Society and Culture

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The relationship between Language, Culture and Society: Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Positioning in Society

The relationship between Language, Culture and Society: Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Positioning in Society

The expansion of the English language came with the promotion of English language teaching and learning worldwide (Graddol, 1997; Phillipson, 1992, 2009; Yano, 2001), and this scenario favored the proliferation of professional teacher development programs in different institutions around the world. The population, which is interested in attending these methods courses, are mainly composed of EFL in- service teachers, and in certain cases in-service teachers of English as a second language (ESL). Consequently, the researchers expect that this narrative study designed to analyze and understand EFL in-service teachers’ reflections, narratives and counter-narratives about their career paths, career choices and beliefs about the relationship between language, culture and society can serve as a basis for improving teacher programs to develop the professional careers of teachers with varied backgrounds and expertise around the world.
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24 Lee mas

MOBILE NETWORK SOCIETY AND CULTURE

MOBILE NETWORK SOCIETY AND CULTURE

The world we live in gets networked and mobile. More and more people carry out their activities on the move; it might be business, entertainment, education or just socialising. Communications become wireless and invisible, and cheaper and cheaper, the distance and location factors get increasingly irrelevant. People and organisations get connected. We are quickly approaching the point beyond which we shall have good reasons to think in terms of mobile network society. The purpose of this paper is to in- vestigate certain relationships between new technologies, especially the Internet and mobile technologies, and culture. It seems that within a network society technology and culture work in opposite directions. Even a more dramatic diagnosis seems to be legiti- mate, viz. technology moves out culture. The major message of this discourse is that: One has to vividly oppose to the displacement of culture. The rationale is simple, namely: a decline and atrophy of culture is in many ways an extremely negative phe- nomenon for democratic society at large; in addition, at the end of the day the “success” of technology will also hinder the technology itself. Enhanced education, especially regarding prospective engineers is considered as one of the major means to help us stop the technology to conquer the culture. The paper calls for augmenting educational mod- els and patterns, so that they include not only the acquisition of skills and knowledge, but also that they help students establish a moral autonomy. The latter is a condition sine qua non for the mission of reversing the march of technology against culture. In addition to systematic educational efforts, professional and grass-roots movement have to be initiated. Towards this end, an example of the MOST Programme (Mobile Open Society through wireless Telecommunications) is given in the paper.
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13 Lee mas

Illuminations I: Lights, Material Culture and the Society of Spectacle in the Late Middle Ages

Illuminations I: Lights, Material Culture and the Society of Spectacle in the Late Middle Ages

Nevertheless, the area of illuminations was perceived by the informers or witnesses before the Inquisition and by the Inquisitors themselves, as “central signs” of adherence to an immutable Judaism. Hence the overwhelming, immense corpus of testimonies against judaizers who engage in these illumination practices in the archival documen- tation provided by Inquisition files of the fifteenth century and onwards. An historic approach however, emphasizes these activities as problematic acts of construction of identities. These could be religious, such as the rabbanite defiance against Karaite accu- sations of transgressive “modernity” and “un-Jewishness”. They could also be affirma- tions of hispanicity. Alongside these, there is the question of gender. The prominence of women in this field contrasts with the priorities of writing about it. The emphasis on the Hebrew texts of the liturgy in nineteenth and twentieth century research on synagogal liturgy has the practical effect of excluding women from research and scholarship on this area. It is therefore interesting to note the platform of B. M. Levin's classic study on Sabbath Candles. The volume is in memory of the great patroness of American aca- demic scholarship on Jewish Studies in the 1920's and 1930's, Linda Miller. The impres- sion is that the contributors had some sense of decorum and made an effort to produce scholarly studies which would have pleased the late patroness. The association of such synagogal and extra synagogal institutions with women does not rest on any notions of an exclusively femenine character of illuminations in Judaism. Rather, it rests on the fact that while other phenomena, e.g. textual, seem to be mostly male, this one is not. There is some justification and evidence for this in medieval texts  19 . Rabbenu Tam, the
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19 Lee mas

La época de Shakespeare : cultura, sociedad y economía desde una perspectiva literariaShakespeare’s time : culture, society and economy from a literary perspective

La época de Shakespeare : cultura, sociedad y economía desde una perspectiva literariaShakespeare’s time : culture, society and economy from a literary perspective

retórica y la liturgia pero también la distribución de los bienes materiales y del poder político, puesto que la economía se alteró con la disolución de los monasterios y las instituciones eclesiásticas —dice al respecto, el historiador John Guy que constituyó “la mayor confiscación y redistribución de riqueza desde la conquista normanda” (Kermode, 2003: 26)—; el surgimiento de la piratería en alta mar, los servicios secretos del Estado y los vaivenes políticos y antojadizos de la corte. En relación con esto último, se debe recordar que Isabel, “[e]n un intento de restaurar las finanzas nacionales, redujo drásticamente los gastos de María, se mostró reacia a ampliar las filas de la nobleza y se libró de los duques; el último de ellos, el duque de Norfolk, que conspiró contra ella, fue decapitado en 1572” (Kermode, 2003: 37). Dirigió una significativa expansión nacional, inició el imperio ultramarino y favoreció la creación de sociedades anónimas (Compañía de Virginia, Compañía de las Indias Orientales), que fueron un claro incentivo para la producción de bienes y la acumulación de riquezas. Londres se estaba poniendo a la par de los Países Bajos y de Venecia como centro comercial y financiero: “Se notaba en todas partes que había dinero nuevo. Se consumían grandes cantidades de carne, el cristal iba sustituyendo al peltre, las ropas eran más elaboradas y caras” (Kermode, 2003: 39) y como rasgo distintivo el consumo de tabaco: “La droga favorita y más cara era el tabaco, que se fumaba en pipas de arcilla y se vendía, igual que la cerveza embotellada, en los teatros; una carga para una pipa costaba tres peniques, el triple que la entrada del teatro” (39). La información que entresacamos hasta aquí de Greenblatt y de Kermode es resultado de sus exploraciones en datos del pasado, en particular los provenientes de testimonios contemporáneos. Quizás el más significativo sea el del editor Raphael Holinshed quien fue el encargado de dar a conocer la Crónica de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda (Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande), que fue un vasto proyecto que incluyó a clérig os, historiadores, miembros del Parlamento, poetas menores y libreros en la composición de una megaobra publicada en unos seis tomos. Se editaron dos ediciones, una de 1577, y después
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9 Lee mas

CULTURE AND PUBLIC ACTION

CULTURE AND PUBLIC ACTION

I refer to this ambivalence among the poor (and by extension the excluded, the disadvantaged, and the marginal groups in society more generally) about the cultural worlds in which they exist in terms of the idea of the terms of recognition (building on Taylor’s ideas). In speaking about the terms of recognition (by analogy with the terms of trade, or the terms of engagement), I mean to highlight the conditions and constraints under which the poor negotiate with the very norms that frame their social lives. I propose that poverty is partly a matter of operating with extremely weak resources where the terms of recognition are concerned. More concretely, the poor are frequently in a position where they are encouraged to subscribe to norms whose social effect is to further dimin- ish their dignity, exacerbate their inequality, and deepen their lack of access to material goods and services. In the Indian case, these norms take a variety of forms: some have to do with fate, luck, and rebirth; others have to do with the glorification of asceticism and material deprivation; yet others connect social deference to deference to divinity; yet others reduce major metaphysical assumptions to simple and rigid rules of etiquette which promise freedom from reprisal. When I refer to operating under adverse terms of recognition, I mean that in recognizing those who are wealthy, the poor permit the existing and corrupt standing of local and national elites to be further bolstered and reproduced. But when they are recognized (in the cultural sense), it is usually as an abstract political cate- gory, divorced of real persons (Indira Gandhi’s famous slogan garibi hatao— remove poverty—and many other populist slogans, have this quality). Or their poverty is perversely recognized as a sign of some sort of worldly dis- order which promises, by inversion, its own long-term recti fi cation. The poor are recognized, but in ways that ensure minimum change in the terms of redistribution. So, to the extent that poverty is indexed by poor terms of recognition for the poor, intervention to positively a ff ect these terms is a crucial priority.
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458 Lee mas

TítuloFashion and digital culture

TítuloFashion and digital culture

Such crossbreedind is constantly done through the infinite possibilities in digital for- mate. Therefore, what seems to be a problem for our global society appears from this intense hybridization — our reality is, in a way, the difficulty to classify one from another. We are fated to live with the ‘strange’, with that ones which scape from this polarity that we are used to deal with. The ‘strange’ is indeterminated. It is placed between or, better, beyond ‘friend’ and ‘enemy’. As Bauman says, the indefinables are all those understood as nor something neither something else. Their indetermination is their strenght: because they can be everething. They put an end on the organizational power of oposition; the opositions make possible knowledge and action while the indefinitions, paralised them. The indefinables expose the artfices, fragili- ties in a brutal way from the most vital separation. They put what is given as external inside, poison the confort of the order with the suspition of caos. [16]
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8 Lee mas

Culture as seen by Majorcan teenagers

Culture as seen by Majorcan teenagers

In this study, thus, we will be looking at the composition of the Balearic Society of today, specially focusing on Majorca. We will go through some statistics to see how extreme the change in society has been during the last decades, and we will give a general overview on how this reflects on teenagers. Furthermore, we will discuss the definition of culture in itself, going from an academic point of view to a more general one. The main aim of this study, though, is to focus on the concept of culture as seen by teenagers attending high school nowadays. To achieve this goal, teenagers will have to go through a whole dynamic in class that will allow them to identify what the word “culture” actually means. Teenagers need to know what is perceived as culture and what is not, since they do not seem to have a strong opinion on the topic.
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54 Lee mas

Second Language Production and Its Influence on Thought and Personality

Second Language Production and Its Influence on Thought and Personality

world of everyday life is constructed by means of communicative acts, it is essentially a communicative culture. Using this definition he wants to stress the fact that culture cannot be reduced to knowledge, meaning or sign-systems only. Communicative culture is produced, realised and transformed in communicative actions. A part from this view of communicative culture another interesting point is discusses by Ulf Hannerz (2001). He focuses the attention on culture as meaning and affirms that studying culture means to study ideas, feelings and experiences and the way in which these elements are made public, acceptable and considered true in society. Culture is intended to be “the meaning that people create, and which create people as members of societies. Culture is in some way collective” (James Lull 2001). Following this definition that associate culture with meaning it is possible to conclude that in order to express the meanings is important to be in possession of tools, in this case the most important tool is the language. Farzard Shafiran and Gary Palmer (2007) affirm that language not only is a cultural activity but it is also an instrument for organizing cultural domains. There is a nexus between culture and language that is possible to call linguaculture, using the words of Paul Friedrich (1989), by this word that blend culture and language is perfectly expressed the way in which language is shaped by physical and socio-cultural experiences shared by a certain community of people. So again we are appreciating how the theory of embodiment is true and the way in which is possible to apply it not only on individuals but also on entire communities. It is from this idea of language as culture and language governed by culture (Palmer and Shafiran 2007) that has been created an approach called cultural linguistics. It is possible to apply this approach every time we want to demonstrate the cultural basis of language, for example in the teaching a second language explaining the cultural construction beyond some linguistic forms and constructions.
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71 Lee mas

CIVIL SOCIETY AND ACCOUNTABILITY

CIVIL SOCIETY AND ACCOUNTABILITY

The first version is what I call the ‘activist’ version. This is the version that initiated the contemporary revival of the term in both Latin America and Eastern Europe. The term emerged simultaneously in the 1970s and 1980s, and as far as I know without any communication, in these two regions as a way of describing the efforts to create autonomous public spaces in the context of authoritarian states — military dictatorships in Latin America and totalitarian Communist regimes in Eastern Europe. In Latin America, the intellectuals who used the term were strongly influenced both by Gramsci (via the Spanish and Italian Communist parties) and by the ideas of liberation theology — the notion of the conscientization of the poor, overcoming the ‘culture of silence’ (Howell and Pearce, 2001; Lewis, 2001) In Eastern Europe, the term arose out of the failure of the Prague spring and the loss of faith that any change could come ‘from above’ or through overthrow of the regime. The idea was that instead of trying to change the state, it was important to change the relation between state and society, to create self- organized institutions, independent of the state that could challenge the reach of the state (Michnik, 1985). Terms like ‘antipolitics’ (Konrad, 1984; Havel, 1985) or ‘living in truth’ (Havel, 1985) expressed the same idea. In both cases, these new autonomous spaces depended on transnational links, and this was even before the advent of Internet. It was both the existence of formal international instruments like the Conventions on Human Rights or the Helsinki Agreement and the links with peace and human rights groups in Western countries that helped to open up spaces in these countries (Keck and Sikkink, 1998; Kaldor, 1991)
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24 Lee mas

The Role of Culture in EFL

The Role of Culture in EFL

To understand the context of the school in Peru it is essential to know its history, the process that shaped education in Peru since the establishment of the colony. A brief look at the development of instruction since the arrival of the Spaniards in Peru is synthesized in the thesis History of the normal schools in Peru and educational policies (Díaz, 2011). In this historical synthesis we can observe, at first, the dogmatic character of education in the colony, it was logical because its main objective was to form Christian believers. To this end the kings of Spain arrange the sending of Religious Orders, which were responsible for providing instruction in the colonies. At this stage of history, a minority dominant class was clearly differentiated from a majority class dominated and subordinated to the first. Already in the Republic's time education was devoted to the political, economic and social events of the country. In a post-colonial society, a first project emerges that, starting from some reformist ideas, attempts to undertake the task of building a liberal and viable republic. A second project in the second half of the 19th century aims to make Peru a nation like the European ones, orderly, enlightened and economically sufficient. A third populist, nationalist and indigenist project begins with Leguía until reaching the government of Velasco, in the last decades of the 20th century.
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53 Lee mas

PURPOSE, STRATEGY AND CULTURE

PURPOSE, STRATEGY AND CULTURE

I am very pleased to welcome you to this event to mark the publication of the new UK Corporate Governance Code, which we launched on Monday. With over 270 responses to the consultation, support from Government and many long hours put in by colleagues at the FRC, the new Code is very much the result of a significant collaboration and should set UK business on the path to meeting investor and public expectations and facing up to the challenges ahead. Establishing higher standards of corporate governance will not only promote transparency and integrity in business but attract investment into UK companies for the long term, benefitting the economy and wider society.
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5 Lee mas

Culture, competition, and happiness

Culture, competition, and happiness

Moreover, Cornell´s Economist Robert Frank argues that the appropriate view of competition should be the one based on Darwin´s principles rather than on Adam Smith´s lines. Essentially Smith argues that competition reveals good for society although each individual pursues only his own, limited interests. Darwin´s natural selection process argues that competition selects those who are more fit to it. The basic difference relies on the potential contradiction between individual and social outcomes: while competition may prove satisfactory for a few winners, it may result in frustration for a vast majority, the losers. Theoretically, mainstream economists have solved this potential problem by postulating appropriate compensations from the winners to the losers. Anyways, followers of Smith argue that there is no contradiction, while Darwinists support the opposite view 15 .
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34 Lee mas

Challenges of Structure in Today’s Architectural, Economic and Social Context

Challenges of Structure in Today’s Architectural, Economic and Social Context

Abstract: The recent establishment of a digital culture and society, together with current financial crisis and urgent energetic and climatic needs, has radically changed the architectural scene from the optimism of some years ago to a situation of uncertainty and huge social demands and challenges. In this context, it is suggested to rethink the role of structure in architecture, such as an enabler, a guide and a catalyst. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic, cultural and social context in which architecture develops nowadays. The method, to suggest a discussion on which role the structure may adopt in the architecture to come. The achievement, to highlight its potential to face current requirements and challenges.
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8 Lee mas

Culture, communication and environment |

Culture, communication and environment |

this way of thinking has a symbolic parallel in the functionalist school of communication represented by lerner and schramm. they believed culture and mass media to be agents of modernization. media would influence the social change needed to reach development. that would mean leaving behind traditions and introducing modern thought patterns. modern thinking, as op- posed to traditional thinking, was related to urbanization, literacy, and even to learning new ways of behavior which would cause institutional changes. these changes would sustain the modernization process. modernization, the- refore, was synonymous with “going to school, reading papers, receiving a salary, buying goods, casting votes and having an opinion about different to- pics” (mowlana and wilson, 1994: 8).
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10 Lee mas

CULTURE, LANGUAGE AND REPRESENTATION

CULTURE, LANGUAGE AND REPRESENTATION

The division of his novels into fragments that often fracture the line of thought has a strong effect on the overall perception of his works, that are read as a chain of experiences rather than a story with a beginning and an end. Fragmentation also affects time and time sequencing. This narrative strategy is employed to a greater or lesser extent in all his novels with some variations. The Master of Petersburg (1994) and Slow Man (2005) are divided into very short chapters. In both novels, fragments of narrative reflect the struggle of their protagonists to face an experience that threatens to destroy their lives. In The Master of Petersburg, a fictional Dostoevsky gets involved in a frenetic sequence of encounters with people who knew his stepson, Pavel, in an attempt to find out the truth about his death. At the same time through a series of brief and intensive sexual encounters with his landlady, Anna Sergeyevna, he tries to find comfort. The chapters of the novel have short titles, in most cases they correspond to a character Dostoevsky meets in his search for the truth: «Maxi- mov», «Anna Sergeyevna», «Matryona», «Ivanov», «Nachaev», «Isaev», «Stav- rogin». The choice of titles increases the feeling of fragmentation and reveals the importance of this strategy for the understanding of the novel. Twenty chapters mark the steps of Dostoevsky’s journey towards self-discovery. They resemble small pieces of a jigsaw puzzle that the protagonist has to assemble to get to the truth. The puzzle is a picture of his son’s life, but it is also a picture of his own past and present. However, there seems to be always a missing piece that suggests the impossibility of completion and closure. The novel ends with Dostoevsky immersed in a kind of delirious writing, which is his salvation and his perdition.
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242 Lee mas

TítuloKnowledge culture and communication culture

TítuloKnowledge culture and communication culture

As mass media partially born, the printed book is very dependent on learning the rules of «digital» signs system and more than on well cultural consume rules. Against the popular culture sustained by the printing press, semiotics institution of modern occidental system of education supported an erudition culture that establishes the rules of utilizing and consuming of the printed books. More unmotivated than unmotivated language signs, printed book «digital» signs are silent; they don’t speak and without learning they are muted. To learn the «digital» signs appears as knowledge. Erudition culture that is a knowledge culture is a silent culture and its silence is our libraries silence, the silence of our reading. The analogical signs are directly understood and they don’t need knowledge different from that of usage. The analogi- cal signs are talkative and speak for themselves. They don’t need separate knowledge and for them knowledge means ability to communicate. Direct communication induces rules to com- municate every time for every communicational situation and allows for their change ad hoc. Analogical signs perception is very empirical. It doesn’t need theories and can be learned by trail and error procedure. In communication, where everything is process based and immediate, the direct effective performance is important and not the theoretically detached speculation which comes after the communication process — here, in communication the music you can sing not the music you can hear is important!
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7 Lee mas

WAJCMAN, Judy (2009) Feminist theories of technology, Cambridge Political Economy Society, Oxford University Press

WAJCMAN, Judy (2009) Feminist theories of technology, Cambridge Political Economy Society, Oxford University Press

It is salutary to be reminded that it was only with the formation of engineering as a white, male middle-class profession that ‘male machines rather than female fabrics’ became the markers of technology (Oldenziel, 1999). During the late nineteenth century, mechanical and civil engineering increasingly came to define what technology is, diminishing the significance of both artefacts and forms of knowledge associated with women. This was the result of the rise of engineers as an elite with exclusive rights to technical expertise. Crucially, it involved the creation of a male professional identity, based on educational qualifications and the promise of managerial positions, sharply distinguished from shop- floor engineering and blue-collar workers. It also involved an ideal of manliness, characterised by the cultivation of bodily prowess and individual achievement. At the same time, femininity was being reinterpreted as incompatible with technological pursuits. It was during and through this process that the term ‘technology’ took on its modern meaning. The legacy is our taken-for-granted association of technology with men.
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10 Lee mas

Economía y empresa de comunicación: escuelas académicas y períodos de desarrollo

Economía y empresa de comunicación: escuelas académicas y períodos de desarrollo

En la actualidad, las dos tradiciones económicas y la empresarial en el estudio de los medios se han articulado en torno de dos comunidades científicas dife- renciadas: la escuela crítica y la escuela funcional. Cada una de ellas cuenta con sus propias asociaciones de investigadores (o divisiones dentro de otras más am- plias). Por el lado de la economía política, existen secciones de esta perspectiva en la IAMCR-AIERI (International Association for Mass Communication Research) y la ALAIC (Asociación Latinoamericana de Investigadores de la Comunicación). La economía de los medios y gestión de empresas de comunicación está presente en la AEJMC (Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication) y la BEA (Broadcasting Education Association). Ninguna de las dos perspectivas tiene una sección o división específica en la ICA (International Communication Association), pero sí cuenta con un grupo de interés en ECREA (European Communication Research and Education Association).
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30 Lee mas

Compendium of Economic and Industrial History of the German Democratic Republic

Compendium of Economic and Industrial History of the German Democratic Republic

This enterprise was involved in many illegal deals, including arms exports to Third World regimes with Imes Import-Export GmbH, located near Rostock; deals with CIA officers selling war prisoners and easing of travel restrictions of citizens from the East (near 1 billion DM were provided from western banks); imports of hazardous waste from German Federal Republic, luxury items for SED members, exports of art and cultural relics…

76 Lee mas

Language and culture

Language and culture

The boat leaving Zambuango for Sabah contained a number of people armed with sub-machine guns, and my host arranged for me to be met by guards with high-powered rifles. The amount of illegal imports between the Philippines and Sabah was enormous, and I frankly cannot think of a part of the world that seems less open to the Prince of Peace than the scores of tiny islands where fast ships mock the international harbours and the smugglers’ hide-outs, but there are some exceptional people who nevertheless try to make the Gospel a reality in a place more like hell than heaven, and even to translate it into the indigenous languages for local people to understand.
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8 Lee mas

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