To keep the household and village environment clean and to reduce health risks, solid waste (refuse) should be disposed of properly. Untreated refuse is unsightly and smelly and degrades both the quality of the environment and the quality of life in the community. It also provides a breeding ground for disease vectors, such as mosquitoes, ﬂies and rats. If waste is not properly disposed of, animals can bring it close to the home and children can come into contact with disease vectors and pathogens. To be effective, solid waste disposal programmes require action at both household and community levels—if only a few households dispose of waste properly, the village envi- ronment may remain dirty and contaminated. Community members should decide how important solid waste management is and determine the best ways to achieve waste-management goals.
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Solid waste management is a working agenda for sustainable develop- ment. Latin America has adopted policies and promulgated regulations that have led to the prohibition of open-air dumps, an inclusion of recyclers into the management process, and incentives to reduce the generation of urban solid waste. This article analyzes the correlation between the generation of urban solid waste and some other factors in nine cities of the region, between 2007 and 2014, using official statistics from each country. Results show that there is a significant correlation between per capita income and school coverage rate. Although there have been some improvements, there also remain challenges
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The Sisal Youth Group and Amusha Youth Group were the two CBOs handling solid waste management when the study was carried out. They provide plastic paper bags for storage of waste in each plot that they serve and collect once a week. They charge a minimum of Ksh5 and a maximum of ksh10 per house in each plot. The transportation process usually encompasses two stages. In the first stage, waste is transported on foot from the plots up to the nearby route passable by a hand-cart. The second stage involves the use of hand-cart for the transport of waste up to the dumping sites. They incur maintenance costs for the hand-carts and sometimes are even forced to hire them, usually at ksh100 per day. Some of the challenges they face in the collection and transportation process include the following.
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According to some authors municipal solid waste is, among the different possible environmental problems, the less investigated in the EKC literature (Mazzanti & Zoboli, 2008; Mazzanti et al., 2009; Jordan, 2010; Ichinose et al., 2011). Moreover, academic research related to the EKC hypothesis on waste shows mixed evidence since it is possible to find studies that do not support the EKC formulation and others that found some evidence of a turning point concerning MSW generation 5 . However, as far as we know, only the paper of Mazzanti et al. (2008) tried to assess the impact of the tourist sector on the generation of MSW on the EKC. There are at least two reasons to consider that tourism may be an important determinant of MSW. Firstly, international tourism is a special kind of export activity where consumption is made at the exporting country (Vanhove, 2005); therefore, the reasons for the inclusion of trade variables in the EKC regressions apply to tourism. Secondly, tourism is especially intensive in MSW generation compared to other economic sectors, like manufacturing or agriculture, more prone to produce other kind of polluting outputs (Magrinho et al., 2006; Beigl et al., 2008; Papachristou et al., 2009; Mateu-Sbert et al. 2013).
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chamber and hindering decontamination. Pressure pulsing involves repeatedly pressurising the autoclave with steam, then releasing it to flush out air pockets. A vacuum is not generated. As a minimum requirement, the exhaust air and condensate should be discharged to a closed sewer system, a soak away pit, or ideally the autoclave should be equipped with a HEPA filter. Simple gravity-displacement autoclaves without pressure pulsing should not be used for the safe decontamination of infectious waste, as there is a risk that this waste cannot be reached by the steam with the result that the waste may not be decontaminated (Stolze, Kühling 2009). Manual pressure pulsing is possible, but effectiveness of the decontamination is highly dependent upon operator behaviour.
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To estimate the volume of C&D waste generated, values for each waste category have been obtained from BEDEC database from the Instituto de Tecnología de la Construcción de Cataluña (ITeC) . This database gives environmental parameters for each element of work in the bill of quantities of the projects. In this sense, volume (m 3 ) values for each European Waste Catalogue category (EWC code) for the analyzed railway works have been obtained . C&D waste volume generated is thus calculated by an empirical equation, Eq. (1) and related to the functional units of the railway project to be analyzed.
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Encapsulation involves immobilizing the pharmaceuticals in a solid block within a plastic or steel drum. Drums should be cleaned prior to use and should not have contained explosive or hazardous materials previously. They are filled to 75% capacity with solid and semi-solid pharmaceuticals, and the remaining space is filled by pouring in a medium such as cement or cement/lime mixture, plastic foam or bituminous sand. For ease and speed of filling, the drum lids should be cut open and bent back. Care should be taken to avoid cuts to hands when placing pharmaceuticals in the drums. Once the drums are filled to 75% capacity, the mixture of lime, cement and water in the proportions 15:15:5 (by weight) is added and the drum filled to capacity. A larger quantity of water may be required sometimes to attain a satisfactory liquid consistency. Steel drum lids should then be bent back and sealed, ideally by seam or spot welding. The sealed drums should be placed at the base of a landfill and covered with fresh municipal solid waste. For ease of movement, the drums may be placed on pallets which can then be put on a pallet transporter.
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Edmundas Kazimieras zaVadsKas is a full professor and the Head of the Department of Construction Technology and Management of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania. Senior Research Fellow at the Research Institute of Smart Building Technologies. PhD in Building Structures (1973). Dr Sc. (1987) in Building Technology and Management. A member of Lithuanian and several foreign Academies of Sciences. Doctore Honoris Causa from Poznan, Saint Peters- burg and Kiev universities. The Honorary International Chair Professor in the National Taipei University of Technology. A member of international organizations; a member of steering and programme committees at many international confer- ences; a member of the editorial boards of several research journals; the author and co-author of more than 400 papers and a number of monographs in Lithuanian, English, German and Russian. Editor-in-chief of journals Technological and Economic Development of Economy and Journal of Civil Engineering and Management. Research interests: building technol- ogy and management, decision-making theory, automation in design and decision support systems.
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metal ions existing in the original ashes, due to chlo- ride presence, are transformed into poor soluble solid carbonate or hydroxide precipitates. Secondly, the content of chlorides has been drastically reduced in almost 99% but, despite this, their use is not recom- mended with steel reinforcing rods (38). An advan- tage of this process of washing and treatment of fly ash from MSWI is that, along with water from the washing, almost all of the original Cl − is eliminated due to the formation of a soluble non-polluting waste such as NaCl (sodium chloride solution). With the solution addition of sodium bicarbonate to the wash- ing process, all heavy metal ions are transformed into non soluble carbonates and, at the same time, the Na + provided by them reacts forming NaCl solution. 3.2.2. X-Ray diffraction
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In soluble species in the waste that could be lost by leaching, water must pass through the soil profile, wet the waste, and dissolve these species. Soil water repel- lency has been extensively studied and is mainly caused by organic compounds of various origins and structures . The wettability of soil particles increases with the charge density and fraction of polar groups on the sur- face [32, 33]. Sorption of organic matter with nonpolar functional groups promotes nonwettable surfaces , and long-chain amphiphilic organic compounds produced by a range of biota can induce hydrophobicity in soil . When wetted, these compounds are usually hydrophilic, but drying can cause bonding of hydrophilic (polar) ends of amphiphilic molecules to each other or to particle sur- faces, resulting in the exposure of hydrophobic (nonpolar) functional groups to the pore space . This effect can be observed on biowastes after the application of various treatments.
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As explained above, a proposed model emerges that integrates solid waste management in the port environment with the production of exploitable energy from this waste. Thus, its recyclable components can be separated and energy produced from otherwise valueless materials (cf. Table 1). In this way, an almost free electricity generation source appears that can supply the main port’s demand, if backed up by liquefied natural gas transported via the virtual gas pipeline from the plant being installed at the new port in Granadilla (southern Tenerife).
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50ºC, 120 rpm, 60 min) and steam explosion (130 to 170ºC, 5 to 30 min, in 5L reactor and another tank to perform the decompression suddenly). All experiments were performed with 5% dry weight of algal biomass. The pretreated biomass is cooled to room temperature and the solid fraction is separated by centrifugation (10 min, 10000 rpm). The liquid and the solid are maintained at 4 °C. The mass loss of solids by solubilization and the composition in terms of sugars, alcohols, organic acids, furfural, hemifurfural and acetone of the liquid pretreatment fraction are analyzed. Humidity, ash, carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are also analyzed in the pretreated solid phase.
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The Teacher’s Guide complements the WHO publication Management of wastes from health-care activities (Geneva, 1999). It can be used to assist in the preparation and delivery of a three day course, adapted to provide a one day introductory course, or expanded to five days to include technical visits. There is sufficient resource material to initiate, organize, deliver and evaluate courses of different lengths. The course material includes overhead transparencies, handouts showing definitions, tables and figures and the material necessary for workshops.
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It is important to emphasise that the infection control team comprised two people, the infection control matron and sister. These two people oversee all the waste management operations ranging from domestic to clinical waste. They are registered general nurses who bear the burden of managing medical waste as well as domestic waste. There are no environmental health or waste management experts in the infection control team. This compromises the ability of the team to carry out its operations, as medical waste requires special handling by those who come into contact with it. In addition, a large percentage of Anabas Cleaning Company workers did not receive any formal training with regards to medical waste management and are consequently unaware of the environmental health impacts of medical waste.
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complementing both formal and informal education because not all people are formally educated. According to them, by strengthening both formal and informal education, the impacts can be greater. In fact, most local authority participants, community leaders, and householders recognize the value of informal education activities among the general population. For example, one of the main recommendations is to promote awareness through newspapers, television, and radio broadcasts dealing with issues on environmental sanitation. These media outlets reach a wide range of the population, especially in isolated, rural areas where access to environmental learning and resources is limited. Some householders say that environmental campaigns in media, especially in television, taught them important aspects about the value of water or solid waste handling. Some of them even comment that certain messages convinced them to make changes in their everyday practices. Other community leaders suggest utilizing public spaces, such as churches, to convey an environmental message to community members (e.g., displaying an educational video).
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these lines, a kind of waste material that can be used in civil works is C&D waste. These wastes come mainly from the demolition of buildings or from construction material debris from new buildings and small renovation works on homes and developments. This type of waste is known as “rubble”, which is generated in large quantities and its volume exceeds that of domestic origin. C&D waste is usually taken to a dump, given the favourable price conditions, with disposal costs that no other more environmentally friendly operation can compete with. Since most C&D materials are considered to be inert or assimilable to inert, their pollution potential is relatively low. Otherwise, their visual impact is often high owing to the large volume of space they occupy and the lack of enforcement of environmental control on the lands chosen for their disposal (Dosal et al., 2012). Another negative environmental impact is due to the squandering of the raw materials involved in this type of management, for which recycling is not considered (PNRCD 2001-2006).
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Abstract. This paper presents an application of the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time-Windows (CVRPTW) in the context of the medical supply chain, in particular, dangerous waste collection. Waste disposal and collection in medical services implies the use of specialized equipment and vehicles to guarantee the accomplishment of local regulation and the fulfillment of medical standards. We develop the CVRPTW model using open source tools including Google-OR tools and Google Colab to solve and instance based on a practical case showing the ac hievement of cost reduction.
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A proposal for integral management of organic solid waste is established in temporary shelters of the canton of Pedernales, harmonizing the protection of physical integrity and human health in these settlements with environmental and urban aspects to prevent and / or mitigate impacts after the earthquake of December 16. April 2016. The research was elaborated with a quantitative approach and based on an empirical-analytical rationalist paradigm. For the development of the same the following methods were used: historical (trend), hypothetical deductive, as well as the measurement. The results of the measurement, allowed to determine the per capita generation of solid waste and its classification by types in the shelters studied. Among the conclusions, it was found that an adequate management of solid waste is not carried out in the "Divino Niño" and "Los Llanos" shelters of the Pedernales district. To this end, a comprehensive management plan for organic solid waste is proposed as an alternative to health prevention.
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Cooperband, L.R., Middleton, J.H. 1996. Changes in chemical, physical and biological properties of passively-aerated cocomposted poultry litter and municipal solid waste compost. Compost Science & utilization , 4: 24-34. Costa, F., García, C., Hernández T., Polo, A. 1991. Residuos orgánicos
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Representatives of the industrial sector, environmental engineering companies, research institutions, the Municipal and Provinces Spanish Federation, Regional Governments and the Ministry of the Environment are members of this Working Group. They are organized into seven “Task Forces”, as follows: to update the statistics on post-consumer tyres; reduction and reuse; Recycling; energy recovery; landfill; management and financing and, finally, citizens’ awareness raising and the education of specialist personnel.
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