Finally, I think that it is important to consider the extraordinary worldwide success of Avatar in today’s world. It is true that it benefits from 3D technology, but it is none the less true that this technology would not, by itself, affect half the viewers of this film. Rather, there is an odd neo-romanticism in the conflu- ence between technology, dematerialisation and nature. All the world’s cultures can identify with the story’s different tribes. All can suffer from military violence at the service of private, criminal interests. All can doubt the value of hard technology. But the soft virtual world seems to be a proper, balanced way out, far removed from the current socio-political miasma. In fact, the ancient biblical exegesis is perfectly applicable to this film. Avatar is a kind of anagogic parable ofthe struggle between good and evil. Avatars (in all their forms, not only those ofthe film’s characters) are allegories: they possess attributes and powers like in the mediaeval allegories. They can be transformed by the power of magic, can fly and teleport. As in mediaeval allegories, they have missions to comply with to obtain an anagogic order of eternal life. And pure hearts can secure the final victory and win back Paradise Lost.
I suggest that there are three main reasons that problematise theoretical approaches to the figure ofthe flâneuse. Naturally, scholars often ground their arguments on the fact that nineteenth-century society was strictly gender-biased, and as a consequence, conditioned women’s access to public spaces. This is an issue I will look into later. However, as the flâneuse is a derivation from the flâneur, we need to reconsider the male urban stroller in order to redirect the scope ofthe analysis. First of all, there has been an overgeneralisation ofthe flâneur to one specific and representative figure ofthe urban experience, which is related to Charles Baudelaire’s poetry. Subsequently, I will refer to this urban stroller and observer as the Baudelairian flâneur. Secondly, and as a consequence ofthe first, this has, moreover, led to a misuse ofthe flâneur as critical assessment favouring the use of this male urban stroller as a theoretical figure. Thus, on several occasions readings ofthe flâneur fail to recognise him as a metaphor ofthe modern urban experience. I suggest that, once established the identity and features ofthe flâneur, we ought to consider the symbolism in his experience focusing on subjectivity, sight, movement and space in order to denote how the urban walker negotiates his or her identity. Third, in the context of female flânerie, the reasons stated above point at that the doubtful identity of a flâneuse is due to a lack of terminology that describes the female experience in the modern city. If there was a “particular mode of female urban vision” (Parsons 6), then I pose the question, should not women’s experience be described and determined according to a different set of terms? In this section, I will renegotiate the symbolism ofthe flâneur to analyse how the female experience can be represented similarly, yet with some noteworthy differences.
The visual spectacleofthe lights shows a marked difference in the “point of view”; that is, the early modern differs from the medieval and the moment of transition, rough- ly corresponding to the (long) fifteenth century, has been our focus here. I began with an internal source, a late medieval epigraph concerning the herem (alatma, niduy), a rite usually seen as the main instrument for maintaining qehilla discipline. The formulation ofthe authors ofthe ordinances makes it clear that they were perfectly well aware ofthe effect of lights and shadows upon the onlooker. Indeed, the gradual snuffing ofthe candles and the ensuing darkness would cause nothing less than truth itself. For the communal leaders in charge of drafting the taqqanot lights/darkness have meaning. The communal leaders had previously reflected on their significance as have so many ofthe sources adduced above. The varied implements of lighting contrast with the stories of meaning. The same material object can be understood in terms of both: agency and coded meaning. The brief but expressive phrase of Duran in the first half ofthe fifteenth century [“everyone knows that an old lamp of heres is maus”] shows that there were various considerations –such as esthetics- operating in the realm of illuminations quite apart from the strictly legal, juridical or halakhic ones. These results of considerations about the material objects reveal historicity, ideology, spirituality and social relations. In this case, the kindling ofthe lights reflect –amongst other matters– a cohesiveness which is surprising because it is frequently absent in the writings based on other partial factors such as demographics, politics, gender or class.
The issue of humanization of education is caused by problems in society and culture (cultural crisis). A return to the development trends ofsociety, when in the center is a person, a person who is the highest value is the goal of modernity [10, 15]. It is the humanities history, philosophy, culturology, philology - that talk about a person as a spiritual being, focus on the ethics of communication, internal development and self- improvement. “Education as evidence of civil law and moral maturity offers an internal sovereignty of an individual combined with individual responsibility. However, since rationality and freedom are given to us only as premises of human nature, the task of upbringing is to develop their abilities as a cultural being, to teach the individual to use or meet his purpose. Therefore, the humanistic vocation of education is contained in the principle ofthe formation of each person as an individual form of universality, which has been consistently carried out from democratic positions ”.
Consensus-seeking journalism or consensus develop- ment has been considered quite typical for Finnish pub- lic discussion. Uskali and Luostarinen (2006) write that Finnish public discussion culture is actually harsh to- wards new and different openings and reject views that differ from the dominant line. New initiatives are thus very easily blocked out from the public discussion. The coverage of Esko Aho´s debate opening was an ex- ample ofthe possible existence of a Finnish consensus paradigm. Esko Aho of Sitra provocatively proposed in September 2005 that people who take good care of themselves should be rewarded by some kind of a bonus system, while people with unhealthy lifestyles should pay bigger payments for their health care. Aho asked who had courage to say that society cannot afford to take care of old people because lifestyle-related diseases con- sume all the resources. In public discussion Aho’s notion was deplored and even compared to health-apartheid. Aamulehti commented in its editorial page: “One may expect that as influential a person as Esko Aho would have a serious solution, if he interferes in the problems of welfare society”. (3.9.05, italics added) Aamulehti used also the “Hitler-card” and Aho’s suggestion was furtive- ly compared to 1930’s Nazi Germany. Even though one may think that Aho’s opinion is ethically untenable, it seemed that the goal of public discussion was to elimi- nate this kind of opinion as soon as possible. A debate opening about an awkward issue was not desirable and Aho was challenged to give a wrapped and ready solu- tion if he wanted to participate in public discussion. Probably journalists do not consider journalism as con- sensus-seeking at all. From their standpoint, journalism offers different opinions presented in different sections ofthe paper over a longer period of time. However, it is some kind of a journalistic fallacy that audience read journalistic products in the same way - as an entity. Interested readers may do active follow-up and obtain a diverse picture ofthe theme, but for average readers localising tensions between opinions and really challeng- ing the dominant way of thinking is difficult, if there are not enough individual stories where ambiguous elements and opposite opinions are brought together. Stories with an edge, contradictions and tensions are also challeng- ing the reader to participate in public discussion more than stories with consensus, harmony and conformity. (e.g. Kunelius, 2000) Although Aamulehti clearly tries to produce many-sided journalism about ageing, the major- ity of stories give the dominant problem-framed picture ofthe issue.
The Wildlife Conservation Societyof Tanzania in collaboration with the Wildlife Division ofthe Ministry of Natural Resource and Tourism strives to achieve one major objective; that is public awareness on wise use of wetland resources. It has been noted that a lot more people tend to identify the “Wetland day” these days than it had been in the past years. Wide distribution of information and materials is another tool that could help to increase the scope of outreach. Proper use of media can also increase support on public awareness. However more interactive events need to be taken into consideration particularly the events that involve local communities in Wetlands areas.
fantastical writing expresses an urgency regarding the country’s visual practices that signal a greater transformation occurring in vision and visuality within Mexico during this globalized era. By “vision” I mean the perceptual experience of seeing whereas “visuality” refers the social, psychological and historical practices associated with vision. Even when the overarching themes in Rojo’s fiction do not directly engage with these elements, the subject matter surfaces noticeably, as if exhibiting instances of a minor symptom to a larger underlying cause. His compositions abound in jarring visual motifs, instances where eyes are removed, altered, replaced or operated upon, where mirrors are frequently the site of elusive or deceptive identifications, or where electronic screens—almost always television—become charged narrative forces with inexplicable, fantastic gravitational pull. In the epigraph above taken from Rojo’s novel, Punto cero (2000), the omniscient narrator describes the main character Ray Dominguez sitting in his apartment watching television. The description here recursively interweaves his eyes with television in a mise-en- abyme where the focalization of narrative description makes it difficult to discern where the locus of visual perception, the eye, is separate from its focus, the television screen. Similarly, Ray himself feels caught between the media news narrative unfolding on the screen, the one that reports he has been kidnapped and will be killed if the ransom is not met, and the life he is living out in his apartment where he is certain he has not been kidnapped and affirms there are no kidnappers present. The disjointed scene not only foregrounds the central role that this medium has come to play in contemporary Mexico’s field of vision but it also emphasizes the fundamental, if problematic, function of television in the formation of subjectivities. To date, what little scholarly treatment of Rojo’s work that has taken place has strongly associated the writer with the Mexican cyberpunk movement through which he emerged, and his work has thus tended to be synonymously conflated with it altogether. This has in effect obscured the fact that his most perspicacious contribution to Mexican letters , however marginalized his writing has been viewed
We then attempt to shed light on the issue of traditional gender roles as an inseparable part of any patriarchal society, in particular the American society during the nineteenth century, the same society in which our narrator and her husband are living. An analogy is drawn between the logical, analytical and rational role conferred upon men, the narrator’s husband and other men mentioned in the story, as opposed to the subjective, irrational and illogical role bestowed on women, embedded in the characterization ofthe female narrator, and the fact that these roles are assigned by the patriarchy ofthe aforementioned society. We goes on to probe men’s emphasis on the material and the visible, specifically the physical symptoms ofthe narrator’s condition, as opposed to women’s stress on the imaginative and the inexplicable, particularly the narrator’s feelings and her condition as was exacerbated by the wrong and institutionalized diagnosis of her husband. It is noteworthy to say that her world of imagination is inexplicable only in terms of male dominated language and premises. These sexist gender roles and their inhibiting nature repressing women –the narrator is confined in a room resembling a prison– are represented by the pattern ofthe wallpaper in which there is a front pattern, implying the bars of a prison constructed by thesociety in which women are confined, and a sub-pattern resembling the body of a woman trying to escape, which embodies all the women restricted by the rules and regulations of a patriarchy.
For instance Rao (1998) provides an account of multiple category frames that sought to embody the emerging category of watchdog organizations. Similarly, in the area of microcredit, diverse actors attempted to define the category prioritizing either a commercial or a social welfare logic (Kent & Dacin, 2013). Frequently, as in the case of microcredit, the original category frames have been developing independently for some time, without each supporting audience or group of actors being fully aware of other frames being proposed elsewhere. As long as marginal innovations are not properly problematized and promoted beyond their limited initial sphere of influence, they might remain marginal and unconnected to other efforts to claim a similar conceptual space (Lounsbury & Crumley, 2007). Nevertheless, as such practices gradually grow and become more visible, the inevitable confluence between divergent frames ushers in a phase of competition for category dominance (Ozcan & Santos, forthcoming). Ambiguity is likely to recede substantially over time, as confluence prompts audiences to gradually negotiate a collective dominant category definition that best represents the consensus among them (Khaire & Wadhwani, 2010). For instance, a more reformist frame eventually dominated the category of watchdog organizations in the US, and the commercial frame of microcredit organizations has largely prevailed in the respective category (Kent & Dacin, 2013; Rao, 1998). The interests of diverse audiences might remain divergent and embody latent tensions under the surface, which could be taken advantage of for shifting the collective consensus in the future (Seo & Creed, 2002). Yet, the emergence of such a consensus that ostensibly bridges divergent interests can serve as the basis for the stability of a category over a certain time span.
It is the lack of balance in the Russian demographic processes, the birth crisis that led to the adoption by the Government ofthe Russian Federation in 2007 ofthe “Concept ofthe Demographic Policy ofthe Russian Federation for the period until 2025”. Under this concept, at the state level, material support is provided to poor or single-parent families - they are given lump-sum payments, child allowances, housing subsidies, "maternity capital" for a second child. However, it must be remembered that payments of “maternity capital” will be made until 31 December 2021 - at the end of this program, a significant demographic decline is likely to be expected. Despite the fact that many experts doubt the viability of such programs, we believe that with their long-term action they will help to mitigate the negative consequences ofthe demographic crisis.
contribution‖ was carried out by the white- mestizo poor who did not want to be considered the equals ofthe indigenous population. 128 For Galo Ramón, this variation in the tributary custom definitively broke the already corroded argument according to which the tributary payment supposed a pact, the right to take possession of Indian lands: protection ofthe Indian land base, but also supposed a bid on behalf ofthe state to count on the poor white and mestizo sector to act as an intermediary between the rural and urban zone and thus exercise new forms of local power over the community. 129 For these authors, the general tax was an attempt to bring under the state ‘s umbrella the popular white and mestizo population, thus excluding the indigenous population. For Guerrero and Sattar, the poor whites preferred to choose a code of difference and distinction from the Indians, showing their profound insecurity with respect to the concept of citizenship. 130 For Guerrero, Sattar, and Ramón, these uprisings served to emphasize the difference ofthe mestizos from the Indians, a gesture that showed the depth of discrimination even among the most marginalized sectors ofthe mestizo strata.
The release of volume 6 ofthe magazine finds us at a very eventful moment. First, the publication “Orientation and Society”, which used to be a production by the Psychology Department ofthe School of Humanities and Educational Sciences ofthe Universidad Nacional de La Plata, has come to be part ofthe new School of Psychology since September 2006. This constitutes a milestone in our discipline since, after almost 50 years, we have become an independent Academic Unit, accredited by a long period of high teaching standards, research and community outreach programs. Such an event has caused changes, readjustments and re-dimensions within several academic and management areas, which delayed this publication. These issues were connected with the shortage of economic resources for the implementation of this publishing project. But we’ve made an effort, hoping to continue this undertaking and we’ve reached this new volume.
Percutaneous treatment was attempted, but it was impossible to implant the stent. A virtually closed ves- sel was visualized in the angiography, with the above mentioned post-coarctation aneurysm (Figure 3). Sur- gical treatment was then performed, with a satis- factory outcome. Currently, the nulliparous patient, in fully fertile stage, awaits the right moment to plan her first pregnancy, with one antihypertensive drug as maintenance therapy.
of, existing software where the architecture is a given. In practice, therefore, it is almost always impractical to im- plement the requirements process as a linear, determinis- tic process in which software requirements are elicited from the stakeholders, baselined, allocated, and handed over to the software development team. It is certainly a myth that the requirements for large software projects are ever perfectly understood or perfectly specified. [Som97] Instead, requirements typically iterate towards a level of quality and detail which is sufficient to permit design and procurement decisions to be made. In some projects, this may result in the requirements being baselined before all their properties are fully understood. This risks expensive rework if problems emerge late in the software engineer- ing process. However, software engineers are necessarily constrained by project management plans and must there- fore take steps to ensure that the ‘quality’ ofthe require- ments is as high as possible given the available resources. They should, for example, make explicit any assumptions which underpin the requirements, as well as any known problems.
164. Déchelotte P, Hasselmann M, Cynober L, Allaouchiche B, Coëffier M, Hecketsweiler B; et al. L-alanyl-L-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented total parenteral nutrition reduces infectious complications and glucose intolerance in critically ill patients: The French controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Crit Care Med 2006;34:598-604. 165. Zhou YP, Jiang ZM, Sun YH, He GZ, Shu H. The effects of supplemental glutamine
These types of lenses provide two or more focal distances. For example a person with myopia develops presbyopia with age, would need one lens with the correct power to see far objects (myopia), and another set of glasses to see near objects (presbyopia). A bifocal lens would correct both problems since the lens has two different curvatures fused in one lens to combine the distance portion (main lens), and the reading zone (segment). There are also the trifocals that combine a third vision zone to see medium distance objects. Bifocals and trifocal