Social and Academic Networks

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Redes académicas transnacionales y la física argentina en las décadas de 1940 y 1950 / Transnational academic networks and Argentinean physics in the decades of 1940 and 1950

Redes académicas transnacionales y la física argentina en las décadas de 1940 y 1950 / Transnational academic networks and Argentinean physics in the decades of 1940 and 1950

Por otra parte, la necesidad de la participación del Estado en la planificación científica en esta nueva etapa se constata no solo en las magnitudes de los presupuestos destinados a la investigación, sino también en la debilidad estructural del empresariado industrial argentino de mediados del siglo XX. El reconocimiento social en tanto “hom- bre de ciencia” perseguido, y de hecho alcanzado por Gaviola, le permitió desempeñarse como asesor físico, primero en las cristalerías Rigolleau (1947-1951), y luego en General Electric (1952-1956), mientras los desencuentros con el gobierno peronista lo mantenían alejado de las aulas universitarias y los institutos de investigación. Pero no fue suficiente para lograr de estos y otros empresarios una relación de cooperación estable con la AFA, ni la movilización de los recursos precisos provenientes de la filantropía para su proyecto de construir una universidad de investigación privada, que desde 1946 impulsó junto a Eduardo Braun Menéndez, Bernardo Houssay y otros destacados científicos argentinos (Mariscotti, 2004, pp. 42-46).
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Multiliteracy and Social Networks in Higher Education

Multiliteracy and Social Networks in Higher Education

Public, school, university or specialised libraries owe their very existence to the mission and objectives of their mother institutions. For many years now, a great deal of emphasis has been placed on ultimately justifying their existence. Therefore, the reason why they should be held accountable for an effective use of resources placed at their disposal is to compare and demonstrate the contribution they make to all levels of education (in the widest of senses) of the population they serve. For university libraries, this refers to students’ academic results. However, managing to attain these levels of education and academic results is, needless to say, not the sole responsibility of libraries. Therefore, it is necessary to mark out the playing field very clearly and to define intra-institutional, inter- institutional and inter-professional responsibilities in this respect, not only to be able to plan training activities in libraries properly, but also to incorporate and integrate such activities in the most appropriate educational way into curricula and into applied practice through various subjects and programmes. As learning support resource units, university libraries become a space and an environment full of multi-purpose resources that offer students the chance to become the active subjects of their own literacy acts and practices in order to meet the demands of the curriculum. This contribution must be subject to the same principle of educational effectiveness as other learning facilitation processes in the higher education setting.
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The use of Facebook and Social Networks to improve Education

The use of Facebook and Social Networks to improve Education

Facebook is currently considered to be the most pop- ular platform for online social networking between uni- versity students (Kabilan et al., 2010:179). Founded in Harvard University in 2006 for purely academic rea- sons (the initial aim was to have photographs of stu- dents in Internet for easy recognition), Facebook soon became a large network with many functions, such as sending messages through mobiles, the emergence of pages for businesses and individuals, the generation of searches, use of chats... At present it is trying to ex- pand its spectrum of use in smart phones, mainly after buying Whatsapp. The support of Facebook by previ- ous mobile devices (Shiu et al., 2010:60), and now with the inclusion of Whatsapp, is a definite advantage of using Facebook for education purposes.
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Positive reinforcement social networks: online social interactions to measure, analyse and improve academic outcomes

Positive reinforcement social networks: online social interactions to measure, analyse and improve academic outcomes

Once the first goal was achieved it was the turn of (G2), namely to carry out field studies to obtain a better vision of educational environments. Long-term fieldwork from 2009 until 2012 was conducted, and in this students were the main actors, and several educative centres participated (secondary education, K-12). This was followed by an extensive analysis of ICT platforms in educational environments in three different countries: Spain, Guatemala and the United States. Again this study of the ICT platforms was conducted on secondary education systems from 2009 to 2015. As Moodle was not the main platform used in any of them, another tool used in the Texan system was used for a case study: AgileMind. A question that arose in this chapter and which can now can be answered is: could the teacher’s labour be aided by facilitating tools for monitoring and measuring different aspects related to academic environments? And the answer is that it can.
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Learning 2 0 : Concepts and experiences with social networks and software

Learning 2 0 : Concepts and experiences with social networks and software

UXX is a completely online university. The UXX educational model places the student as an active agent at the centre of her learning process. During this process, the student is assisted by a team of teachers and is also helped by her partners in the virtual classroom, which is located inside the virtual campus (a highly developed intranet which satisfies all academic necessities, including registering and technical assistance). In these virtual spaces, the student can find a complete course syllabus, the course learning materials and other resources (as the digital library or academic software). UXX’s virtual campus is, by definition, an extraordinary scenario for social networks and learning 2.0 experiences.
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La comunicación y la colaboración científica en redes sociales académicas/ Scientific collaboration and communication in academic social networks

La comunicación y la colaboración científica en redes sociales académicas/ Scientific collaboration and communication in academic social networks

_____________________________________________________________________________________  Por otro lado, la colaboración científica tiene como principales características que es un proceso  social  donde  no  existe  liderazgo  y  predomina  la  participación;  trasciende  las  fronteras  institucionales, geográficas y políticas; permite el trabajo entre varias personas para alcanzar un  fin común; implica compartir recursos en diversos formatos; se produce a partir de motivaciones  personales  o  institucionales;  sus  resultados  son de  tipo cognitivo y  profesionales;  los  tipos  de  colaboradores  pueden  ser  mentores,  discípulos  o  colegas;  se  comentan  u  opina  sobre  las  aportaciones de los colegas. 
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Social networks and institutional communication: the case of Portuguese universities

Social networks and institutional communication: the case of Portuguese universities

Kotler, Kartajaya and Setiwan (2011) argue that marketing is an organisational function that refers to a set of projects that relate to the creation, communication and delivery of value to customers. The evolution from Communication 1.0 to Communication 3.0 reflects the relevance of the role of technologies in Communication and the transition from Marketing 1.0 to 3.0. The paradigm shift and the new communication models transform the passive user of the 1.0 era into an active, participatory consumer. In the first phase, Marketing and Communication were pro- duct-centric. The goal was to sell products at reasonable prices. Interaction with consumers was accomplished from a “«one-to-many» transaction. The transition from Web 1.0 to the 2.0 format summarises a change in the structure of the Internet: a static model of the traditional network to a dynamic Web, social and conversational, where the relationship is based on the “«one-to-one». Kotler, Kartajaya and Setiwan (2011) define three pillars of Communication 3.0: collabora- tion, culture and spirituality. Consequently, the Marketing 3.0 model focuses on values and understands the consumer as a human being. According to the authors, Marketing 3.0 is the axis between “«the era of participation, the era of the paradox of globalisation and the era of the creative society» (2011, p. 19). Therefore, Marketing 3.0 assumes itself as “«collaborative, cultural and spiritual marketing» (2011, p. 19). Thus, the era of participation is associated with collaborative marketing, the era of the paradox of globalisation relates to cultural marketing, and the era of creative society corresponds to the marketing of the human spirit. As Kotler, Kar- tajaya and Setiwan point out,
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Social mobility and the importance of networks: evidence for Britain

Social mobility and the importance of networks: evidence for Britain

We now attempt to provide an objective valuation of the help provided. We estimate a wage regression, where the dependent variable is log of the gross monthly wage of the individual at age 42 and we relate this to an individual’s socio-economic background, their years of education and their ability, as measured by maths test score at age 10 (standardised to have a mean of zero and standard deviation of one). To ensure a parsimonious specification, to ease interpretation and to avoid multi-collinearity between different measures of parental socio-economic background, we only include parental SEG at age 10 (results are robust to using parental income instead). We estimate the model separately for men and women. To this standard wage equation we then add terms indicating whether the individual received a particular kind of help from their parent. We interpret a positive significant coefficient on the help variables as indicative that the help provided had some labour market value. Any impact of parental SEG on wages that comes through the child achieving more years in education or having higher ability at age 10 (for a discussion of the mechanisms see e.g. Haveman & Wolfe, 1995) will be picked up by the coefficients on those variables – we wish to measure only the impact of parental help in the labour market over and above that coming through education and ability. We interpret any significant reduction in the magnitude of the coefficients on the parental SEG variables once the network variables are included as indicative evidence that parental networks and help are one route through which individuals from more socio-economically advantaged backgrounds secure labour market advantage. We then consider whether similar findings hold when we use SEG at 42 as opposed to earnings as the dependent variable. This latter model also provides a rather larger sample size – we have 6,131 observations in the wage regressions but 7,657 in the models of SEG.
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Security and online social networks

Security and online social networks

Other security fears regarding profile content itself are also present. For ex- ample in MySpace the embedding of videos inherently allows all of the format’s abilities and functions to be used on a page. A prime example of this surfaced in December 2006, when embedded QuickTime videos were shown to contain hyperlinks to JavaScript files, which would be run simply by a user visiting a ’phished’ profile page, or even in some cases by simply viewing a user’s ’about me’ elsewhere on the site. Users who entered their login information into a fake login bar that appeared would also become ’phished’, and their account would be used to spam other members, thus spreading this security problem.
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10 Lee mas

Research data and academic libraries

Research data and academic libraries

Findings. Academic libraries should respond to the rapid changes in the scientific landscape and to the new needs of their users by developing research data services. Some of these services could be considered as expansion of the existing information services (for example searching and finding the resources and also citing of the re- search data sets), but in most cases this kind of services demands new skills and knowl- edge. Furthermore, the cooperation among library staff is of vital importance for the high-quality research data services development, as well as the cooperation with other faculty departments and other institutions dealing with research data (especially re- search data archives).
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Social Media and Communication strategies of social networks in Madrid´s hotel industry

Social Media and Communication strategies of social networks in Madrid´s hotel industry

El “social media” está provocando un cambio substancial en las estrategias de comunicación en la industria hotelera. Este nuevo escenario incorpora nuevos perfiles profesionales vinculados tanto a la propia gestión de las redes sociales como al análisis de su comportamiento para la definición de estrategias de comunicación. Los establecimientos hoteleros están obligados a adaptarse a esta nueva realidad social y a incorporar las nuevas tecnologías sociales en su plan de comunicación, para ofrecer al cliente/usuario una respuesta directa, transparente y rápida a las necesidades que pueda demandar. En este contexto, este artículo pretende dar respuesta a la siguiente cuestión: ¿El control de la gestión de la comunicación en las redes sociales puede incrementar los beneficios en la industria hotelera? La metodología utilizada para dar solución a esta pregunta está basada en una primera revisión bibliográfica y documental sobre los conceptos “social media” y “estrategia de comunicación en el sector turístico”, y en segundo lugar, en la realización de una encuesta de opinión a directores de hoteles de cuatro estrellas situados geográficamente en la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados de la investigación demuestran un inminente cambio en la concepción tradicional de la planificación estratégica de la comunicación de los hoteles.
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Social Networks and Entrepreneurship. Evidence from a Historical Episode of Industrialization

Social Networks and Entrepreneurship. Evidence from a Historical Episode of Industrialization

Este documento explora la relaci´ on entre las redes sociales y el emprendimiento mediante la construcci´ on de una red social din´ amica a partir de registros de archivo. La red corresponde a la ´ elite de una sociedad en transici´ on a la modernidad, caracterizada por condiciones geogr´ aficas dif´ıciles, fallas de mercado y una baja capacidad estatal, como Antioquia (Colombia) a fines del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Con estos datos, estimo c´ omo la decisi´ on de fundar firmas industriales se relacion´ o con la posici´ on de los individuos en la red social. Encuentro que los individuos m´ as importantes conectando la red (es decir, con un mayor betweenness centrality) est ˜ A¡n m´ as involucrados en el emprendimiento industrial. Sin embargo, no encuentro evidencia de que individuos con una red m´ as densa est´ en m´ as involucrados en este tipo de actividad. La l´ ogica de estos resultados es que el emprendimiento industrial era una actividad altamente compleja que requer´ıa una amplia variedad de recursos complementarios. Las redes operaban como sustitutos de los mercados en la adquisici´ on de estos recursos. Por lo tanto, las personas con posiciones en la red que favorec´ıa la combinaci´ on de un amplio conjunto de recursos ten´ıan una ventaja comparativa en el emprendimiento industrial. Realizo varias pruebas para probar este razonamiento.
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Two classes of bipartite networks: nested biological and social systems

Two classes of bipartite networks: nested biological and social systems

We discuss the numerical results obtained with the SNM by comparing them with the real mutualistic sys- tem described in Ref.[9]. Real systems such as this are not perfectly ordered. To obtain a theoretical prediction from the SNM an initial configuration has to be cho- sen that involves a random adjacency matrix with the same number of species and interactions as the real sys- tem. The iterative ordering process starts from this ini- tial state and is stoped before a perfect order has been reached using some appropriate stopping criterion that takes into consideration the particular empirical situa- tion under analysis. This is in fact the only adjustable parameter of the model. The results shown here corre- spond to 100000 iterations of the SNM. In this case the stopping criterium is based on a statistical estimate of the departure from the isocline of perfect order. The algorithm is stopped when the value of this estimate is close to the empirically observed one.
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Rearticulating worlds through language: social justice and creative activism networks

Rearticulating worlds through language: social justice and creative activism networks

The cartonera experience arose in Latin America as a mean of empowerment and social visibility, as well as a tool to promote literacy and artistic activity among children and marginalized groups. The first editorial project of this kind was Eloísa Cartonera, born in the neighborhood of La Boca (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in 2003 as an artistic laboratory and shop that sold vegetables and handcrafted books. The activity was fostered in a rather conflictive context of social unrest, as at the beginning of the 21st Century Argentina was stricken by a deep financial crisis; the situation rapidly escalated and affected the Argentinian people’s everyday life, provoking riots and protests (Schuster et al. 2005). In the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, waste picking emerged as a social and labor phenomenon at the end of the ‘80s with the development of recycling policies. The number of waste pickers grew dramatically as a consequence of the crisis blown in 2001; people who consequently found themselves jobless or homeless often dedicated their days to waste picking and scavenging as a means of sustenance, supplying exploitable—and often informal—workforce to the recycling business. The number of people registered as recuperadores urbanos by the city government in the 2002-2012 decade fluctuated between 8.000 and 16.000, to which we can estimate an addition of a few thousands more informal pickers (Villanova). As cardboard recollection in particular became one of the main activities connected with recycling waste, pickers were named cartoneros; among them, many were children, often belonging to migrant families—from both internal and external regions—and living in poverty. The first cartonera project picked up the name and began to buy cardboard from the children at a slightly higher price, inviting them to participate in bookmaking activities and supporting the continuity of their education; in many cases it was the only moment and place the children could cultivate their literacy, spend time drawing and enjoy a welcoming environment. Founder Santiago Vega—better known as Washington Cucurto—is a prolific author and has been actively working for the collective since 2003. Recycling materials and inspired in self-managed cooperatives, Eloísa Cartonera was founded with the aim of fomenting the appropriation of the book as a response to injustice provoked by “capitalismo salvaje” (Meza 63) in an era of economic crisis and consequent social degradation.
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Social networks in medical practice

Social networks in medical practice

Another important point regarding medical ethics is that, under certain circumstances within the professional medi- cal environment, it is considered an obligation to report any medical disability or incompetence, when there is evi- dence. Disability refers to a process which impedes proper execution of the medical practice as a result of an illness (i.e. dementia) or substance abuse (i.e. alcoholism), while incompetence refers to a lack of knowledge or the neces- sary abilities. What would the implications be of obtaining information about a colleague’s medical inability or incom- petence from a SN? For example, a surgeon may reveal, only to a few people through their SN, that he has early Parkinson’s disease. Based on the principle previously men- tioned, one would be obliged to report this situation to the authorities of the institution, or in some cases the police. These circumstances represent ethical, professional and legal dilemmas, which are still in the process of being solved.
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Joined Together in the Net: Activism and Intimacy in Social Networks

Joined Together in the Net: Activism and Intimacy in Social Networks

Los paradigmas que se aplican al estudio de la comunicación de los movimientos sociales van tendiendo a centrarse en los aspectos técnicos, abandonando el contexto de cultura. Se suelen primar los informes sobre telecomunicaciones y aspectos de marketing de eficacia comunicativa. De esta forma se obvia la brecha digital de acceso a internet. La visión tecnocrática impone un uso de las redes como herramienta válida para efectuar el cambio social, sin analizar cuál es el uso concreto, particular, personal de ese uso. Se piensa en una empresa y no en las apropiaciones que los activistas puedan hacer de estas técnicas y herramientas (Marí Sáez, 2013).
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Social networks, entrepreneurship and modernity - evidence from a historical episode of industrialization

Social networks, entrepreneurship and modernity - evidence from a historical episode of industrialization

publications, chronicles and historical narratives, and the economic literature of the period. The starting point of the snowball were the five larger shareholders of the banking system by 1888. The reason to start with the most important bankers is that banks were the largest entrepreneurial projects of the 19th century, both in terms of capital and in terms of number of shareholders. In that sense, the larger bankers were, certainly, big fish in the business community. All the information available about those five individuals was collected. From those five individuals the data-set grew by incorporating their parents, their marital partners, and their sons. In addition, their most important partners in other activities, such as entrepreneurial projects, were also included. For all of these new individuals all the available information was also collected and an identical process of data reproduction emerged from them. The temporal boundaries of the sample where 1740 and 1905 (i.e. people born before and after those years where not included). The final result was a sample of 953 people, for which the information collected varied significantly.
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CityVille: collaborative game play, communication and skill development in social networks

CityVille: collaborative game play, communication and skill development in social networks

teoría de redes ayuda a comprender el comportamiento humano y las estructuras sociales basadas en las relaciones entre los sujetos, y postula que el hecho de que un usuario se adhiera a una determinada red puede responder a motivaciones diversas: aprender en colaboración, cubrir necesidades de índole psicológica, social o emocional, reforzar su autoestima, alcanzar reconocimiento social, etc. (Colás, González & De Pablos, 2013), además cada vez priman más las interacciones virtuales especialmente entre los más jóvenes (Sánchez-Vera, Serrano & Prendes, 2013). Por otro lado, es frecuente constatar cómo las redes sociales emergentes están incorporando herramientas que facilitan el acceso a la información, permitiendo que los usuarios transformen, aprendan y desarrollen competencias diversas al interactuar con otros (Castañeda, 2012).
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Engagement, social networks and international fashion. Harry-Meghan Markle’s wedding with

Engagement, social networks and international fashion. Harry-Meghan Markle’s wedding with

La comunicación de las empresas con sus públicos ha sufrido cambios importantes y muy relevan- tes en el último cuarto de siglo. Esto no es sólo producto del surgimiento de Internet, sino también de la aparición y el uso extendido de las redes sociales, que cuentan actualmente con 3.484 millones de usuarios activos en todo el mundo, lo que supone una penetración del 45% (VV.AA., 2019). Este hecho ha convertido a las redes sociales en una fuente de datos sobre los públicos a los que las em- presas dedican su actividad (Laurell & Sandstrom, 2013; Lin, 2018). Del mismo modo, a través del amplio desarrollo de las herramientas de monitorización, cualquier organización puede conocer de manera gratuita en tiempo real y a nivel global cuáles son las preferencias de sus stakeholders, así como saber desde dónde se conectan o cuál es el sentimiento hacia la marca (Cvijikj & Michahelles, 2013; Arora, Bansal, Kandpal, Aswani & Dwivedi, 2019). Por tanto, los social media responden a un instrumento relevante de relaciones públicas (Phan, 2011) que las empresas deben introducir si quieren transmitir de manera eficiente sus mensajes y conocer las reacciones generadas por el usuario. Por otro lado, la gestión de la comunicación con los públicos resulta un tema de interés para las empresas y los academicistas. Investigaciones previas se han centrado en cómo las redes sociales han generado oportunidades de comunicación y han favorecido la transmisión de mensajes relacionados con la organización (Diga & Kelleher, 2009; Verhoeven, Tench, Zerfass, Moreno & Vercic, 2012).
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Neuronanatomy, neurology and Bayesian networks

Neuronanatomy, neurology and Bayesian networks

Widely used and also new, to capture context influence and neuritic competition Evidence variables: measure the part of the tree previous to a pair of sibling segments (subtree and subdendrite involved). Measured during the simulation, used as information to sample construction variables

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