ABSTRACT: This work reflects that local development accumulates diverse antecedents and experiences and, consequently, its meaning is apparently diverse when it is used by the experts, or by the social agents, frontier of reflections, debates, proposals and policies; for more decentralized and participatory public management at the local level. On the other hand, the article argues that socialparticipation is now a common place in the Social Sciences, is an optimistic projection, relative to a new way of social construction, really democratic, that achieves different power relations; In this ideal state, the ordinary man would become subject rather than object, and social problems and contradictions would be solved by the conscious intervention of all individuals.
The aim of this study was to identify the psychometric properties of a scale of socialparticipation in a sample of Mexican urban population. 400 participants who gave their voluntary consent were surveyed. It was hypothesized that eight dimensions could search the socialparticipation that are linked to some structures of ecological model of human behavior. 91 items were reviewed by a group of experts who agreed that they had content validity, the scale was applied by trained psychologists in one session at their homes. A factorial analysis was made and got 8 factors or dimensions. It was concluded that the scale has reliability and construct validity. Dimensions: Accountability, Decision Making and Social Organization are located in the mesosystem structure of ecological model of human behavior and Negative Orientation Suffrage, Tax Compliance, Civic Obligations, Traffic Regulations and Political Participation are dimensions that belong to ontosystem.
Colombia is one the world’s richest countries in biological resources. To protect them, Colombian Law created the National Parks in 1959. Further regulations for their creation and administration were approved during the seventies. However, they did not include mechanisms to balance conservation interests with other economic and social development priorities. Presently, the ample majority of the National Parks overlap with the traditional territories of indigenous, black and campesino communities. This affects their economies and imposes restrictions on the traditional uses of natural resources. In 2002 the national government approved the Policy for the SocialParticipation in Conservation 2 which seeks to promote the implementation of conservation strategies with the participation of local stakeholders. To illustrate the effects of this Policy, and following the analytical framework of the WDR 2003 3 , the processes of declaration of two national parks are compared: Corales del Rosario National Park, and Alto Fagua Indiwasi National Park. Finally, the document presents a series of lessons and recommendations.
The inclusion of different spheres requires a special effort on the part of those respon- sible in local government to facilitate interac- tion among the different actors involved. In this regard, RA1 pointed out that it is “a pro- ject that, due to its peculiar characteristic, may ask more from you. I think there is a much more cohesive element here; while other jobs I worked on, didn’t have it as much. In the day to day, the difference is that. [...] Here the day to day requires more trans- verse work; that is, you need to be in contact or collaborating or cooperating much more frequently with other municipal areas.” However, far from being seen as a burden, this is considered an opportunity: “The more involved I was with the project, the better. Because that way at least I could transmit to the other technicians the problems and needs that we have. Otherwise, it is impossible” (RA2). In addition, multisectoriality seeks new opportunities for contact between actors that otherwise might not have interacted, helping to create a space conducive to participation. In line with this, RA2 stated that “it is natural for the cultural heritage area to be involved, for social services to be involved, and for ur- ban planning to be involved”.
Rural development necessitates sustained market access for smallholders and successful performance of producer organizations can be an important means to achieve inclusion in modern value chains. Collective action through producer organizations assist smallholders in overcoming challenges associated with accessing markets for their products. However, there is mixed evidence about the effectiveness and sustainability of producer organizations in facilitating smallholder farmer access to markets. In this article, we analyze the factors that determine smallholders’ participation in collective sale and group governance in the mango value chain in Kenya. I used a mixed methods approach based on a household survey including 200 respondents and 10 in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using probit and negative binomial regression models. I find that more educated farmers with high mango production capacity are more likely to participate actively in collective marketing. The group size is an important aspect for collective marketing, but it negatively affects group governance. Trust in other members is critical for the increased participation in collective marketing, but does not affect participation in governance. On the other hand, trust in the leader and age of the group member significantly affects intensity of participation in group governance. We find also that social networks in terms of number of contacts with the processors and socialparticipation are important for group governance. In general, more resourceful farmers seem to opt out of collective action. The research highlights the importance of designing interventions for supporting and developing rural producer organizations in ways that ensures incentives for wealthier and more resourceful farmers to actively engage in collective action. 5.5 Discussion
This essay extends previous research in various ways. First, as mentioned above, participation in voluntary organizations is a relevant component of social and human capital. However, previous research has concentrated on studying the determinants of civic participation in more developed countries only, not including data from less developed countries. My essay is the first attempt to study the determinants of participation in voluntary organizations which includes countries with different levels of development. My analysis takes advantage of the availability of new data based on the World Value Surveys and other sources. A second innovation is to incorporate recent work in political science, and sociology (which suggests that the specific institutional forms of the state may play an important role in fostering or in discouraging civic participation), in economic analysis. This new approach argues for the inclusion of a “political variable” in which “the state provides the formal institutional framework within which civic participation takes place” (van de Meer e t.al, 2006).
Our attention to youth perspectives, as well as the high level of youth engagement in social and recreational activities online, determined our attention to the more informal and loosely or- ganized contexts of peer-based learning. Our focus is on describing learning outside of school, primarily in settings of peer-based interaction. Although parents and educators often lament the influence of peers, as exemplified by the phrase “peer pressure,” we approach these informal social settings as a space of opportunity for learning. Our cases demonstrate that some of the drivers of self-motivated learning come not from institutionalized “authorities” setting stan- dards and providing instruction, but from youth observing and communicating with people en- gaged in the same interests, and in the same struggles for status and recognition, as they are. Both friendship-driven and interest-driven participation rely on peer-based learning dynamics, which have a different structure from formal instruction or parental guidance. Our description of friendship-driven learning describes a familiar genre of peer-based learning, in which online networks are supporting those sometimes painful but important lessons in growing up, giving youth an environment to explore romance, friendship, and status just as their predecessors did. Just like friendship-driven networks, interest-driven networks are sites of peer-based learning, but they represent a different genre of participation, in which specialized interests are what bring a social group together. The peers whom youth are learning from in interest-driven prac- tices are not defined by their given institution of school but rather through more intentional and chosen affiliations. In these groups, peers are defined differently than in more local networks, as is the context for how peer-based reputation works. They also receive recognition for differ- ent forms of skill and learning.
Several reasons have been proposed to explain this positive association. First, social network sites facilitate access to a large number of contacts, thereby enabling social movements to reach critical mass (Lovejoy & Saxton, 2012; Marwell & Oliver, 1993). Second, online social platforms emerge as a space where individuals enact their offline networks, in the same way they can also promote personal and group identity construction—key antecedents of political behavior (Dalton, van Sickle, & Weldon, 2009)— by allowing multiple channels for interpersonal feedback, peer acceptance, and reinforcement of group norms (Papacharissi, 2010). Third, these sites can also operate as information hubs, exposing individuals’ activities, emotions, and content to others, especially people with similar interests (Gil de Zúñiga, Jung, & Valenzuela, 2012). In this way, individuals who are part of social movements and political groups can build relationships with their peers, receive information regarding mobilizations, and also be exposed to different sources of content that can promote engagement with their causes (Kobayashi, Ikeda, & Miyata, 2006). For instance, Facebook and Twitter allow individuals to create personalized groups to share media content (e.g., videos, information). Similarly, they can monitor their friends’ activities, as well as other political actors (e.g., politicians, mass media) through Facebook’s News Feed. As a result, through their online groups, individuals may build stronger ties and relationships among the members (Gilbert & Karahalios, 2009).
2 This article will show how a class from a public school improved its participation through teamwork and the strategies that the teacher used to accomplish this goal. The teacher chose this group because of the lack of participation in class. Also, this will show how these teams will work together with their leaders. This school is vulnerable and the researcher talked with the head teacher of the eighth grade and she told him that most of the families are poor and the teacher has to know this information in order to implement and get good results. Most of the students in this school do not participate in class and the teacher has to make a survey in order to know the students likes and dislikes. The teacher will make two surveys, one at the beginning of the intervention and one at the end. With this information, the teacher will implement knowing how the students will react in every class.
Although there are many variables that affect electo ral participation, the attention of scholars has tended to focus on institutional variables, such as voting compul sion, electoral rules, and socioeconomic or sociodemo graphic characteristics of the population. But growing evidence in recent years shows that media consump tion also influences electoral participation (Arriagada & Navia, 2009; Holgado, 2003; Sajuria, 2013). The rapid expansion of the use of social networks has led many to try to measure the effect of participation in social networks on the availability to vote in elections. In Chile, after the adoption of a system of automatic registration and voluntary voting in 2012 –and a sub sequent drop in electoral participation– the number of studies assessing the determinants of participa tion has multiplied (Contreras, Joignant & Morales, 2016; Martínez, Santos & Elacqua, 2012). These stu dies mention media consumption and the use of social networks as potential factors that may affect participa tion. The adoption of the voluntary vote makes Chile an excellent case study to evaluate the effect of media consumption and social networks on the willingness to vote in an election.
Regarding Action Research, I have learned that it was beneficial for my current working context and for my own teaching methodology because the action research allows teachers to carry out an inquiry in a setting with which the teacher is familiar (Ferrance, 2009). It helps to confer relevance and validity to a disciplined study. After carrying out action research, it is possible to transform knowledge, experience and data collected into something meaningful, practical and useful for my own teaching practice. This action research has allowed me to grow and gain confidence in my particular work because I am currently able to encourage students’ participation by means of PBL approach. In addition, I have learned about my students in order to determine ways to continually improve. Finally, as Pine (1981) states I hope I have now become more flexible in my thinking and more open to new ideas.
Previous research has suggested that SCo’s actual levels of participation and democratic decision- making may differ from what is desired (Ridley- Duff, 2009). As suggested before, the authors be- lieve that an eventual divergence between prin- ciples attaining democratic governance and effec- tive participation could influence negatively the work engagement. To assess actual participation on decision making (PART), a 3-item scale of a measure developed in Italy in a previous research was used (Román Calderón & Battistelli, 2011). This measure showed satisfactory psychometric properties and the scale demonstrated good reli- ability ( α = 0.86) (Carmine & Zeller, 1989). Re- spondents were asked to manifest their agreement with 3 statements concerning their perception about the degree of participation of members on decision-making processes. A 5 point Likert scale was used for each item.
The findings from the final large-scale survey phase of the research covered a range of topics. The productive sector generally confirmed the over-concentration of degrees and graduates in the areas of business, law and education, but also acknowledged those to be the largest areas of demand for higher education credentials. There was also a noted call for more graduate level instruction, particularly at the doctoral level. Labor market satisfaction with technical, analytical and interpersonal skills and capacities was, on average, quite low. Using a scale of 1-6 with 1 corresponding to the lowest level of satisfaction and 6 the highest, most skills of recent social sciences graduates scored between 3 and 4, or less than 70%. Areas perceived to be strongest for graduate preparation included skills in administrative management, basic computing, and teamwork. Areas perceived to be weakest included English language ability, written communications, strategic planning and critical analysis. Most entities interviewed, in both public and private sectors, indicated they provided compensatory internal training for many of their employees and all indicated an urgent need for universities to incorporate more practical instruction in their curriculum. Interestingly, less than a quarter of those interviewed reported relying on external research products for decision-making, perhaps an indication of the low level of research orientation in the country overall. Starting salaries for 70% of recent social sciences graduates were at or below $1,000 per month, only about 50% above minimum wage.
Before we come to a more detailed analysis we have a look at some descriptive statistics of the relevant variables. The left panel of table 4 shows the labor force participation of men and women by age. Participation is much larger for men than for women, in every age group, and decreases with age. As we noted in section 2, these participation rates, which are similar to the numbers reported in Pedrero Nieto (1999), are much higher than in other OECD-countries, where hardly anyone aged over 65 reports to be working (OECD, 2007) and also higher than in most of the larger South-American countries (CISS, 2006). The second panel of table 4 gives the size of the informal sector among the employed people. In every age group the number of people working in an informal job (defined as a job that does not provide access to health services) is larger than the number with a formal job, which is in line with the numbers mentioned in section 2. On average, 71.9% of the working elderly have an informal job. The older the people are, the larger is the share working in the informal sector. In all groups, women are more often found in an informal job – but keep in mind that overall participation among women is much lower than among men. The number of elderly women with a formal job is thus extremely low.
HLM accounts for variance simultaneously at multiple levels ~e.g., individuals, groups!. Multilevel modeling is thus a useful approach to examining the construct validity of concepts like SOC that are thought to have both individual and community- level “climate” properties. Indeed, several of the block-level predictors were significant in predicting respondent-level SOC. Further support for Perkins and Long’s ~2002! model of social capital was obtained in that block-level empowerment ~collective effi- cacy and informal social control! and neighboring predicted individual SOC ~either cross-sectionally or over a 1-year lag!, and both block-level civic participation and change in block participation were significant predictors ~in separate models!. And yet, the most consistently robust social climate predictor of individual SOC was placed- based attachment to the street block. Civic participation and place attachment, the only two block-level predictors significant in both HLM models, were significant only as residualized time change variables in predicting T2 SOC. That is to say, increasing block-level participation and place attachment predicted higher individual SOC at T2, but the absolute level of T1 participation and place attachment did not significantly predict T2 SOC.
The paper examines the elusive or ambiguous relationship between fertility and women’s labour force participation in those developing countries with intermediate levels of fertility (with TFRs above replacement and below five children per woman). Focussing on recent trends and patterns, it essentially argues that increases in labour force participation have not been matched by improvements in job quality and that the kinds of jobs women are engaged in and their working conditions have not led to their true socio-economic empowerment, have not provided adequately satisfying alternatives to childbearing or have not involved serious incompatibility between paid and unpaid work. Other factors affecting the relationship between women’s employment and fertility, such as the socio-cultural and macro economic contexts in specific countries, are also identified. The last section attempts to address the following questions: What are the indicators of women’s labour force participation and working conditions that could be useful predictors of future fertility in these countries and is their correlation likely to be strong or weak? What other contextual factors should be considered in formulating plausible assumptions on future fertility for these countries? On the basis of these suggested predictors, the paper does not foresee fertility falling to below replacement in most of these countries.
este año, período en que afloran un número importante de proyectos y experiencias diversas promovidas por los consejos populares, organizaciones sociales, equipos multidiscipli- narios de trabajo e Instituciones culturales, con la pretensión de contribuir a la solución de las problemáticas sociales que en las condiciones de crisis económica se agravan. De gran importancia resulta además la experiencia de los Talleres para la Transformación Integral de los Barrios (TTIB) desarrollado en tres barrios con apreciable deterioro físico y social de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana. Estos talleres comenzaron a centrarse en las necesidades de la población más vulnerable, como las mujeres y los adolescentes; a reforzar la identidad cultural del barrio y a trabajar, hasta donde lo permitían los recursos, en proyectos concretos destinados a mejorar los barrios. En la práctica han posibilitado elevar la participación directa de la población en la solución de los problemas y cambiar el estilo tradicional de participación marcado por el verticalismo y la espera de las propuestas desde los niveles superiores, generar espacios de trabajo común y debate colectivo, la definición de nuevos líderes y un clima de colaboración y respeto.
The first limitation of our work concerns the location of participants in the questionnaire, which was conducted in Portugal. Caution is needed when generalising our findings towards the adoption of e-participation in different locations or with different participants. This study offers researchers a basis for future research by refining the model and testing it in different countries, age groups, and identifying new constructs that may help to increase the predictive power of the model. Second, we found effort expectancy and social influence to have no significant effect on intention to use. Future research can investigate these constructs in different scenarios in which they may become significant over the intention to use. Third, the measurement and use of psychological empowerment as a higher-order multidimensional construct is still under research ( Johnson et al., 2012; Peterson, 2014). Future research may explore each of the dimensions of psychological empowerment on e-participation adoption separately and combine psychological empowerment with other theories of technology adoption to compare the predictive power compared to our model. And finally, the data were collected from 210 citizens who already experienced e-participation, which implies that they are probably more digitally savvy and experienced than the rest of the population in the city. This may have created a limitation regarding the random sample selection and may have influenced the result of non-significance of effort expectancy on intention to use, since the users may find e-participation easy to use and expect few or no problems when using it. Future research may address this limitation by collecting data from a broader sample of citizens, thereby allowing a comparison between the more and less experienced participants with e-participation.
As proposed by the hypotheses posed in this study, informational use of SNS exerted a significant and positive impact on individuals’ activities aimed at engaging in civic and political action. Thus, results invite us to think that achieving a better understanding on how citizens use SNS may help clarify the newer and different paths that spur political and civic action over the Internet. In this vein, this study also found a statistical relationship between using SNS for news and reporting higher levels of social capital which implies that social media may also facilitate community life beyond the strict measures of civic participation. Interestingly, all these relationships are true once the models meticulously controlled for the respondents’ demographic particularities, news media use, general SNS use, important political antecedents, people’s discussion networks, as well as other discussion attributes and characteristics as to whom and how individuals discuss politics. This is indeed positive news for those seeking to view SNS as tools for democracy, and puts SNS in consonance with previous findings in which traditional sources of information and less conventional informational outlets such as blogs yield similar effects (see Gil de Z ´u˜ niga, Puig-i-Abril & Rojas, 2009). In short, SNS also seem to provide adequate and relevant information to reinvigorate the democratic process.