The smarttourism city based on efficient use of resources is a very different model. The programmed actions aim to solve urban problems that tourism has previously created which, if not reversed, can severely affect the destination competitiveness. It is a reactive model, which focuses on the applied use of sustainability to solve urban problems that hinder tourism development, but that does not adopt measures in order to reverse tourism growth. Indeed, actions to improve sustainability programmed by this type of tourism destination are based on raising awareness, improving tourists’ experience (mobility, accessibility, safety) and making savings in basic resources for tourism (water, energy, heritage), but making little use of technology. Besides strengthening the tourism experience, those smarttourismdestinations plan acts to improve the quality of the environment and their inhabitants’ quality of life. This is explained by the fact that many actions affect services and areas used by both tourists and residents and because the quality of the environment, which obviously has a positive impact on residents, is essential for attracting tourists. However, actions that require some form of collective organisation (such as governance or mobility) or involve mobilising a complex fabric of economic actors (innovation) are less abundant.
Much of the smart discourse relates to embedding technologies in built infra- structure, whether it is public transportation infrastructure, public buildings, homes or utilities infrastructure. In accordance with this focus on the built environment, smarttourism literature and practice has also focused on equipping museums, hotels, buildings that are touristic points of interest, and transportation infrastructure such as subways, airports and bus stations with smart technologies (e. g. Chianese and Pic- cialli, 2014; Alletto et al., 2016; Faria et al., 2017; Buhalis and Leung, 2018). Even in the case of Spanish smarttourismdestinations, the emphasis is clearly on buildings and transportation, as illustrated by the website homepage (http://www.destinosinteli- gentes.es/). A Google image search on the IoT also delivers a myriad of logos and illustrations that focus on vehicles, various types of buildings and man-made objects. Only in the context of smart farming, of environmental monitoring such as forest fire detection and weather prediction, and in the case of tracking animals (both pets and wildlife) are references made to natural resources and living beings (Hill, 2016). Such application areas outside of urban contexts are, however, rarely discussed. As such, when smarttourism is discussed, its physical layer is typically conceptualized as buildings and objects that can be easily equipped with sensors, beacons or other types of smart technologies. In contrast, smarttourism infrastructure outside of city-scapes has not been fully conceptualized.
The revision of the existing literature has allowed the authors to develop a pro- posal of a theoretical model that links both concepts. The proposed model facilitates the understanding of the causal mechanisms which link smartness and sustainability, which would induce the development of new lines of research on a theoretical and applied level. The analysis carried out exploits the synergies between the two para- digms and creates a synergetic model focused on smart sustainability, based on a governance framework that applies technology to five fundamental pillars: planning, the efficient management of resources; monitoring, transparency and participation, public-private cooperation, knowledge, innovation; and communication, awareness raising and the improvement of the tourist experience. In the proposed mechanisms, technology intensive use done by smarttourismdestinations would play a key role through the potential interactions that may arise between the technologies and the basic elements of sustainability —planning and long-term perspective, scenarios, building, more efficient use of resources, monitoring systems and real time manage- ment, public-private cooperation and open innovation, greater transparency and par- ticipation and customization of tourist services—, which could accelerate the process of achieving it. In this sense, the relationship between smartness and sustainability cannot be conceived linearly.
_”Assessing Smart City initiatives for the Mediterranean Region”. Participation in the 7th Meda City Forum, in the 9th Mediterranean Week of Economic Leaders, 26th November 2015, Barcelona. Monzon, Andrés; Fernandez-Anez, Victoria; Velazquez, Guillermo
For organising tourism clusters, it is necessary to form public-private partnerships and synergies for tourism development. An example of the destination Labin-Rabac is presented alongside data obtained by the interview method. The results indicate that all holders of the Performance Plan, including local governments, public utility companies, private sponsors, local tourist boards, County tourist boards and other entities at the regional level (i.e. IRTA, Convention Bureau as well as other businesses, organisations and government institutions) need to act synergistically following a single strategy, and provide support to other stakeholders in the implementation. For example, the implementation plan of the Labin cluster prescribes: "Developing 5 local restaurants specialised in local cuisine." This task is allocated to private entities as key figures, while units of local government, public utility companies and other entities have an advisory role, and the local tourism board, and other entities of the destination are managers collaborating in the implementation of the task. Certain performance priorities are very high, the investment cost is high, and the risk level is also defined as high by the plan. There are time issues to be considered as well because the investment process is scheduled, but dependant on the global economy and the event of recession.
However, above all, disunity in religious life affects the society, both the citizens of the country and potential visitors. In this context, religious tourism becomes an ins- trument of peoples’ rapprochement. The ire- nic nature of religious tourism encourages learning the traditions and customs of other ethnic groups and cultures, promotes the spi- ritual and patriotic education of the popula- tion, and therefore, provides an opportunity to rally people in the effort for peace in the world. Under the circumstances of instability, people need to turn to morally well-establi- shed phenomena. These can be shrines or the pilgrimage places. According to the resear- chers, the importance of religious tourism is growing noticeably in the time of crisis. The Russian Orthodox Church supports the most relevant internal religious tourist destina- tions. It is done with the aim of developing national pride for the monuments of Russian religion, primarily among the population of the country. In conditions of world globali- zation, religious tourism does not stay on the sidelines. The Imperial Orthodox Pales- tine society and the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation signed an agreement on the development of religious tourism and pilgrimage. “The signing ceremony took pla- ce on October 19 in Moscow”, the website of the IOPs (Imperial Orthodox Palestine so- ciety) reports. The program is designed for the period of 2015-2020, and is divided into several implementation stages. The first stage (2015-2016) assumes the formation of a legal, financial and organizational base for further activities. The second stage, scheduled for 2017-2018, is intended to open the National Tourist Offices in the regional branches of the IOPs. Their number reaches 28 in Russia and beyond. The third stage happens to be in 2019-2020. According to the official website of the IOPs, “further qualitative boost of acti- vities, monitoring, controlling and evaluation of work effectiveness, implementation of the best Russian and foreign experience to deve- lop of religious tourism and pilgrimage” is planned in these terms. In addition, the pro- gram includes setting up the conditions to or- ganize the tourist and pilgrimage tours to the Holy places of Russia and world Orthodoxy, and financing scientific research in this field.
Tourists who work as Civil Servants (PNS), Private and Students tend to form one group and have a very positive response to travel agencies and guides. On the other hand, tourists with entrepreneurial work have a very positive response to Attractions. The tourists who work as students tend to give low responses to all aspects. The Tourists with other works are more concerned with the Attractions aspect than the other variables. This explains that tourists who work as civil servants, private employees and students are a market segment paying more attention to the aspects of travel agencies that are used to go to tourist destinations and services provided by guides. The travellers who have status as entrepreneurs prioritize the aspects of attractions especially in natural tourism, cultural tourism and artificial tourism on their visits. Meanwhile, the tourists with the status of students do not prioritize these two aspects (amenities and attractions). Therefore, if you want to target market segmentation in a segment based on profession, as the manager of Bromo Tengger or businessman must be able to improve halal tourism services in the aspects of the Travel Agency, tour services and attractions that are more attractive.
discouraged. Terminal buildings will be more compact and more energy ef ﬁ cient to reduce their environmental footprint. Airport terminals will be made up of ﬂ exible modules so as to adapt their capacity to passenger volumes in peak and low seasons. Thanks to technological innovations, check-in areas will be substantially reduced and passengers will pass through security controls without stopping or disrobing. Designers will create a calm, functional and aesthetically pleasing airport environment based on bioclimatic principles. The provision of leisure and entertainment services will grow to attend the diversity of travelers ’ interests. Immersive and interactive technology will facilitate the personalization and tailoring of the local experience to speci ﬁ c interests such as cultural heritage or shopping. Air terminals will become an integral part of tourist destinations and create a “ sense of place ” through a sensi- tive combination of local architectural design, materials and colors. In other words, airports will evolve into more operationally ef ﬁ - cient, secure, engaging and environmentally responsible facilities. 6.4.2. Designing the hotel of the future
Social, psychological and economic benefits of tourism and outdoor recreation activities are very important especially in the developing countries, like Turkey, where people face consistently increasing economic and environmental stresses. Outdoor recreation is good for the psychology of people since it can prevent or reduce the stress caused by hard living conditions in such countries as Turkey; good for the social life since it can provide suitable environments for people to find others with whom they can share their personal or common troubles and happiness; and good for the economy since people often performing outdoor recreational activities are more productive and happier at work and these activities can produce job opportunities for other people (Toy and Yilmaz, 2009).
The T-Agent needs to have information about the country and the different possibilities its diverse places bring. Usually the packages have little information about the destinations and the resources available in them. This domain knowledge is complementary to the package information and vital to infer how a trip including certain destinations, can satisfy some tourist preferences (e.g. natural resources). To structure the knowledge about argentinian tourism, we analyzed different tourism ontologies and most of them were focussed on desti- nations (see e.g. ) including the resources they have, the activities they offer, etc. Inspired in some of them, the following features were extracted for the destination ontology in our prototype.
21 practices through their position in the TSC. On the theoretical side, only Calveras & Vera- Hernández (2005) have explored the role of TOs as coordinating agents in the management of CPR in tourismdestinations. However, this study has a number of shortcomings that leave room for further research. Chapter 5 looks forward to contributing to the third main objective of the thesis by setting a theoretical framework for analyzing the interaction between TOs and hotels where the former implement incentives schemes to induce investment in quality by the latter. This chapter explores (i) the role of TOs in the hotels’ green management adoption in a framework of tragedy of the commons and explores how reducing the number of TOs can lead to a level of green management closer to the social optimum; (ii) the path of adoption of green management by the hotels of a tourism destination and its long run equilibrium; (iii) different assumptions on rationality of agents (TO and hotels); (iv) the determinants of the distribution of the yield from green management; and (v) the impact of government intervention by means of a subsidy that promotes green management.
Another source of conflict in the rela- tionship between marinas and tourism are the so called “expressive activities”, that is to say, activities, such as banana trips, pedlos, casual snorkeling, etc., that are designed as an entertainment for tourists. In the Canary Islands, where sea and sand tourism is so important, recreation plays a crucial role in the motivations and activi- ties of social actors, and thus other sport and social spaces are influenced by a rec- reational perspective. For most vacationers, practising sport activities is considered to be more a game than a sport. However, sport, as an institutionalized social activity, imposes norms that turn what initially was just a game into a proper sport. Interview- ees complained that only in one of the three marinas analysed, Marina Santa Cruz, the sports logic predominates. In the case of Puerto de Colon, the marina which is iso- lated from other harbours but embedded in the larger touristic resort of the island, the management and activities are focused on recreation rather than watersports (whale watching, banana trips etc.). In the case of Marina Tenerife, the overwhelming major- ity of the users of the marina are locals whose goals when coming to the marina have more to do with recreation and the search for social prestige rather than actu- ally with watersports.
In the last few decades the importance of tourism has increased exponentially for all the economies worldwide. Tourism is a sector that is very special for its characteristics and therefore it is harder to study its behaviour compared to other industries. It is exceptionally interested to study Spanish tourism trends because Spain has been recently considered,, by the UNWTO, the most competitive tourism destination in the world and therefore. As such, its behaviour might be used to predict the behaviour of other tourismdestinations.
• …Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily are destinations in the process of expansion. In a context in which the IMEDOC are generally losing ground, these islands show better tourism indicators than the two leaders and they are following the same trend as the Mediterranean’s remaining countries.
3. The regional breakdown of national figures, as the tourism phenomenon calls for more localised analysis in the spatial environment (Fujita- Krugman-Venable: new economic geography). Here, a thorough analysis of the EUROSTAT databases will be a determining factor, although the chronological limits of these materials are severe.
Ya se ha explicado cómo la arquitectura de “ecosistema” es la que define el proyecto TRE. Los diferentes nodos interactúan entre sí y conforman una globalidad donde son varios los ejes en torno a los que se desarrolla el modelo, según se comentó en el capítulo inicial al presentar la gama de servicios que TRE ofrece. La organización se apoya en una serie de sociedades que se agrupan bajo la cabecera de Tourism Revolution Ecosystem S.L. Cada una de ellas se define como un nodo con un sentido propio de acuerdo con los objetivos globales de transformación por acción en el sector del turismo.
The analysis was carried out taking into account sociodemographic indicators such as the size of the city or the municipal budget per inhabitant. The mobility’s evaluation in those cities has been focused in: sustainability mobility urban plans and measures to reduce the number of vehicles. The 62 cities from the RECI have been evaluated according to their degree of progress in several Smart Cities’ initiatives related to smart mobility. The applied methodology has been specifically made for this project. The grading scale has different ranks depending on the deployment level of smart cities’ initiatives.
Secondly, symptoms of maturity of tourism demand in certain countries. The observation of the behaviour of outbound tourism and recent studies (GRAHAM, 2001; ALEGRE-POU, 2003a; a general view in VELLAS, 2004) point towards a possible stagnation –in outbound markets of developed countries– of the percentage of population who travel abroad. The cases of France and Great Britain illustrate this point: the increase in tourism demand is due to a greater frequency of departures per year on the part of regular travellers. In this regard, between 1990-2002 the regions in the world which have experienced the most growth in outbound tourism were Asia and the Pacific, with 118 per cent (from 60 million to more than 131 million) and the Middle East, with 100 per cent (from 8 to 16 million tourists). Europe and America, with figures of 53 per cent and 21 per cent respectively, have increased their figures more slowly, as they have gone from 363 to 525 million. Finally, new consumer tastes (POON, 1993). This client –known as “post-Fordist”– has interests other than the crowded areas of sun and sand and this constitutes, therefore, a serious threat to mass tourismdestinations. See GARAU (2010).
Tourists have become «prosumers» and have now technological tools to con- struct and reconstruct socially their experiences (Gretzel and Jamal, 2009). This has forced businesses, but also destinations, to adapt to a new era of tourist experiences. ICTs have «mediated» the tourist experience in the sense that they have transformed how we interpret the places we visit and socially construct our experience in its three phases (before, during and after the trip) (Tussyadiah and Fesenmaier, 2009; Wang, Park and Fesenmaier, 2012). Some particular ICTs have had a decisive role in medi- ating experiences, as they have been widely adopted by users, companies and desti- nations. Social media is one of many examples. They actively support the sharing of personal experiences with others through comments, pictures and videos and other user-generated content (UGC) (Xiang and Gretzel, 2010). Users share their experi- ences in these media in order to help potential consumers and relatives, or keep tight and endurable social connections, among other motivations (Munar and Jacobsen, 2014). A second major driver of change in this scope has been mobile technology. Smartphones have greatly mediated tourism experiences due to their manifold func- tions that have allowed tourists to feel better connected, informed and to have more fun while getting higher value (Wang, Xiang and Fesenmaier, 2014). Supported on these devices, augmented reality applications (Yovcheva, Buhalis and Gatzidis, 2013) and mobile apps (Wang et al., 2012) can enhance tourist experiences as well.
Several local protests have been held against mass tourism in the island. In 2016, Mallorca gained international attention when the media reported a graffiti reading “Tourists go home” on the walls of the historic centre (White, 2016). The environmental groups of Mallorca decided to take action to say that it is urgent to take measures against the tourist saturation that the islands are living. That is why they organised a large demonstration in Palma, which took place in September 23, 2017 to protest against the tourism policy of the Government (Adrover, 2017). Some protestors expressed their concern about the rising rent prices and the difficulty of finding accommodation (Cafebabel, 2017). Resident organisations such as “Ciutat per qui l’habita” (literally “A city for who inhabits it”) are aimed at standing up for the interests of the residents. “Ciutat per qui l’ habita” brings attention to the mass tourism and urges local authorities to take action. A goal of the organisation is to highlight the huge amount of uninhabited properties in the city and the short-term rentals on platforms such as Airbnb (Cafebabel, 2017). Recent anti-tourism demonstrations were the protests against cruise ships, with the arrival in the port of Palma of the biggest cruise ship in the world the “Symphony of the Seas”, which has the capacity of carrying 9.000 passengers. The protest was organised by the “Assembly 23-S” integrated by a group of ecologists such as “Fins aquí hem arribat” (literally “It has come to this”), who demonstrated against the impact of the cruise ship’s big dimensions with signs reading “Stop cruise ships”, “Horror of the Seas” or “Bye bye cruise ships” (Saenz, 2018).