The anthropic activities that are carried out every day in the life of each one of the people, generate different types of solidwaste, where some can be incorporated into their life cycle although many times the proper treatment is not carried out, therefore presents tons of waste in landfills or disposal sites. In this article, a verification of the PGIRS of the municipality of Yopal - Casanare is carried out with the Resolution 0754, which indicates the methodology that the PGIRS of the municipalities in Colombia should have. To this end, a bibliographic review was made regarding the regulations and the 8 items required by the aforementioned resolution are analyzed. for the pgirs. Each item is discussed, describing compliance, shortcomings and improvement proposals. Finally, it can be concluded that Yopal's PGIRS complies with the requirements of this resolution, although it has certain shortcomings in its content and development in the municipality as the insufficiency for the management of usable waste, implementation of environmental indicators in its programs and projects , lack of managementand environmental planning for the development of the PGIRS in the municipality.
Chapter 3 focuses on the analysis of the MSWM system from a sustainability framework. This chapter looks forward to contributing to the first main objective of the thesis. Many previous case studies in the academic literature concerning MSWM practices focused on big cities and only a few analyzed tourism destinations. The analysis of destinations mainly paid attention to particular issues like generation, but none of these studies attempted to assess MSWM with an integrated vision. As services provided by the tourist sector are consumed in the destination, the development of tourism destinations has a direct relationship with all the stages of MSWM (generation, collection, transport andtreatment). Therefore, in formulating wastemanagement strategies for tourism destinations it is necessary to consider the particular characteristics of the sector in its development. The objective of the chapter is to analyze the way in which tourism destinations’ main characteristics challenge MSWM systems, with special attention being paid to the case of Mallorca. This chapter assesses (i) the legal and institutional framework of Mallorca’s MSWM system; (ii) the main technical characteristics, how it is financially supported and the major distinctiveness of its social management; (iii) the challenges to financial sustainability; and (iv) the description of the relationship between tourism specialization and MSWM systems.
In spite of the experiences already accumulated, the region insisted on establishing another large sanitary landfill, proposing again a project under the concept of Environmental Park that had already been put into place without success in La Pardera, with a Recycling system installed to treat wastes that reached the landfill. This was done in the El Guacal site, located on the crest of the mountains of the south west of the Aburrá Valley. Although these were modern facilities, equipped with important pieces of equipment, which included systems to stow and compact the treated waste after entering the landfill; Sadly, after several intents and essays and operating this separating and treating systems for several years, success was not achieved and on the site treatment tasks were suspended, whereupon El Guacal became a traditional sanitary landfill. This had a leachate treatment plant that operated irregularly at least in its beginnings, which was finally improved and stabilized after several studies and working experiments. This sanitary landfill was launched on the initiative of the Municipality of Envigado since 2005 and during its best years of operation came to handle 700 tons per day of waste generated by 26 different municipalities, some of them quite fat from the site. However, it never managed to achieve the desirable levels of profitability that could ensure its sustainability, so that this business of disposal of solidwaste has not meant profitability or economic attractiveness for the owners of the project. Contributed to this situation the complexity of the chosen site and different operation troubles, with many contingencies and difficulties; The management of environmental permits was especially complex, as the environmental authority was very demanding in the depth and extent of the studies required to renew the license, once the initial permit was suspended as the commitments to operate the site as an environmental park were not fulfilled And there were also difficulties related to the treatment of leachates.
All chemicals should be handled with great care. Most are toxic at some level and even though short-term exposure may not be particularly harmful, long-term exposure can cause serious health problems. For example, organo- phosphates in sheep dips can lead to heart and breathing problems, and to mental health problems. Consequently, agricultural workers should be trained in the use of chemicals. Training is usually carried out by agricultural extension workers and will normally include such topics as use of protective clothing, gloves and breathing apparatus. An example of bad practice in han- dling agricultural chemicals is shown in Figure 6.3. If there are any doubts regarding the safe handling and use of agricultural chemicals, workers should seek advice from local agricultural staff, otherwise the community may be exposed to serious health risks. If a toxic spill occurs, it should be contained as far as possible and the appropriate local or national environmental agency contacted.
From the total amount of medical waste generation, 85% can be classified as general waste, comparable to municipal solidwaste while the remaining 15% can be classified as hazardous (infectious, toxic or radioactive). (World Health Organisation, 2015). Depending on the country, it can be estimated that developed countries generate around 3.3 kg of waste per bed per day, this is 0.5 kg per bed per day of hazardous waste, while under developed or low-income countries generate 1.33 kg per bed per day, meaning 0.2 kg per bed per day of hazardous waste. For example, in Australia, looking at both public and private hospitals, in 2015-2016 there was a total of 92,000 beds. 62,000 beds in public hospitals and 33,100 in private ones (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2017). At the same time, looking at statistics of the same year 2015-2016, in private hospitals only 3.152 were available (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017), resulting this in a 90% of bed occupation in bed occupancy. From this data, it can be said than in Australia, only in private hospitals, which represent around one third of the total hospitals, 99 tons of medical waste was generated per day, of which 14.85tonns were hazardous. Going even further, sources as the World Health Organisation claims that often health-care waste is not separated into hazardous or non-hazardous wastes in underdeveloped countries making the real quantity of hazardous waste much higher than that quantified (World Health Organisation, 2015).
Classification can be performed either through dry or wet processes. As a result of the wet discharge system installed in Greatmoor EfW and in most of the EfW plants worldwide, ash is a moist, agglomerated material. This makes it difficult to process particles below 8-12 mm. In order to recover metals and minerals from the IBA down to fine particles, the material should either be dried or immersed in water to obtain slurry with freely moving particles. Dry separation operates with standard equipment with typical particle sizes of 10-50 mm and 2-10 mm. Wet separation can be performed through either dense medium separation or attrition washing. It allows the extraction of soluble constituents but generates more fine material to be disposed off and requires water treatment [POLE07].
El desarrollo actual de la humanidad y el crecimiento poblacional han traído consigo una gran producción de residuos, los cuales tienen un impacto negativo tanto en el ambiente como en la salud. Su acumulación y la búsqueda de nuevos sitios de rellenos sanitarios se hace complicado, por las exigencias ambientales inherentes debido tanto a su gran volumen, como a los costos generados por su procesamiento, además, los vertederos se han convertido en focos permanentes de contaminación y por esta razón el manejo de los desechos sólidos ha devenido en un problema de salud pública, la Organización para la Cooperación y Desarrollo Económico y la Organización Panamericana para la Salud estiman que se producen en la actualidad de 0,8 a 1,4 kg de desechos sólidos totales por habitante-día (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2005; Organización Panamericana de la Salud, 2005), y tomando en cuenta que la población mundial para el año 2011 era de 6.974 millones de personas, se tiene que ese año se produjeron cerca de 9.764.000 toneladas de desechos (Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, 2011).
This research focused on the analysis of the ecotoxicological effects of ballast water transported by ships arriving from international trips to the port of Callao on juveniles of Odontesthes regia regia (Pejerrey), through an acute bioassay that determined the mortality of more than 50% of the organisms from the C 3 concentration; as well as an evaluation of physicochemical and microbiological parameters that revealed pH values outside the normal range of marine waters with the presence of heterotrophic bacteria in quantities of 210 units. Likewise, the management of the waste that the ships disposed of through naval devices and aquatic reception facilities during the years of 2017 to 2019 in 11 seaports of Peru was evaluated, being the port of Callao the largest receiver with 1,044.95 m3 of mixtures oily and 385.71 t of wasteand the port of Chancay the one of lower transfer with 28.99 m3 of oily mixtures and 16.19 t of waste, due to the presence of a greater number of ships in the shipping fleet and to the concentration of aquatic activities in each zone of operation .
One of the great difficulties that occur in educa- tional institutions, is the inadequate management of solidwaste in students for various reasons. For this reason the present study, sought to perform an intervention supported by ICT, to implement in the students a friendly mentality with the environ- ment, instilling to students a sense of respect and care with the environment of the institution and the environment, mainly in the collection and clas- sification of the waste generated in your institution. Methodologically, it was oriented under a qualita- tive approach, from a descriptive design, where the instruments of participant observation format and field diary were used. The sample consisted of 250 students of the morning session of the Departmen- tal Education Institution San José Sede No. 4. The results show that, once the implementation of the strategy, it was possible to impart a change to the students, especially evidenced in the schedules of recreation where an improvement in the manage- ment of solidwaste was reflected.
The sensitization study population and production evaluation of PET was performed from January to March 2010 in the city of Puerto Maldonado in the areas of FONAVI and ENACE, both are inhabited by people of lower-middle stratum. Beneficiaries were selected and evaluated prior knowledge about the concepts of segregating, organic and inorganic waste through the use of surveys at the beginning and end of the project. I give them a red bag for separating plastic bottles, which were collected on weekends for storage and weighing. Concepts raised FONAVI neighbors learned more about the concept of segregating but not increase the number of people who knew about organic and inorganic waste. On the other hand, neighbors ENACE who knew the word segregation decreased by 1% probably because they were more concerned in learning the concepts of organic and inorganic waste as initially I was recording 62% of residents who knew the concept, then increased to 77 %. Regarding the PET not I collect the expected amount due to natural phenomena, miners’ strike, mechanical drive pickup.
A modification of the fractionation method of Hedley et al.  and Sui et al.  described by Huang et al.  was employed to extract empirically defined pools of P. The P fractions were designated as WSP, membrane-P, NaHCO 3 – P, NaOH–P, and HCl-P. Samples were sequentially extracted with deionized water (WSP), deionized water with an anion-exchangeable membrane (membrane-P), 0.5 mol L −1 NaHCO 3 (pH 8.5) (NaHCO 3 -P), 1 mol L −1 NaOH (NaOH- P), and 1 mol L −1 HCl (HCl-P). Total P in filtrates of water, NaHCO 3 , and NaOH extracts were determined by digesting aliquots of filtrates in an autoclave at 103.5 kPa with acidified (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 . P in all the extracts was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) following USEPA Method 3050A digestion. Labile P includes the sum of IP and OP from water, resin, and NaHCO 3 fractions, whereas refractory or unavailable P includes the remaining fractions. The procedure was per- formed in triplicate on each biowaste sample.
solubilization (Table 2). In all assays, the final values of CODs were higher at higher amounts of waste added, indicating that there was a percentage of solubilized COD that was not converted into methane. This percentage increased significantly at increasing total solids. The trend in the VFA concentrations increase is the same as for the CODs. VFA were not detected at 1%TS; however, they reached high concentrations at 2.5 and 5%TS (Table 3). The highest concentrations were found for acetic and propionic acids. Therefore, VFA accumulation indicates the occurrence of an imbalance between the acid-forming and the methane-forming microorganisms. Raposo et al. (2009) studied the influence of the waste/inoculum ratio on the anaerobic digestion of the solidwaste generated in the extraction process of sunflower oil. The VFA accumulation also increased with an increase of the waste/inoculum ratio, from 0.33 to 2 g VS waste /g
Ahora bien, estamos en el momento de asumir la hipótesis de la artificialidad y, ade- más, la relación abierta entre los productores y los consumidores, siendo los primeros quienes dominan tanto las necesidades como los deseos de los segundos con relación a la adquisición de productos. Así como en 1924 aconteció la reduc- ción de la durabilidad de los productos a partir de ciertos productores, en 1932, un año después de la publicación de Man and technics, con el ensayo de Bernard London titulado La supera- ción de la depresión mediante la obsolescencia programada, se inaugura una época en la que la masa, los simples consumidores, ya no sólo son espectadores del triunfo de los productores, sino una masa impotente que sufre y padece la pérdida y la muerte de sus adquisiciones sin algún tipo de retribución o compensación. Después de todo, la apuesta de la obsolescencia programada no es otra cosa más que el límite o plazo de vida (o de actualidad, es decir, moda) que tiene todo producto y que tras pasarlo se consideran muertos, teniendo que desecharlos o destruirlo. Así, a partir de 1924, como señala Frank Schirrmacher, “los ingenieros habían in- corporado la ‘destrucción creativa’ como atributo en los objetos mismos y con ello no sólo habían diseñado algo que funciona, sino también algo que no funciona” (Schirrmacher, F. 2014, 222). Esto se lleva a exceso con la DeathDating, en la que la artificialidad técnica triunfa sobre sí mis- ma al darse una muerte artificial y programada, saboteando su propio artificio.
In low-resource or emergency settings, transitional methods can be used while working towards putting the systems and resources in place to install, operate and maintain more advanced technologies. Such methods may not fulfil the requirements of the Stockholm Convention (UNEP 2007) and therefore should be considered only as an interim solution. In some countries, where basic WASH services in health care facilities are lacking, they may not have any waste destruction at all besides open burning. There, the objective would be to incrementally improve this through construction of a locally made incinerator made of bricks or using a barrel. Furthermore, in emergency situations like outbreaks of infectious diseases, the volume of waste rises quickly and needs to be considered in the selection of wastetreatment technologies.
EDAS method needs fewer computations with respect to most of the other multiattribute decision-making meth- ods while it can produce the same ranking of alternatives. The evaluation of alternatives in this method is based on distances of each alternative from the average solution with respect to each criterion. Ordinary fuzzy extension of crisp EDAS has been developed based on trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. We have proposed the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy EDAS (IVIF EDAS) method in this paper. The linguistic evaluations have been represented by interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets and their arith- metic operations have been applied. Since the vagueness included by trapezoidal fuzzy sets and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets are basically different, the ob- tained rankings may change from ordinary fuzzy EDAS (OF EDAS) to intuitionistic fuzzy EDAS. The calculations of IVIF EDAS are more tedious with respect to ordinary fuzzy EDAS. Different ranking equations must be used in OF EDAS and IVIF EDAS.
Containers with lids, that are appropriately labelled for subsequent transport. In the case of scrap, because of its dimensions can be collected into containers, must be disposed of in the transfer area. The metal container used to transfer the offshore platform scrap the ship must comply with the following : The dimensions may vary depending on the needs of the installation, one example of the dimensions is 2.50 m of length, 2.00 m of width, and 1.70 of high. Containers used for the collection, transfer, transfer and transport of hazardous waste, except medical waste must meet the following specifications : a) The container must be designed for a capacity of 25 barrels and a maximum permissible load of 10 metric tons and should consider the following dimensions, High: 1 651.0 mm (65 in), width: 1 854.2 mm (73 in) and length: 2 438.4 mm (96 in). b) Structure made of structural steel ASTM A-36 or equivalent, envelope steel sheet of 6.35 mm (0.25 in) thick A-36, with structural reinforcement channels 101.6 mm (4 in) and thickness of 4.76 mm (0.1875 in) A-36 in periphery, Bases loaded by forklift manufacturer channels formed of 152.4 mm (6 in) and a thickness of 4.76 mm (0.1875 in) A-36, bottom, 4 hooks top of 25.4 mm (1 in.) thick A-36, 4 hooks bottom of 25.4 mm (1 in.) thick A-36 to move with crane, two lids on top, folding part, made of sheet 6.35 mm (0.25 in) thick A-36 packages on the shore and closing system, and primary corrosion coating and finishing.
During the colonial era, the City Council was dominated by Europeans, who weren’t concerned in providing of urban services to african populace. They did not consider that Africans had any right to a permanent place in Town, what joined to the first plans of racial segregation which was determined by the City Council since 1912, became in the first Slums in Eastleigh, Pumwani, Pangani and Mathare valley areas, places where their households were far from the basic health conditions and with no basic services such as running water, sewerage, toilets, internal roads or solidwastemanagement.