM) and physical properties (uniaxial compressive strength, capillarity water absorption, apparent and real density, total po- rosity) and durability using the salt crystallization test. The analytical re- sults support that La Veta is the best lithofacie of Losero Formation which made it an ideal material for columns, pedestals, staircases, flooring, while that of La Cema cannot be used as pillars, balconies, and floors. The pre- sence of calcite and kaolinite in La Veta and La Cema was not favorable for outdoor use. La Perla, El Moyejón and Coleto, were found to be an ideal material for columns, pedestals, staircases, flooring. Los Morados, El Blan- quito, and El Verde exhibited low strength and durability values so cannot be used as pillars, balconies, and floors. These materials, notwithstanding their different behavior towards decay agents, are all affected by similar weathering typologies that, in order of importance and extension are: back weathering, break out, discoloration, soiling, lichen and fissures. The rate of decay depends on the textural fabric properties of the lithofacies, on the pollution fluxes and on the environmental setting (air pollution, meteoro- logical and micro-climatic conditions). The results obtained make it possi- ble to choose suitable lithofacies for the replacement and substitution in the restoration processes in monument of the Guanajuato city.
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Christian Captives on the Shores of the Sea of Alboran (15th and 16th centuries)

Christian Captives on the Shores of the Sea of Alboran (15th and 16th centuries)

55. García Arenal, Mercedes; Bunes Ibarra, Miguel Ángel de. Los españoles y el Norte de África...: 218, states that: El cautivo es el resultado de una guerra latente nunca declarada abiertamente, que no pretende conquistar las tierras del enemigo, sino hacerle el mayor daño posible. Al mismo tiempo, es el producto de una época, presidida por unos sistemas técnicos y militares muy específicos, el engranaje de un sistema económico y el resultado de un enfren- tamiento entre dos religiones monoteístas. Pero para el cautivo todas estas disquisiciones se reducen a sufrir en sus carnes las penalidades de la privación de la libertad, “the captive was the result of a latent war, never openly declared, which did not pretend to conquer the lands of the enemey, but rather to cause the most harm possible. At the same time, it was the product of an era, ruled by very specific technical and military systems, the machinery of an economic system and the result of a clash between two monotheistic re- ligions. However, for the captive, all these glosses were reduced to the bodily suffering of the pains of lost freedom.” This situation gave the captive a certain marginality, a characteristic feature of the captive according to Díaz Borrás, Andrés. El miedo al Mediterráneo...: 27-34.
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The British Isles: Recent Developments in the Writing of Church History

The British Isles: Recent Developments in the Writing of Church History

In the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, however, a majority of the population seceded to the Protestant Nonconformist Churches, the largest the Calvinistic Methodist [r]

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The argentine economy after two centuries

The argentine economy after two centuries

THE ARGENTINE ECONOMy AFTER TwO CENTURIES* Francisco Buera** Gastón Navarro*** Juan Pablo Nicolini**** We.document.the.behavior.of.income.per.capita.in.Argentina.subsequent.. JEL classif[r]

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Sixteenth-Century Nautical terms in modern America spanish.

Sixteenth-Century Nautical terms in modern America spanish.

Utilizing my corpus I have been able to work foward in time, so to speak, from the sixteenth century, and determine which of these identified and documented sea terms have developed additional, non­ nautical meanings, or which have become so far assimilated into general American Spanish vernacular that their former sense has been all but lost. In the following list the date and place of the earliest appearance so far documented for each term in American Spanish will be given, together with its original meaning and the meaning it has since acquired.
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Tribometer set-up and friction coefficient in elastomers of sealing systems

Tribometer set-up and friction coefficient in elastomers of sealing systems

Because of all those aspects mentioned above, make that the friction force has a non linear behavior. This behavior has a negative impact over the performance of controlled mechanical systems. Therefore when an accurate position is demanded, the tribology plays an important role generating sophisticated tools and many compensation models. Friction modeling and identification can enable proper com- pensation, which improves the precision of the position control. The non-linear nature of the friction causes that, a classic PID , placed in a control loop, is not sufficient to achieve high performance to track the trajectory, in all mechanical systems consisting of masses connected by means of transmis- sions or somewhat elastic. Since the friction force can not be linearized, if it is studied thoroughly, more information will be collected and greater will be the possibility to create digital control algorithms, which guarantee better performance. Characterize and understand properly the tribosystem will increase the odds to success, because it is possible to make the right choice for materials, contact geometry and chemistry, and make the appropriate measurements to give the desired answer of the mechatronic design. The objective of this thesis is firstly tune a tribosystem available at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (DIMEAS) laboratory of the Polytechnic University of Turin, and perform experimental tests with two different actuators, pneumo-hydraulic and electric cylinder. Then, test dif- ferent materials as HNBR (with and without lipocer), Polyurethane (with and without lipocer) and NBR
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La alcoba, el lecho, lo cotidiano  Cultura material de un espacio doméstico  Córdoba (Argentina), siglos XVIII y XIX

La alcoba, el lecho, lo cotidiano Cultura material de un espacio doméstico Córdoba (Argentina), siglos XVIII y XIX

Córdoba Argentina, siglos XVIII y XIX Bedroom, bed and everyday life Material culture of a domestic space in Córdoba Argentina in the 18th and19th centuries Cecilia Moreyra Centro de Inv[r]

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Art – Riding the economics waves – Perez – 2010

Art – Riding the economics waves – Perez – 2010

Corporations must also change the way they do business, Perez says. And here, the concept of corporate social responsibility is the key to business leadership in the com- ing golden age, she says. A high level of cor- porate responsibility will help a company be successful in the wider market, in which en- vironmental and social considerations play an increasingly large role. But a new respon- sible ethic should also inspire business ex- ecutives, who, in essence, “can and should

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Paesaggi agrari della bassa pianura emiliana tra XI XIII secolo: il caso del territorio reggiano

Paesaggi agrari della bassa pianura emiliana tra XI XIII secolo: il caso del territorio reggiano

Paesaggi agrari della bassa pianura emiliana tra XI-XIII secolo: il caso del territorio reggiano Agrarian Landscapes of the Emilian Lowlands between the 11th and the 13th centuries: The [r]

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The Fourfold Water Garden, a Renaissance Invention

The Fourfold Water Garden, a Renaissance Invention

Both in Villa Lante as in Aranjuez, the central ornamentation was modifi ed: in the former, as befi ts a courtly garden, by a pagan god. In Lante, a tiered fountain crowned by the symbol of the Montalto that we only know by the Ligustri 1596 engraving, anteceded the fi nal solution: the sculptural group of the Moors, that with its four fi gures, underscored the symbolism of number. Th e fl at pools of Villa Lante, also a group of four, were designed as part of the composition of the fountain, a fact that was reinforced by its unifi cation with parapets and balustrades and with the inclusion on its surface of little ships of stone, located in the diagonals, from which small harquebus- iers shoot water to the central group. By contrast, in the Cloister of the Evangelists, the central architectural feature responds to a diff erent tradition: the characteristic octagonal shaped pavilion located in the center of a quadripar- tite garden. Th e solution is the culmination of a long medieval tradition of strong Hispanic infl uences: in Spanish monasteries, and linked to the Hieronymite order, the outstanding examples of the cloister at Guadalupe, and the further development in other works such as the Gothic cloister in the Paular or even the referred cloister of Manga, can be considered clear precedents of the central pavilion, although not of the water layout, where, as in the Italian example, an experimentation over the idea of “fons” can be apprehended. 30
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El corpus indiano de materia herbaria de Nicolás Monardes y su recepción en los diccionarios bilingües (español lenguas europeas, ss  XVI XVIII)

El corpus indiano de materia herbaria de Nicolás Monardes y su recepción en los diccionarios bilingües (español lenguas europeas, ss XVI XVIII)

caraña. f. Tierra firme. Resina. NOTA : Monardes (s. v.): “llaman en la lengua de los indios caraña y este vocablo le han dado nuestros Españoles” // D RAE 2001: “de origen americano” (s. v.). { VITTORI 1609: caraña, sorte de gomme des Indes comme therbertine, forte di gomma delle Indie, come termentina. // FRANCIOS . 1620: caraña, una gomma dell´Indie, che è come trementina. // TROGNESIUS 1639: caraña, une sorte de gomme des Indes… // MEZ 1670: caraña, Terpenthin. // STEVENS 1706: caraña, a sort of rosin, in color and qualities like that they call tacamahaca. It distills from a large tree in the West Indies. Ray Hist. Plant. P.1814. Acosta says no more of it but that it is a Medicinal Gum. Monardes has much of its virtues and description.}.
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Manuscrito de Voynich - Análisis del algoritmo de codificación con los métodos de cifrado conocidos en la época medieval y resultados de las marginalias que no fueron encriptadas

Manuscrito de Voynich - Análisis del algoritmo de codificación con los métodos de cifrado conocidos en la época medieval y resultados de las marginalias que no fueron encriptadas

In analysing of the encryption methods that were used in the medieval period and their opposition and equivalence with the coding algorithm of the Voynich manuscript was very useful the first treatise of the medieval period, dedicated exclusively to cryptanalysis, the work of Francesco (Cicco) Simonetta (1410-1480), secretary of Sforza (Simonetta, 1474). He established thirteen rules for decoding of replacement ciphers, which contain word delimiters. On the basis of his manuscript, the most important:

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