The smarttourism city based on efficient use of resources is a very different model. The programmed actions aim to solve urban problems that tourism has previously created which, if not reversed, can severely affect the destination competitiveness. It is a reactive model, which focuses on the applied use of sustainability to solve urban problems that hinder tourism development, but that does not adopt measures in order to reverse tourism growth. Indeed, actions to improve sustainability programmed by this type of tourism destination are based on raising awareness, improving tourists’ experience (mobility, accessibility, safety) and making savings in basic resources for tourism (water, energy, heritage), but making little use of technology. Besides strengthening the tourism experience, those smarttourism destinations plan acts to improve the quality of the environment and their inhabitants’ quality of life. This is explained by the fact that many actions affect services and areas used by both tourists and residents and because the quality of the environment, which obviously has a positive impact on residents, is essential for attracting tourists. However, actions that require some form of collective organisation (such as governance or mobility) or involve mobilising a complex fabric of economic actors (innovation) are less abundant.
In practice, smarttourism has indeed been mostly implemented at the city-level and with a focus on urban dimensions and challenges, with the exception of small is- land destinations (as evidenced by the yearly held Smart Island World Congress, see http://www.smartislandcongress.com), including Tasmania, Australia (http://www. sense-t.org.au/projects-and-research/tourism) and Cozumel, Mexico (The Yucatan Times, 2015), as well as some regional areas in Spain (see http://www.destinosinteli- gentes.es/), South-east Queensland, Australia (Sydney Morning Herald, 2015) and the Bay of Plenty region in New Zealand (Tauranga Government, 2006). A Google search for the keyword «smarttourism region» delivers only six results, of which four are actually relevant. The same search in Google Scholar reveals zero results, suggesting that the academic literature has not conceptualized smarttourism regions. In contrast, smart regions in general have received attention in practice (the EU cur- rently funds several smart region projects) and theory, although also not to a great extent and mostly from a technology perspective (Morandi, Rolando and Di Vita, 2016). Existing literature often conceptualizes smart regions as existing around or between smart cities (Rolando, 2011). There is a tendency to especially smartify capital cities because of their greater population densities and larger budgets (Herrera Priano, López Armas and Fajardo Guerra, 2016). Areas around these capital cities are often subsumed into smart regions, as illustrated by the case of Helsinki (Markkula and Kune, 2015).
Technology enhanced experiences play a particularly important role as one of the building stones of smarttourism. Neuhofer et al. (2012) explored technology media- tion in the destination context and shaped the notion of technology enhanced destina- tion experiences. They argue that through the integration of ICTs and co-creation, experiences do not only happen in the physical domain on site, but in online virtual spaces at the same time. For destinations this means that a network of actors become interconnected in the destination ecosystem to facilitate and co-create experiences around a particular tourism destination (Neuhofer et al., 2012). In order to co-create more personalised experiences for and with tourists, Neuhofer et al. (2015) define requirements of smart technologies for experience creation. First, ICTs need to al- low for information aggregation, meaning that they need to have the capacity to col- lect and store information about tourists in a central platform. Second, the authors point out the need for ubiquitous mobile connectedness, suggesting that experience creators and stakeholders need to be connected in a system to facilitate personalised experiences, dynamically «on the move». The third requirement regards real-time synchronisation, which builds on connectedness and the ability of the ICTs infra- structure to transmit and exchange information in real time to facilitate experiences that meet the tourists’ needs in the right context at the right time (Neuhofer et al., 2015).
Background: The use of ICT to promote tourism in the Colombian Caribbean is limited; however, applications for smart TVs are a viable alternative due to their multimedia capabilities. Objective: This paper presents the development of an app called SantaMartaTV, which is intended for Smart TVs and envisions the concept of tourism in a Smart City. The app offers photos, videos, maps and descriptions of the most ideal touristic places in Santa Marta; it allows users to share the content on Facebook, a social networking site. Method: The content displayed on the site is stored on XML files which contain information about the resources. These files are hosted in the servers of freely available services, such as Facebook, YouTube, Google Maps and Dropbox. This feature reduces the cost of implementing new technological infrastructure and facilitates the editing of content. Result: SantaMartaTV promotes the good name of the city as well as improves the visitors’ experience by providing them with interactive information at any time. This article further proposes a methodology for developing Smart TV apps. This new methodology is based on existing agile methodologies, usability concepts and the audiovisual capabilities of TV sets. Conclusion: The methodology satisfies the needs for the development of apps because it provides tools and diagrams which facilitate and guide the elaboration of these specific applications therefore ensuring a user-friendly and attractive app for potential users.
Studying ICTs in terms of competitiveness and costs is very reductionist in tourism (Kim et al., 2009). The use of technologies does not end in the specific field of e-commerce, marketing of products, accommodation, and tourist destinations (Ruiz-Molina et al., 2011; Ruiz et al., 2013). From the different needs and approaches used in tourism development and planning (Dredge and Jamal, 2015; Saarinen et al., 2017, Vera and López, 2011, among others) as well as in the framework of sustainable planning (Hall, 2011; Moscardo, 2011; Moscardo and Murphy, 2014; Perles-Ribes et al., 2017) technologies play an essential role for the innovation of companies and organizations, on all in the case of tourism, due to the interactions between consumer and producer (Hjalager, 2010).
The revision of the existing literature has allowed the authors to develop a pro- posal of a theoretical model that links both concepts. The proposed model facilitates the understanding of the causal mechanisms which link smartness and sustainability, which would induce the development of new lines of research on a theoretical and applied level. The analysis carried out exploits the synergies between the two para- digms and creates a synergetic model focused on smart sustainability, based on a governance framework that applies technology to five fundamental pillars: planning, the efficient management of resources; monitoring, transparency and participation, public-private cooperation, knowledge, innovation; and communication, awareness raising and the improvement of the tourist experience. In the proposed mechanisms, technology intensive use done by smarttourism destinations would play a key role through the potential interactions that may arise between the technologies and the basic elements of sustainability —planning and long-term perspective, scenarios, building, more efficient use of resources, monitoring systems and real time manage- ment, public-private cooperation and open innovation, greater transparency and par- ticipation and customization of tourist services—, which could accelerate the process of achieving it. In this sense, the relationship between smartness and sustainability cannot be conceived linearly.
Las actividades lectivas deben estar bien diseñadas tanto en contenido como en presentación. La pizarra digital interactiva SMART Board es un medio visual e interactivo. Conocer un poco sobre diseño y las mejores prácticas para integrar interactividad utilizando el software SMART Notebook lo ayudará a crear actividades lectivas que cumplan con los objetivos de aprendizaje del plan de estudios y capten el interés de los alumnos. El hecho de crear el contenido en el software SMART Notebook sabiendo que deberá ser presentado en el aula, asegura que la clase se desarrolle sin problemas.
Sommario: Dal punto di vista della domanda di elettricità, sia gli Smart meters come gli Smart Grid sono convenienti, ma si presume che possano influire sulla salute o invadere la privacy. La salute e la privacy sono beni protetti dalla Costituzione nazionale e dalle norme infracostituzionali in Argentina. Tra questi, si possono prendere in considerazione la legge sulla protezione dei dati, l'accesso alle informazioni pubbliche, il quadro normativo elettrico, l'Argentina digitale, la lealtà commerciale, la difesa dei consumatori e alcune normative in materia di contenuti penali. Questa normativa, presa a titolo di esempio, sembra in grado di affrontare inizialmente l'arrivo di Smart meters e di Smart grid, che sono necessari, soprattutto a vantaggio degli utenti della rete. Tuttavia, rimangono alcune domande e, se del caso, possono essere adottate risposte preventive o, se necessario, anticipatorie:
Smart Place surge con la idea de implementar en la sociedad, un mecanismo tecnológico actual, que se llevó a cabo inicialmente en Alemania, donde según un informe de International Energy Efficiency Scorecard, publicado por American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) en el año 2016, ese país ocupaba el primer lugar en eficiencia de recursos energéticos. Estamos hablando de la Inmotica y domótica; usos tecnológicos que permiten garantizar confort en el hogar gracias a la automatización, ayudando a una relación más estrecha entre el hombre y la tecnología.
Por circunstancias especiales que definirá en cada caso la compañía, el sorteo podrá ser declarado nulo o inválido. Específicamente será declarado nulo el sorteo, cuando se compruebe que dichas compras no alcanzaron el valor mínimo de la compra. Se declara inválido la alteración de la factura. ALIANZA SMART se reservará el derecho de solicitar comprobaciones adicionales para la verificar la legalidad de las facturas.
• Gestión de identidades (accounts): En Blockchains privadas o de consorcio como, por ejemplo: Hyperledge, que funciona con una infraestructura de PKI (Public Key Infraestructure) en la que se hace usos de certificados digitales, no existe este problema. Sin embargo, Ethereum es de tipo público y en ella los usuarios son anónimos y únicamente identificados por un número de cuenta derivado de su clave pública. Esto supone un problema a la hora de implementar lógica de negocio en los Smart Contracts basada en roles o tipos de usuario. Tampoco existe un mecanismo para recupera datos personales del usuario que son esenciales para la mayoría de las aplicaciones cómo el nombre, dirección, email, etc.
The literature presents various CBT characteristics, pre-conditions and challenges including, amongst others, the need for CBT to be endogenous in nature. In addition, CBT should be seen as a complementary activity (at least in its beginning), CBT should have individual- and community-wide benefits, and CBT should be linked to skills and education promotion (see Saayman & Giampiccoli 2016, Jugmohan & Steyn 2015). Marketing, scarcity of local resources and capacities are amongst the challenges that hamstrung CBT projects (see Saayman & Giampiccoli 2016: 152) as well as issues related to infrastructure, physical/natural and cultural tourism assets. Market access and marketing are also seen as a precondition for evaluating CBT development (see Jugmohan & Steyn 2015). In moving towards deeper and comprehensive understandings of CBT features, it has been argued that CBT should reflect a type of tourism which promotes a number of objectives related to conservation and development in its broadest terms to include socio-economic and related matters including the protection of culture and the environment (Tamir 2015: 51). Tamir (2015: 51) avers that CBT participatory and development approach as it empowers local communities by enhancing their knowledge, skills and confidence to manage their community resources and take control over them; and “If effective and successful, CBT may bring to healthy economic development, cultural and environmental awareness, cross-cultural understanding and peace and sustainable destination development”. For Yoopetch (2015: 573), CBT involves collaborative activities, social capital creation as well as the re-distribution of power including the four dimensions of related to sustainable development, namely, “economic viability; ecological sustainability; equitable distribution of costs and benefits; and good governance” (Yoopetch 2015: 574). Education and capacity building in CBT is also seen as a key factor and should be considered as an important pre-condition in CBT development (Giampiccoli, Jugmohan & Mtapuri 2014). Beyond conservation and development, George, Nedelea & Antony (2007: 3) proposed the following characteristics of CBT:
Independientemente de los motivos que hayan impulsado a unas ciudades para el desarrollo de proyectos Smart, económicos o sociales por el incremento poblacional o la situación de crisis económica global, todas comparten unas problemáticas comunes. Así, la optimización de la gestión de servicios públicos y control de gastos, la interrelación con la ciudadanía, reducción de las emisiones de CO2, etc., son aspectos que deben ser resueltos, siendo el desarrollo de iniciativas Smart la herramienta idónea a estos efectos. El desarrollo de este tipo de iniciativas, aunque en ocasiones no son percibidas de igual manera, todas tienen un impacto directo tanto en la ciudadanía, que debe ser el principal foco de atención, como en el tejido empresarial y Administraciones Públicas.
Esta campaña es la más reciente de Smart en España, fue publicada en marzo de 2017. Este anuncio sigue con la línea #smartlovers. En esta ocasión el anuncio nos relata una historia de amor, en la que se plasma a través de un videoclip musical. El cual ha sido movido tanto por medio de diversas redes sociales como dentro de la propia página web de Smart. Para llegar a aun más gente han llegado a acuerdos con Spotify para popularizar la canción. Aunque también el anuncio salió en televisión, pero con una duración reducida de entre 30” y 20”, además de una versión especial para cines de unos 60”. Enlace videoclip #smartlovers: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ghr_CyRsnE
One of the facts that characterized the tourism industry in the first decade of the century was the numerous shocks that it suffered. This led to a general awareness of the importance of monitoring such events and designing crises management plans in advance. In this general context this research tries to shed light into the evolution of the effects of a shock on the different stages of the tourist experience. Thailand’s case during the political crises in the end of 2008 and beginning of 2009 has been chosen as the context for application. Hence, the main objective of this article was to study the differences in the structure of causal relationships between Thailand’s destination image and the international tourists’ perceived value, satisfaction, and destination loyalty in six different periods. These episodes were: the period before Thai international airports closure, during airports closure, one month after the airports closure, two and three months after the airports closure, the Songkran crisis, and one month after the Songkran crisis.
Tourism legacy impacts are considered one of the most important reasons for countries host a mega event. They generate short, medium and, long-term legacies in the destination image, as well as, at economic and sociocultural level. The paper objective is to show the short-term evolution of economic legacies indicators of sports mega-events, two years before and two years after each event. It was verified through an exploratory analysis of tourism employ- ment level, total investment, and Tourism GDP of the countries that hosted the last three FIFA World Cups. Also, it analyzes the country’s competitive strengths at the year that the mega- event happened based on the Tourism & Travel Competitiveness Index pillars (TTCI). Thus, it performed an explanatory and descriptive analysis of secondary data. Literature review points out the infrastructure as the central pillar to receive a sports mega-event. However, the results did not indicate this focus in the last countries chosen. Also, the economic legacies had increased after the sports mega-event, but not in all hosts analyzed. Therefore, the assump- tion of positive effects generated by sports mega-events is not consolidated. Further research is recommended to establish indicators and approaches the impact on the host country by a mega-event from the legacy perspective.
• The research is based on statistics provided by the World Tourism Organization (WTO), existing with certain gaps since the 1940s until the present day; and materials from Spain’s National Statistics Institute (INE), Spain’s Government Department of Tourism and the resources of the Official Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Shipping of Palma de Mallorca (COCIN).
The paper considers the concept of religious tourism. Religious tourism is the departure of a person from a country of residence for a period of no more than six months in order to visit holy places and centers of religion. On the other hand, this concept can be viewed as an activity aimed at providing services to the tourists travelling for religious purposes. One distinguishes the pilgrimage tourism and the religious tourism of excursion - cognitive focus. The difference between these two types is that the religious tourism of excursion - cognitive focus means visiting temples and holy places without the tourists’ participation in the religious life of the shrine. The Pilgrimage tourism provides an opportunity to participate in worshipping and praying. The Pilgrimage can also be classified according to the number of participants, i.e. individual, family, group. If one considers the duration of the tour, one can identify long and short pilgrimages. Depending on the location of the shrine, there are domestic and foreign tours. It should be noted that both the religious tourism and the pilgrimage has a number of reasons. At the heart of the pilgrimage is the human being conventional attitude to religion, his conscious activity implies the desire to see the shrines that have significance precisely for him. The definition of tourism as a kind of activity is in no way inferior to the concept and essence of the pilgrimage. Relying on the scientific definition of the pilgrimage and religious tours, it can be said that it applies more to tourism than to human spiritual activity. It gives an evidence to talk about the pilgrimage as a tour.
Currently, many initiatives are being developed in Spain and also in Europe in terms of Smart City projects (Caragliu et al., 2009; Giffinger et al. 2007; Manville et al., 2014; ONTSI, 2015), however, it needs to be developed indicators and standardized methodologies to evaluate, prioritize, implement and manage this type of projects. It has also identified a lack of visual and easy to use tools for interpreting a large amount of information with respect to these projects. In the 2014 European report: Mapping Smart Cities in the EU, the power of mapping the smart cities situation is appreciated (Manville et al. 2014), Fig. 1 +CITIES go one step further, using map as a dynamic tool to visualise the database, not only a way of representing a static result. +CITIES project provide tools to solve the shortcoming of visual tools and systematic evaluation method for Smart City projects.
Secondly, symptoms of maturity of tourism demand in certain countries. The observation of the behaviour of outbound tourism and recent studies (GRAHAM, 2001; ALEGRE-POU, 2003a; a general view in VELLAS, 2004) point towards a possible stagnation –in outbound markets of developed countries– of the percentage of population who travel abroad. The cases of France and Great Britain illustrate this point: the increase in tourism demand is due to a greater frequency of departures per year on the part of regular travellers. In this regard, between 1990-2002 the regions in the world which have experienced the most growth in outbound tourism were Asia and the Pacific, with 118 per cent (from 60 million to more than 131 million) and the Middle East, with 100 per cent (from 8 to 16 million tourists). Europe and America, with figures of 53 per cent and 21 per cent respectively, have increased their figures more slowly, as they have gone from 363 to 525 million. Finally, new consumer tastes (POON, 1993). This client –known as “post-Fordist”– has interests other than the crowded areas of sun and sand and this constitutes, therefore, a serious threat to mass tourism destinations. See GARAU (2010).