small species

Top PDF small species:

The small species of Belostoma (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae). . I. Key to species groups and a revision of the denticolle group

The small species of Belostoma (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae). . I. Key to species groups and a revision of the denticolle group

1. Pilosity covering entirely ventral laterotergites ..................................................... 2 Pilosity covering part of ventral laterotergites ....................................................... 6 2. North american species ............................................................ B. flumineum group South american species .......................................................................................... 3 3. Pubescence covering part or all of abdominal sternites ......................................... 4 Pubescence not on abdominal sternites ................................................................. 5 4. Eyes triangular .................................................................................. B. bergi group Eyes globular .................................................................. B. testaceopallidum group 5. Large, dilated species, more than 30.0 mm long ....................... B. dilatatum group Less than 30.0 long .............................................................. B. bifoveolatum group 6. Pronotum and scutellum with a distinct median carina ....... B. aurivilianum group Pronotum and scutellum without median carina ................................................... 7 7. Outer margin of eye straight, eye triangular ......................................................... 8 Outer margin of eye rounded, eye globose ............................................................. 9 8. Segment I of the beak longer than II ................................................ B. bergi group Segment I of the beak shorter than II .......................................B. discretum group 9. Small species, less than 24.0 mm long; segment I of the beak shorter than II ... 10 Larger species, more than 28.0 mm long; segment I of the beak longer or equal to II .................................................................................................................. 14 10. Prosternal keel rounded or acutely pointed, projecting anterad ............................. 11 Prosternal keel triangular shaped, not projected anterad .......... B. triangulum group 11. Pilosity covering more than half of ventral laterotergites ...................................... 12 Pilosity covering half or less of ventral laterotergites ............................................ 13 12. Sulcus covered with short and dense pilosity that extends from behind eyes to lorum ........................................................................................... B. minor group Sulcus covered with short and scattered pilosity that extends along eyes ...............
Mostrar más

8 Lee mas

The small species of Belostoma Latreille (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae). III . A revision of oxyurum group, with a new species from Brazil and description of the male of B. noualhieri Montandon

The small species of Belostoma Latreille (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae). III . A revision of oxyurum group, with a new species from Brazil and description of the male of B. noualhieri Montandon

ABSTRACT. The small species of Belostoma Latreille (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae). III. A revision of oxyurum group, with a new species from Brazil and description of the male of B. noualhieri Montandon. Species of the oxyurum group (sensu Lauck) consist of five extant Neotropical small species, whose lengths range 15.0 to 20.0 mm. The anterior interocular width about 1.5 times the width of an eye and ventral diverticulum of phallus flattened, circular, and large are, in combination, diagnostic. The small species of the oxyurum group were included in the Lauck´s key to the identification of the species groups, without dealing with the species included in it because many of them are very similar in appearance. Therefore here we redescribe and key the Belostoma species of the oxyurum group. Belostoma oxyurum (Dufour) is newly recorded from Brazil (Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). Holotype and lectotype are designated for B. oxyurum and B. sanctulum Montandon, respectively. The aspect of the prosternal keel, the ratio between the width of the ventral diverticulum of phallus and its length in ventral view, and the aspect of dorsal arms of ventral diverticulum have proven useful for better species delimitation. Based on specimens from Pará State (N. Brazil), Belostoma carajaensis Ribeiro & Estévez, sp. nov. is described and illustrated. This new species differs from B. sanctulum in having anteoculus shorter than interoculus and the dorsal arms of ventral diverticulum divergent and large. A male specimen of B. noualhieri Montandon was collected in São Paulo State and based mainly on features of male genitalia, this species is here also included under oxyurum group.
Mostrar más

9 Lee mas

The small species of Belostoma (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae): Revision of plebejum group

The small species of Belostoma (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae): Revision of plebejum group

herein designated as lectotype. We have exam- ined B. drakei, deposited in USNM which is synonymized with B. minusculum, because the only difference we found, among the examined specimens, is color; we consider that it is not a good character for defining Belostoma species. Specimens examined. COSTA RiCA, Guan. Prov.m, Finca Jiménez, Ag. Sta. Nr. Finca Tobago, , 2 ,ii.iii.1968, M.C.Diarmid coll. (LACM); Coto, Finca 44, 3 , , Viii.1957, A.Menke coll. (LACM); San isidro de Gral., , Xi.1962, C.Hogue coll. (LACM); Farm Hamburg, aam. Reventazón, , iii.1934 (LACM); 16 mi. S La Cruz, 9 , 7 , Vii.1965, Spangler coll. (USNM); Puntarenas, 2 , , Vii.1965, Spangler coll. (USNM); Turrialba, 2 , 6 , Vii.1965, Spangler coll. (USNM). HONDURAS, 10 mi W. Choluteca, 2 , , Vii.1965, Spangler coll. (USNM). NiCARAGUA, Bonanza Pond, , X.1955, B.Malkin coll. (LACM); Somoto, 2 , , Vii.1965, Spangler coll. (USNM); La Trinidad, , Vii.1965, Spangler coll. (USNM); 22 mi S Rivas, 2 , 5 , Vii.1965, Spangler coll. (USNM); 13 mi N San Benito, 2 , ,Vii.1965, Spangler coll. (USNM). PANAMA, Barro Colorado isl., 3 , 2 , V.1964, Duckworth coll. (USNM); Barro Colorado isl. C.z., 2 , iV.1941 (USNM); Madden Dam, C.z., 3 , 2 , V.1937, Bliss (USNM); Pte. Obaldía, , Xi.1952, Blanton (USNM); La Chorrera, , V.1912, Burk (USNM); Mojinga, , i.1953, Blanton (USNM); Coraza, , V.1912, Burk (USNM). TRiNiDAD, Barataria, Cress Bed, , iV.1949, White coll. (LACM). VENEzUELA, Miranda, Barlovento, Higuerote, 2 , i.1962, Bordon coll. (LACM); Guarico, El Sombrero, , i.1961, Bordón coll. (LACM); Barinitas, , (USNM).
Mostrar más

10 Lee mas

Brooding Behaviour and Cost of Brooding in Small Body Size Brachyuran Crabs

Brooding Behaviour and Cost of Brooding in Small Body Size Brachyuran Crabs

Our results show that females of the 2 small species perform the same active brooding behaviour as large species. However, mean oxygen consumption of brooding females is not affected. These results con- trast with previous studies on large species, showing a 2 to 3-fold increase in oxygen consumption by females carrying later stage embryos when compared to females carrying early stage embryos, or nonbrooding females (i.e. Cancer setosus: Baeza & Fernández 2002; Homalaspis plana: Ruiz-Tagle et al. 2002; Ovalipes trimaculatus: Fernández & Brante 2003; Fig. 3D). This pattern suggests that the costs of oxygen provision may increase with body size, as brood weight is pro- portional to female weight (Hines 1982), constraining the capacity to brood at large body size. The costs of brooding may have consequences for other life history variables such as the number of broods per year, or female survival after reproduction (Brokordt et al. 2000, 2003). In fact, there is evidence showing a tradeoff between investment in eggs and the cost of providing oxygen to the embryos across latitude, as the cost of oxygen provision increases with tempera- ture in brachyuran crabs (Brante et al. 2003). The increasing cost of brooding with body size in active brooding species is in line with previous evidence showing an allometric relationship between the increase in energy invested in facilitating oxygen dif- fusion (gel) and the size of gelatinous embryo masses in gastropods (Lee & Strathmann, 1998). This study suggests that the cost of brooding increases with body size. Our results provide direct evidence for the effect of adult size on the costs of providing oxygen to the brood. Further, our study suggests that other factors, such as embryo size, play a critical role particularly for species with small body sizes (see also Taylor & Leelapiyanart 2001). At large body size, embryo size seems to have lower impact on the cost of oxygen pro- vision. The size of embryos of Maja squinado and Homalaspis plana were twice the size of the embryos of Cancer setosus and Ovalipes trimaculatus (Brante et al. 2004). However, the cost of brooding in these species did not show any relationship with embryo size (Fernández et al. 2000, Baeza & Fernández 2002, Body Size (mm carapace width)
Mostrar más

8 Lee mas

A new species of Trinectes (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae), with comments on the other eastern Pacific species of the genus

A new species of Trinectes (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae), with comments on the other eastern Pacific species of the genus

Diagnosis: A relatively small species of Tr i n e c t e s (maximum length examined, 95 mm) characterized by the following: caudal fin yellow or light brown, without pattern; posterior dorsal and anal fins black to dark brown; dorsal-fin rays usually 57-60; anal-fin rays usually 43-46; pelvic-fin rays usually 5- 5; caudal vertebrae usually 21-22; dorsal and anal fins without light or dark spots or blotch- es; pectoral fins usually absent; opercular flap of blind side mostly scaled; no ring of cirri on margin of anterior naris on ocular side.

9 Lee mas

Four new species of eastern tropical Pacific jawfishes (Opistognathus: Opistognathidae)

Four new species of eastern tropical Pacific jawfishes (Opistognathus: Opistognathidae)

Abstract: Three of four new jawfishes described herein have sexually dimorphic jaws and dichromatic maxil- lary markings: O. smithvanizi, with a simple nasal cirrus, buccal pigmentation and other traits similar to mem- bers of the O. macrognathus group, is known only from Isla del Caño, a continental shelf island off southern Costa Rica; O. fossoris, with a multifid nasal cirrus, a broad dorsal membranous subopercular flap and a black spot on tips of first dorsal-fin spines lives in the Gulf of California and is a sister-species of O. galapagensis; the maxilla of O. walkeri terminates in a flexible scimitar-shaped lamina in adults of both sexes, but is longer in males, the species lacks nasal cirri and is also restricted to the Gulf of California. Opistognathus brochus is a small species with dark speckling on head and body, and several dark blotches along the dorsal fin and two bars on the tail; it is found in moderately deep water on the Costa Rican coast and Gulf of California. Opistognathus mexicanus is placed in the synonymy of O. punctatus. Opistognathus galapagensis, O. rhomaleus and O. fen- mutis are recorded for the first time from Costa Rica and a description of the latter is given and an identification key and summary table are provided for all known eastern Pacific species of Opistognathus.
Mostrar más

22 Lee mas

Do changes in microhabitat availability within a Marine Reserve reduce the species richness of small mobile macrofauna and meiofauna?

Do changes in microhabitat availability within a Marine Reserve reduce the species richness of small mobile macrofauna and meiofauna?

Las Cruces, central Chile (Figure 1; 33831 ′ S 071838 ′ W), at the same time the Estacion Costera de Investigaciones Marinas (ECIM), part of the Pontificia Universidad Cato´lica de Chile, was established (Castilla & Duran, 1985). The enclosed area was designated a National Marine Reserve in 2006 (see Ferna´ndez & Castilla, 2005; Navarrete et al., 2010). In the absence of human predation the abundance of C. concholepas increased and they consumed most of the mussel beds within the Reserve (Power et al., 1996; Botsford et al., 1997; Castilla, 1999). This made space available for macroalgae (Ulva lactuca rigida, Gelidium chilense, Centrosceras clavulatum, Corallina officinalis var. chilensis, Hildenbrandtia lecannellieri, Adenocystis utricularis, Scytosiphon lomentaria, Ralfsia confusa and Colpomenia sinuosa) and barnacles (Jehlius cirratus and Notochthamalus scabrosus) to occupy (Dura´n & Castilla, 1989; Castilla, 1999). The absence of human predation pressure also resulted in the increase of fissurelid limpets (Fissurella lambata and Fissurella crassa), herbivores also consumed by humans. These fissurelids introduced grazing pressure reducing the macroalgal cover in the mid-intertidal (Oliva & Castilla, 1986). What appears to be an alternate stable state for the mid- intertidal was then observed with the domination of the barna- cle species, a sparse cover of macroalgae, and P. purpuratus confined to crevices and other spatial refuges. This situation persists to this day within the Reserve (Dura´n & Castilla, 1989; Castilla, 1999; authors, personal observations).
Mostrar más

6 Lee mas

Nanobiodiversity: The Potential of Extracellular Nanostructures

Nanobiodiversity: The Potential of Extracellular Nanostructures

Three different types of iridescent mechanisms have been reported in beetles that explain how struc- tural colors operate in this clade. The first mechanism known as “multilayer reflectors” consists of nano- metric lamellae, or layers, in the endocuticle that present different refractive indexes. This has been strongly favored by the “armoured” body present in Coleoptera, in which multiple layers of cuticle provide an exoskeleton that is thicker than that of most other insects [22]. The second mechanism is the use of three- dimensional photonic crystals, especially on scales and lattices present in several beetles such as weevils (Curculionidae) and cerambicyds (Cerambicidae). In these species, scales and lattices work as photonic devices that generate vivid colors such as the blue col- oration on Hoplia coerulea [31] or the green iridescence of Lamprocyphus augustus [32]. Finally, diffraction gratings correspond to the third mechanism, which consists of any nanoscale array of parallel ridges or slits that disperses white light into its constituent wavelengths [22]; the structural color of Pallodes sp. originates from diffraction gratings.
Mostrar más

9 Lee mas

Determinants of the diversity of plants, birds and mammals of coastal islands of the Humboldt current systems: implications for conservation

Determinants of the diversity of plants, birds and mammals of coastal islands of the Humboldt current systems: implications for conservation

Despite the existence of a small-island effect, assemblages were highly harmonious or structured, as could be predicted in a system governed by stochastic processes. Moreover, and contrary to expectations, nestedness was significant only in plants, but not in birds. Previous studies have shown that the among taxa variation in the degree of nestedness is related to their dispersal abilities (Chown et al. 1998, Spengler et al. 2011). We suggest that the particular configuration of the islands of the CSC, combined with the human impacts may account for this pattern. Nestedness is most likely related to selective extinction, when species with more area or habitat requirements should disappear earlier than less spe- cialized species. Nonetheless, immigration rates should also have an effect on this pattern organization (Whittaker and Ferna´ndez-Palacios 2007). We found that neither area nor isolation exerted a significant relationship on species richness, so it could be difficult to suggest which process of extinction/colonization should have the strongest effect on the nestedness structure. Nevertheless, it is suspected that the nestedness pattern observed in vegetation is not explained by colonization rates that are frequently related to high dis- persal abilities (Weiher and Keddy 2004). If selective extinction is operating, although it was not clearly identified, it is probably that plants have low requirements of area and resources on the islands. However, alternatively, it has been suggested that the non-random pattern can be explained by ‘‘habitat nestedness’’, where species may present nested dis- tribution because the habitats they occupy are also nested (Wright et al. 1998). Accord- ingly, plant species composition could be explained by habitat nestedness and species richness could be determined by habitat diversity (Whittaker and Ferna´ndez-Palacios 2007). However, habitat diversity was weakly related to the variation in species compo- sition, even in plants. Alternatively, we suggest that nestedness could be explained by the frequent human visiting of islands by local fishermen and tourists, which may increase the chances of propagule dispersal. The lack of nestedness observed in birds may be explained by the close proximity of islands with the mainland, and among them; most of the birds would have enough dispersal capabilities to inhabit any islands, so stochastic processes would regulate its distribution.
Mostrar más

21 Lee mas

Cornuvia (Myxomycetes: Trichiales), a new genus for Mexico

Cornuvia (Myxomycetes: Trichiales), a new genus for Mexico

The study area consists of the cloud forests of the Lagunas de Montebello National Park, in the municipalities of La Inde- pendencia and La Trinitaria, in the state of Chiapas, southeast- ern Mexico. This park has a total area of 6033 ha and is situated between 16°04’20”-16°09’38” N, and 91°38’14”-91°47’41” W. It is considered as one of the conservation priority regions by the National commission for the study and use of the biodiversity of Mexico (Conabio) (Arriaga et al., 2000). Surveys in this area were carried out from 2004 to 2006, and known or suspected habitats of myxomycetes were examined in the field. Collec- tions were glued into herbarium boxes and then dried in situ. The localities were geo-referenced using a GPS Garmin 12XL (datum NAD 27). The specimens are deposited in the herbari- um of the Autonomous University of Tlaxcala (TLXM). Small sporocarps were mounted in Hoyer’s medium for microscope measurements and observations. Spore, capillitium, and other morphological measurements were made of 25 structures from each of the collections. Descriptive data and light micrographs were obtained using a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. The critical-point drying technique was used for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations and SEM analyses. Electron micrographs of specimens were obtained by the Scanning Electron Microscopy Department of the Royal Botanic Garden of Madrid, using a Hitachi S-3000N scanning electron microscope, at 10-15 kV. Color notations in parenthe- ses are from Kornerup and Wanscher (1978).
Mostrar más

5 Lee mas

Coexistence and intertidal zonation of chthamalid barnacles along central Chile: Interference competition or a lottery for space?

Coexistence and intertidal zonation of chthamalid barnacles along central Chile: Interference competition or a lottery for space?

outcome of competition for space is usually exempli fi ed as the deterministic consequence of competitive hierarchies that leads to monopolization of the limited resource by a single, competitively dominant species (e.g. Menge, 1976; Paine, 1984). Coexistence is then mediated by physical disturbances, physiological tolerances, and vulnerability to consumers, which prevent complete monopolization of space or establish sharp zonation patterns across environmental gradients through niche partitioning. In contrast to competitive hierarchies, species could be similar in competitive abilities and once settled on the rock they could hold the space against other species. In this case, a pre-emptive “ lottery ” type of interaction characterizes the system, where adults appropriate resources by “ chance ” arrival and the relative proportions of adults are directly re fl ective of the pool of arriving propagules (Sale, 1977, 1978). Stable coexistence through time can be a function of temporal or spatial storage effects (Warner and Chesson, 1985; Chesson, 2000b; Miller and Chesson, 2009) and regional source-sink or “ mass effects ” (Leibold et al., 2004), where species dominance varies as adult habitat conditions or propagule supply favors one species over another. This type of competitive coexistence has been documented in tropical territorial fi sh (Sale 1977, 1978), but it is not often considered in rocky shore systems.
Mostrar más

12 Lee mas

Oral microbiota of Patagonian lizards of genus Diplolaemus (Leiosauridae): fable to facts

Oral microbiota of Patagonian lizards of genus Diplolaemus (Leiosauridae): fable to facts

observed were subcultured for purity and subjected to conventional biochemical tests. Isolates identified as Clostridium perfringens were typed by a polymerase chain reaction technique. Four species of bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus warneri, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium bifermentans and Stomatococcus muscilaginosus. These species are known etiologic agents of a number of human and animal infections. While these bacteria represent only a small number of possible isolates from the oral cavity of Diplolaemus species nevertheless it indicates that human and animal pathogens are present in their oral cavity.
Mostrar más

5 Lee mas

On Simulium (Pternaspatha), with description of a new species (Diptera-Simuliidae)

On Simulium (Pternaspatha), with description of a new species (Diptera-Simuliidae)

Data on Table II show that pichi, dureti, diamantinum, horcochuspi and deagostinii are very closely related species which can be distinguished by some morphological characters and different distributions. S. diamantinum can be distinguished from the other species by several distinctive char- acters such as: female abdomen with 1+1 small, narrow and short, black lateral spots on tergites III-V, well isolated from the tergites median black spot and leaving a wide white transverse band be- fore the posterior border, scutum hairs not adpressed, narrower posterior basitarsi, longer pupa gill, higher number of frontal and thorax trichomes, longer thoracic trichomes, and in the larva a longer second antennal segment, more lateral setae on the hypostomium, and a shorter hypostomial bridge in relation to hypostomial length.
Mostrar más

8 Lee mas

The snakes of Osun Grove: a World Heritage Site in Osogbo, Nigeria

The snakes of Osun Grove: a World Heritage Site in Osogbo, Nigeria

Table 1 shows that a total of 25 species of snakes belonging to seven families were recorded for Osun grove during the period of study and out of this, the families Colubridae and Viperidae accounted for 64 % and 12 % of the species respectively. A. anoscopus which accounted for 18 specimens out of a total of 109 specimens represented 16.5 % of the snake community. This species together with the next eight abundant species, ie. Natriciteres varie- gata (13), Dendroaspis viridis (9), Mehelya poensis (7), Boiga blandingii (7), Calabaria reinhardti (6), Bitis gabonica (6), Mehelya crossii (5) and Grayia smythii (5) constituted 69.7 % of the entire snake community. The remaining species made up almost 30 %. Out of the 25 species, 11 species had in their diet amphibians and another 11 species had reptiles mostly lizards.
Mostrar más

6 Lee mas

Water safety planning for small community water supplies [pdf 2Mb]

Water safety planning for small community water supplies [pdf 2Mb]

Periodically, the team should meet to review the WSP and to learn from experiences and new procedures. The WSP should also be reviewed whenever there are significant changes in or around the community water supply, including recent land use changes. The review process is essential to overall implementation and provides the basis from which future assessments can be made. Periodic reviews are particularly important in small community water supplies where capacity is limited and where the objective is to make incremental improvements over time to achieve national, state and community-based water quality targets or objectives. To review the plan, the team should return to Task 1 (Engage the community and assemble a WSP team) and work through it again. The team should then move through the other tasks again in order. As the team is not starting from scratch, and assuming that the initial process was well documented, the tasks should be easier and take less time to complete.
Mostrar más

66 Lee mas

Reducing warp and checking in 4 by 4 beams from small diameter tropical species (tectona grandis, gmelina arborea, and cordia alliodora) obtained by turning the pith inside out

Reducing warp and checking in 4 by 4 beams from small diameter tropical species (tectona grandis, gmelina arborea, and cordia alliodora) obtained by turning the pith inside out

The 40 sampled logs for each species were cut using a scrag saw. Each log was sawn to obtain a 10.35 by 10-cm block with the same length as the log, equivalent to 2.5 m (Fig. 1a). After obtaining these 40 central blocks, the blocks were randomly divided in two lots (n ¼ 26 and n ¼ 14). The 26 blocks of the first lot were cut through the pith zone using a straight-line rip saw with 3.5-mm cutting thickness (Figs. 1b and 1c). This cutting pattern was called ‘‘ISO process’’ (moving the pith out or ISO; Fig. 1d). In this manner, two 5 by 10-cm pieces were obtained from each block; these pieces were then wrapped in plastic to prevent drying. For the 14 blocks in the second lot, the dimensions were set at 10 by 10 cm (Fig. 1e), and the blocks were wrapped in plastic to prevent drying.
Mostrar más

7 Lee mas

A new species of Microphallus (Trematoda: Microphallidae) from Venezuela

A new species of Microphallus (Trematoda: Microphallidae) from Venezuela

Adult worms of the family Microphallidae occur primarily as intestinal parasites of birds and mammals, while metacercariae are com- monly found in decapod crustaceans. In each of the known microphallid life cycles reported to date, Xiphidiocercariae resembling cercari- ae ubiquita (Lebour, 1907) Lebour, 1912, have been shown to be produced by sporocysts developing in various prosobranch snails. Encysted metacercariae of this family are known to undergo extensive organogenesis in gastropod hosts, but more frequently they do so in arthropod intermediate host (Caveny and Etges 1971). Significant contributions to the knowledge of microphallid life histories have been made by Cable and Hunninen (1940), Stunkard (1957, 1958), James (1968), Caveny and Etges (1971) which illustrate the pattern of the life cycle. The objective of this study is to describe a new species of microphallids from Venezuela and some aspects of its life cycle.
Mostrar más

8 Lee mas

The recent decline of Montastraea annularis (complex) coral populations in western Curaçao: a
       cause for concern?

The recent decline of Montastraea annularis (complex) coral populations in western Curaçao: a cause for concern?

The reefs of Curaçao have undergone major changes over the last eight years, largely due to a decline in the condition of M. annu- laris and M. faveolata colonies. Much of these changes can be attributed to an outbreak of YBD in the late 1990s and outbreaks of WP in 2001 and 2005. Reefs may recover from dis- ease impacts if conditions improve. Apparently healthy colonies of M. annularis (complex) with little partial mortality are still abundant, a relatively small proportion of the popula- tion of these species has died, and most of the surviving corals that were affected by disease have remnant patches of living tissue that could resheet over lesions. Additional efforts need to be directed towards understanding the causes of these diseases, factors contributing to their occurrence and spread, and long term effects on coral community structure, in order to begin developing feasible options to mitigate disease impacts (Woodley et al. 2003). It is imperative that we also continue to monitor coral diseases and other biotic agents on reefs of Curaçao, and pay close attention to the M. annularis (complex) due to their importance to the reef structure in this region.
Mostrar más

14 Lee mas

Full PDF

Full PDF

In summary, this report highlights the flora of different wetlands of South America and indicates that the actual species richness of macrophytes of this continent is far from being well understood. Our hypothesis sustains that macrophyte records, together with existing sur- veys, indicate a continuous need for carrying out increasing numbers of collections in new areas in the upper Paraná river-floodplain sys- tem and in other South American wetlands, as the number of species so far reported remains far from the predicted total. The checklist generated in this study is intended to support other research in wetlands and, in particular, to assure the continuity of ongoing long-term ecological programs, and it reveals a rich flora that is practically unknown to botanists and ecologists.
Mostrar más

16 Lee mas

Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

Our map (Fig. 3) shows a larger area of potential distribution of endemic herbs to the north of Santiago (which is immediately east of the study site). This appears to be mainly related not only to the lack of forest and urbanization in that area, but also to the bioclimatic conditions of this zone. As there is no fine-scale database on the actual distribution of degu colonies, some small mapped fragments in the south of the potential distribution may not have any degu colonies, while the continuous area to the north may in fact be more fragmented than it appears. We map only the potential distribution of endemic herbs associated with degus, and not other endemic herbs. We do not have a full list of all herbaceous plants associated with degu colonies, so it is unclear what proportion of the endemic non-woody floral community this represents. Low overlap ( ∼ 5 spp, mainly invasives) between the species list for our site and other sites for which full species lists of herbaceous plants have been reported (e.g. Diel et al., 2007, Figueroa et al., 2004, Holmgren et al., 2000) suggests high species turnover, mainly of native and endemic species, across central Chile. For this reason it is difficult to say what percent of the native herbaceous flora may be associated with degu colonies at different sites. Mapping of degu colonies and surveys of their flora across the area predicted in Fig. 3 would address this data shortfall. The surprisingly large area of the potential degu- associated endemic herb distribution shows that it may not be too late to conserve plant communities of global significance, despite ongoing expansion of agriculture in the region (Schulz et al., 2010).
Mostrar más

12 Lee mas

Show all 2985 documents...