In recent years, the world has undergone a series of changes, especially with regard to the management and marketing generated from production processes. The purpose of this work is to explore the management and commercialization in small and medium service companies in the Esmeraldas Canton of Ecuador. The methodology refers to the descriptive analysis of official manuscripts and secondary sources, as well as open interviews with actors who have been close to some management and marketing processes (114 internal and external clients). The results show that management is oriented to processes and results with a social approach; Marketing in these companies requires a diversification of means that meets market criteria; a management that potentially incorporates the client in the defense of the characteristics of the product and service; as well as implementation of articulation strategies for management and marketing in these small and medium-sized companies. It is concluded that management needs to be defined according to the style of management of the marketing process in small and medium-sized companies in this sector, in order to be increasingly competitive in the services market.
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The case study approach is appropriate when stud- ying managerial processes, since boundaries of the phenomenon and its context are not clearly evident (Yin, 1994). Regarding the improvement of the pro- ductive efficiency, the impor tance of personnel par- ticipation is well documented, although it is not as well established how the combined use of KPIs can improve its possibilities of success. Going one step beyond, authors have adopted the «action research» approach, directly par ticipating in the implementa- tion process. Thanks to this involvement, the resear- chers have the oppor tunity to witness the process, not only as mere obser vers, but also as real «agents of change» in inter vention and know-how compiling processes (Maull et al., 1995; Westbrook, 1995; Pra- do, 2000; García and Prado, 2002). The knowledge compiled by researchers after the «intervention pro- ject», can be later discussed and shared with other companies and researchers.
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A five-point Likert scale is used to capture information from respondents, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. All 16 items used to measure internal CSR are adapted from previous researchers. In this study, internal CSR includes four main aspects, namely, work diversity, human rights, training and development, and work–life balance. Regarding work diversity, we use three items adapted from Magoshi and Chang (2009) for our measurement. The human rights measurement uses three indicators, which are adopted from Al-bdour et al. (2010). With regard to training and development, six items are adopted from Lee and Bruvold (2003). There are four items in the measurement of work–life balance, which are adapted from Smith and Gardner (2007). We use five indicators adopting from Cummings (2004) to obtain information about how employees often share their knowledge with other people within their companies, as perceived by managers. A five-point Likert scale is used, ranging from 1 = never to 5 = a lot. A measurement developed by Allen and Meyer (1990) is used in this study to measure affective commitment. Respondents are asked to evaluate the affective commitment levels of employees in their organization in general. A five-point Likert scale is used to capture the level of their agreement with designated descriptions ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Finally, 11 items were adopted from Amabile and Gryskiewicz (1989) to measure organizational creativity. Respondents are asked to give their opinions on the level of organizational creativity by choosing options from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. We control the most common aspects, namely, firm size, firm age, firm ownership, and industry (Kotha, Zheng & George, 2011; Sarooghi et al., 2015; Von Nordenflycht, 2007). State- owned enterprises were coded 1 and 0 otherwise. Similarly, we coded 1 for manufacturing firms and 0 for non- manufacturing firms to control the difference.
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Because new banking regulation is more sensitive to risk, new rules could increase the interest rates that the banks charge on loans to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and, as a result, may exacerbate the SMEs ’ well-known ﬁ nancial dif ﬁ culties (Cardone- Riportella and Trujillo-Ponce 2007). To avoid this, the size adjustment under the internal- ratings based (IRB) approach allows banks to reduce capital requirements for loans to SMEs (de ﬁ ned as companies with less than e 50 million in annual sales) compared to lar- ger ﬁrms. However, banks that manage SME loans in a similar manner to retail exposures are permitted to apply the retail IRB treatment (with lower capital requirements) to such loans, provided that the total exposure to the ﬁ rm is less than e 1 million. In addition to this bene ﬁ cial treatment for SMEs, the Basel framework allows banking institutions to use a wide range of collateral and guarantees to moderate the credit risks to which they are exposed when lending to small businesses. Therefore, credit risk mitigation techniques are not only an important tool to solve the credit-rationing problem but also may help banks to reduce their capital requirements, which predicts that collateral and guarantees will become even more important in the future (Steijvers and Voordeckers 2009).
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The context of innovation has changed and one economy that demands permanent adaptations should consider it as the principal core of its competitiveness; this requires improving its capabilities for inno- vation as a source of competitive advantage and survival strategy. The objective of this research was to determine what factors of innovation are statistically significant among small and medium-sized textile enterprises (SMEs) and how they influence their level of innovation, taking as object of study the textile sector in Tlaxcala, Mexico, considering the Gary Hamel´s factors. The methodology consisted in making a diagnosis on the perception of these factors through a measuring instrument. Subsequently, one-way analysis of variance, Tukey’s test, Pearson correlation and linear regression were performed to determine the significance and the relationship between the variables. The results revealed that innovation factors are significant in both types of companies, as well as showing a strong correlation with its level of innovation. Likewise, a significant relationship was found between the level of innovation and the factors analyzed, it being observed that they are determinants in the medium company, but not in the small one. Concluding that SMEs should implement the innovation with a holistic and dynamic approach considering the factors proposed.
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There has been a drastic change in the way businesses today operate and perform. And there has been an increase in the deployment throughout organizations which however is expected to continue in the long run as well (Bian, and Veloutsou, 2017). Hence, when the nature of business is taken into consideration, irrespective of the activities they perform and their sizes, there has to be a realization that adapting to the changes in the social media is very important for the success of the businesses (Beale, Malson, and Tischner, 2016). Once the business adopts social media transformation, there are significant benefits to the business which includes definite financial benefits to the companies. There are several other fields in which the businesses have benefit including: product development, promotions, market research, advertisements, feedback from the customers, branding and as well as promoting the word of mouth marketing. These benefits are no longer solely reserved for larger organizations, but the small and medium sized enterprises can also benefit from these activities because of the fact that the social media has become highly accessible and relevant to other markets as well (Begland, 2015).
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The automotive, electronics and textiles sectors received most of the grants awarded by the Generalitat Government in 2004 for the promotion of research, development and innovation projects. According to Department of Trade and Industry data, total grants amounted to 24 million euros. There were almost 500 initiatives in R+D, 179 of which were assigned to automobile, consumer electronics and textile companies. These three sectors received 12 million euros, which accounted for half the subsidies awarded by the Government of Catalonia. The rest of the money was distributed among the Catalan economy’s so-called strategic sectors. These are aerospace, pharmaceuticals, second-generation foods and machinery adapted to renewable energy. Many of the Generalitat government subsidies were also awarded to joint R+D projects and grants from the Centre for Innovation and Business Development (CIDEM). 85% of the Catalan Government’s grants went to small and medium-sized enterprises, showing the importance of SME production in Catalonia.
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The result of using a tailored agile methodology for the design, development and implementation of an ERP by a student of last course could be described as satisfactory. The student, in his relation with the customer and the company, has acquired knowledge impossible to acquire in the classroom. He had to plan the project, being able to experiment the problems and situations that a bad schedule or an undervalued task can cause. He has learnt to treat with a real customer, who has changed the requirements repeated times forcing him to be more flexible (to what the tailored XP has help), with whom the student has been in constant and direct contact communicating via phone or mail using a correct and appropriate language and expressions. All these experiences have helped to train the student as a future Computer Science professional. As for the company, it has obtained the basic portion of the tool that will help in its material management and business process automation.
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“Innovation is the channel through which productivity growth happens” (Altomonte, et al., 2013 p.2). The literature deepens the theme of innovation in firms as those that introduce or have introduced new products or services at a considered time that positively impact sales, market share, productivity and efficiency (OECD and Eurostat, 2007). Innovation can be done by product, where the company launches a new or significantly improved product or service into the market, in terms of its characteristics or the use that is intended. There also be innovation in services, mainly in goods such as transport and logistics; services linked to information such as customer service centers; services based on knowledge and services related to people such as healthcare. Innovation in highly important the economic growth. In these fields (Jong, et al., 2003).
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Monthly plankton coUeclions (February through September, 1985) were made in lhe vicinity of the Estero Punta Morales, a small (327 ha), secondary estuary of the Gulf of Ni coya (Fig. 1). Three sites were sampled, in lhe main channel approximately 1 km inside the estuary, at lhe estuary's mouth, and approxi mately 500 m offshore of the Punta Morales pe ninsula about 2 km from the mouth (Fig. 1). Mean depths at the sites were 4.1, 4.7, and 15.4 m, respectively. Four replicate tows were made at each site during incoming lides between 2030 and 0500 hours. eoUections were made from a dinghy powered by a small outboard motor, using a 0.5 m diameter plank ton net of 333 ¡.tm mesh fitted with a General Oceanics model 2030 flowmeter (calibrated monthly). The net was buoyed by a plastic gallon bottIe attaehed by a cord and was towed behind lhe boat so !hat lhe upper rim of lhe net was maintained approximately JO cm below lhe water surface, at 1.0-1.5 m/see, for two minutes per tow. Samples were preserved in 10% formaJin and transported to the laboratory. Twenty-five per cent aliquots of all samples were sorted visually and engraulid eggs and lar vae were separated from olher iehlhyoplank ton. The remaining 75% unexamined portions were subsequently sorted at 100% for large lar vae (defined below) to increase sample size for that group.
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To promote the employment of Ph. D, Gradu- ates or Specialized Technicians for the realiza- tion of feasibility studies, industrial research projects and experimental developments. With small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as its main target, the Competitiveness and Innova- tion Framework Programme (CIP) supports innova- tion activities (including eco-innovation), provides better access to finance and delivers business sup- port services in the regions. It encourages a better take-up and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and helps to develop the infor- mation society. It also promotes the increased use of renewable energies and energy efficiency.
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However, the formulation of social responsibility at organizational level and framing its contributions for sustainability has been contrasted by some academic authors that have presenting alternative definitions of CSR and sustainability, e.g., Parhankaugas, McWilliams and Shrader (2014). These authors consider both CSR and Sustainability are focused on social and ecological good, but with CSR aiming to competitive advantages through marginal improvements, Bottom of Pyramid (BoP) as consumers and focus on current stakeholder needs while sustainability is focused on durable competitive advantages through revolutionary changes, BoP as producers and focus on current, distant and future trends.
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The dental size and morphology between the small- sized species of Capromeryx is relatively homogeneous, with only few features, such as the depth of posterolingual inflection on p4 and the development of a heel on M3, show- ing some taxonomically significant variation (see Morgan and Morgan, 1995; Jiménez-Hidalgo et al., 2004). The size of the lower molars from Hidalgo is similar to that of dental elements belonging to C. furcifer from southwestern Kansas and is slightly larger than that of lower molars of C. minor from La Brea. Nevertheless, the lengths and widths of the sample from Hidalgo are within the observed range of the species considered in our comparison. It should be noted that an overlapping of the compared datasets is observed, thus suggesting that dental size may be inadequate for taxonomic
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Recent studies highlight social managers’ networks as a significant element in their financial decisions (Shue, 2013). In this sense, empirical analysis find that available information about peers is considered when financial practices-such as capital structure and/or capital budgeting- are adopted. This is known as peer effect. Peer effect refers to a situation where a company reacts in response to its peers actions (Maquieira et al., 2012). This effect is different from common or correlated effects derived from the fact that companies present similar characteristics or are located in common environments (Grennan, 2017). Financial literature identifies the peer effect from different theoretical perspectives (Park et al., 2017). From the herd behaviour model, the peer effect is caused by the fact that companies mimic other companies independently from their available internal information. From the strategic intentions model, companies consider peer effect to adopt strategies affecting the financial results of other companies in the market (Rajan, 1994). Another theory related to peer effects comes from the learning behavior model. This model states that firms use information as an instrument for adopting rational decisions (Chevalier and Scharfstein, 1996). For example, financial literature of trade off indicates that there is an optimal capital structure. Thus, managers should adjust their financial variables towards this target. Nevertheless, a rational decision maker would value financial practices of their peers to make their own decisions instead of determining the optimal capital structure, which would be more complicated (Bikhchandani et al., 1992). Finally, behavioral preferences model indicates that managers act following irrational anticipations. Thus, peer effect could be used to identify anticipations of future financial situations and therefore, would be imitated (Malmendier and Tate, 2005).
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Small and medium-sized businesses can create tax revenues to budgets of all levels, employment, contributes to the development of innovative technologies, competitive markets, helps create jobs with low capital costs, etc. Therefore, Russia pursues an active state policy to support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, its sustainable growth, business incubators are opened, subsidies and grants are allocated, business training is provided, soft loans are granted, admission to participation in exhibitions and fairs is granted free of charge, free consultations are organized (Oveisi et al., 2018a; Agara, 2017). “The needs and expectations of consumers are constantly changing due to business development, the impact of competition and technological development” (Chernikova et al., 2015). Therefore, organizations must constantly improve their products and processes. The manufacturer of the goods must take into account the wishes and requirements of consumers because otherwise the goods will not be sold, since the buyer does not buy just the goods, but some benefit (Safargaliev & Komarova, 2013).
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The author's own collections could not have been made without the generous assistance of many people. Outstanding among these were Sr. Alfonso Jiménez, Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, and Dr. Robert Hunter, Tropical Science Center, San José, whose counsel and companionship were largely responsible for the success of the venture. The author' s family and five students : Miss Mary Alt, Miss Laura Berkeley, Mr. Peter Campbell, Mr. George Carroll, and Miss Marke Woodward, accompanied the author on his collecting trip, sacrificed their own projects and comfort to collect for him, and lent an air of carnival to the long trip by automobile from Philadelphia to San José and back. To these, and to the hundreds of Central Americans who welcomed us w;th affection and understanding, the author owes a debt of gratitude that exceeds the bounds of
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The results have been considered as “very successful” even at European level, but these good results provoked as well a big change in the City. The modal split changed considerably for better, taking into account that during those years the city moved from 174,000 inhabitants up to 178,000 due to immigration, with the inherent risk of urban sprawl and thus, necessities of wider mobility systems. The car used was reduced, and the use of the PT increased, as well as the 3.8% of the users of the bicycle, insignificant in the previous years (less than 0.03%).
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Finally, we wish to remark that the commitment to waste management of local governments adhering to the LA21 as well as their budgetary backing should be carefully handled. This is because methodological issues can lead to different con- clusions. In concrete terms, the role of small and medium-sized municipalities and the influence of political character of local governments may vary, depending on the choice researchers make regarding how the measurement of waste management ex- penses is to be carried out —in absolute terms, in per capita terms, or as a percentage of the whole budget. Still, we believe that this study makes a meaningful contribu- tion concerning the issue of whether political commitment to Local Agenda 21 is supported with action towards achieving the objectives of sustainable development through budgetary support for waste management policies.
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DFT Calculations were carried out using Meta-Hybrid Generalized Gradient Approximation (MH-GGA) M06 functional (Zhao, Y.; Truhlar, D. G. Theor. Chem. Acc. 2008, 120, 215–241) as implemented in Gaussian 09 (Frisch, M. J.; Trucks, G. W.; Schlegel, H. B.; Scuseria, G. E.; Robb, M. A.; Cheeseman, J. R.; Scalmani, G.; Barone, V.; Mennucci, B.; Petersson, G. A.; Nakatsuji, H.; Caricato, M.; Li, X.; Hratchian, H. P.; Izmaylov, A. F.; Bloino, J.; Zheng, G.; Sonnenberg, J. L.; Hada, M.; Ehara, M.; Toyota, K.; Fukuda, R.; Hasegawa, J.; Ishida, M.; Nakajima, T.; Honda, Y.; Kitao, O.; Nakai, H.; Vreven, T.; Montgomery, J. A., Jr.; Peralta, J. E.; Ogliaro, F.; Bearpark, M.; Heyd, J. J.; Brothers, E.; Kudin, K. N.; Staroverov, V. N.; Kobayashi, R.; Normand, J.; Raghavachari, K.; Rendell, A.; Burant, J. C.; Iyengar, S. S.; Tomasi, J.; Cossi, M.; Rega, N.; Millam, J. M.; Klene, M.; Knox, J. E.; Cross, J. B.; Bakken, V.; Adamo, C.; Jaramillo, J.; Gomperts, R.; Stratmann, R. E.; Yazyev, O.; Austin, A. J.; Cammi, R.; Pomelli, C.; Ochterski, J. W.; Martin, R. L.; Morokuma, K.; Zakrzewski, V. G.; Voth, G. A.; Salvador, P.; Dannenberg, J. J.; Dapprich, S.; Daniels, A. D.; Farkas, O.; Foresman, J. B.; Ortiz, J. V.; Cioslowski, J.; Fox, D. J. Gaussian 09, Revision A.02, Gaussian, Inc., Wallingford CT, 2009). The 6-31G(d) basis set (a. Hehre, W. J.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1972, 56, 2257–2258. b. Francl, M. M.; Pietro, W. J.; Hehre, W. J.; Binkley, J. S.; Gordon, M. S.; Defrees D. J.; Pople, J. A. J. Chem. Phys., 1982, 77, 3654–3665. c. Clark, T.; Chandrasekhar, J.; Spitznagel, G. W.; Schleyer, P. v. R.; J. Comput. Chem., 1983, 4, 294–301) was used for all atoms except gold, which was treated with SDD and the associated effective core potential (Andrae, D.; Haussermann, U.; Dolg, M.; Stoll, H.; Preuss, H. Theor. Chim. Acta 1990, 77, 123–141). The solvent effect (CH 2 Cl 2 ) was taken into account by single-point calculations using
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There are some impediments which do not allow the clusters to develop properly. Some of them are due to the introduction of new companies within the area, which sometimes leads to the disestablishment of what had been previously established. We also find some obstacles which impede the development of the cluster, such as the reduction of the number of investigators and scientists. This is since some people prefer to work in big companies instead of laboratories. Another factor is the relocation of industries in other regions there are some regions in which there is qualified manpower for a lower price, but the problem is the lack of investors. On the other hand, we find some local companies with a lack of implication in projects involving clusters, because they do not have into consideration this kind of companies for any kind of project they may perform. Therefore, they consider that they are external to the sphere of political support and collaborative projects.
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