sound waves

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Illustrating MIMO transmission by means of sound waves

criterion is amply fulfilled. This assures that a simple plot of the sampled values provides a good representation of the underlying waveform. Modern sound cards use sample rates of the order of 10 4 –10 5 samples/s, which is sufficient for all purposes. Input filter Since the received signal is to be observed rather than demodulated, the input filter should be sufficiently flat across the signal bandwidth to avoid distortion; and should have a bandwidth W i slightly larger than that of the signal. This condition can be expressed as W i ≈ 2/T p , where the factor 2 is admittedly somewhat arbitrary. Frequency-conversion filter The lowpass filter used in the frequency conversion should also be flat across the signal bandwidth, and should have a cutoff frequency W f such that 2/T p < W f 2 f c . Standard Butterworth and Chebyshev designs tend to
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16 Lee mas

NONLINEAR SOUND REVERBERATION IN ENCLOSURES

When dealing with nonlinear sound waves it is quite common to maintain the speed of sound as a constant [5], and later we will use this hypothesis, though at high nonlinear levels the sound speed is higher than within lineal range [6], [7], and causes among other effects distortion of nonlinear sound waves. It is also known since Sedov [7] that sound level decreases with distance to sound source at rates higher than within linear range. At very high nonlinear ranges it is admitted a level attenuation well above the linear range: 1/r 6 for atomic explosions, for instance, compared to 1/r 2 for linear range, due to simple spherical divergence.
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DEPENDENCE OF THE DIRECT SOUND ENERGY UPON THE DISTANCE TO THE SOUND SOURCE

At any point of a closed space, the density of energy is characterised by density emitted by the sound source and density formed by sound waves reflecting from various planes. Let us assume that the sound source emits energy P. Then the density of direct sound at the point under consideration is equal to:

A study of different calculation methods for noise barrier top edge designs

Noise barriers were modelled by Boundary-element method. Based on earlier studies, it is presumable that, in case the noise barrier is long enough (i.e. l > 300 m), two-dimensional modelling is sufficient. In case of 2D modelling, diffraction occurs only at the upper edge of the noise barrier. Element size was 0,01 m. A frequency range of 50 .. 1000 Hz was tested. I considered the barrier ideal, i.e. sound waves might enter the shadow zone by means of diffraction – through the barrier they may not. The model considered noise barriers and the ground to be made up of rigid elements. Reductor pipe of Type 5 was made up of a special sound absorptive material.
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Change of pulses propagating in SOFAR Channel by moving front

The ocean acoustic tomography [1] is a technique to measure a distribution of temperatures over large regions of the ocean by accurately measuring propagation time of sound waves that propagate through the ocean. A number of transducers consisting of a sound source and a receiver are installed around the sea area to be measured. Propagation times of sound waves that propagate between these transducers are measured accurately. Measured changes in propagation time are converted to changes in temperature distribution through inverse problem analysis. In these analyses, the propagation path of an eigenray is usually assumed to be unchanged, and the difference in propagation time for a pulse is converted to the difference in temperature. However, the ocean contains many inhomogeneous media such as sea current, oceanic front, eddy, and microstructure. Those inhomogeneities have strong effects on the paths of sound wave propagation, making it difficult to process signals for the ocean acoustic tomography, and particularly to identify eigenrays.
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SOUND-DESIGN DEVELOPMENT WITH SOUND SIMULATION VEHICLE

The base function of humans sense of hearing is to gather information out of their environment and to use it for different purposes. The acoustical stimulus is represented by the collected sound waves. These sound waves, collected by the ears, include all acoustical information of interest. In other words the sound that may be measured with an artificial head for example contains all physical information as far as only the hearing system is concerned. According to Fig. 1 all sensorial information with regard to acoustics, e.g. intensity, frequency spectrum, time structure, stimulus statistics, number and arrangement of sources etc. are considered (acoustical level I and II) in that kind of recordings.
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Phonics Letter Sound Correspondence pdf

Working in pairs, student one selects a picture work board, names the picture on the left side, and chooses and places the onset and rime cards to make the word under the picture. [r]

56 Lee mas

Synchronization waves in geometric networks

of a wave regime. An example of a synchronization wave is reported in Fig. 1(d) where we plot three successive snapshots of a wavefront propagating through the network at σ=10 and d = 0.2. The non-local coupling makes this waving phenomenon differs in many aspects from waves observed in continuous excitable media [16] as, for example, the fact that wavefront widths depend on the long-range coupling outreach and that propagation of coherent spatial structures like spiral waves is hindered by the shortcut links between nodes [17].

ON MODELLING OF ROOM ACOUSTICS BY A SOUND ENERGY TRANSITION APPROACH

Fast, reliable computation techniques are needed for “real-time” design applications. A method was derived from first statistical principles, by assuming random walks of energy packets in an enclosure. The transition probabilities of the energy transfer matrix are based on the solid angle magnitudes of the enclosure walls, subtended at some particular wall centre. The room impulse response and the steady-state sound pressure level are computed. From the room impulse response, the decay curve and reverberation times are computed and some room sound quality indexes are calculated.
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The Grapho-Phonemics of the English Paroxytones and the fever/ever Dilemma.

- input_phonetic: file with the phonetic translations of a series of words. The stressed sound is marked with a 1 after the sound[r]

64 Lee mas

Short communication. Platform for bee-hives monitoring based on sound analysis. A perpetual warehouse for swarm's daily activity

Sensing devices were designed and built with the following features: i) omnidirectional microphone and 30 db amplif ication; ii) 8 bit digitize of each sound sample; iii) one temperature sensor; iv) wireless Zigbee communication (ZigBee-Alliance, 2006) with the node to avoid noise in wires and connectors; and v) digital signal processor.

Suárez on sound and hearing

As in the issue of the kinds of medium so in the question of the property of the extrinsic air, the exegesis of De anima II, 8 stands in the centre of Suárez’s attention. In this chapter Aristo- tle comes with the following formulation: “The air in the ears is lodged, so as to be unmoved, in order that it may accurately per- ceive all differences of motion” (420a9-12). In this formulation, Aristotle suggests that the necessary property of the vital air in the intrinsic ear is its immobility. If it were in motion, sensorium could not perceive the oncoming sounds objectively. As the translucent (as far as colours are concerned neutral) nature of the crystalline humour in the pupil makes the pupil (objectively) receptive of the visual species, so the immobility of air makes the organ of hearing suitable for the (objective) reception of the audible species. But only a few lines below Aristotle comes with a second formulation: “… the air in the ears always moves with a special motion of its own” (420a16-7), which seems to give evidence of contrary sen- tences in one paragraph of Aristotle’s text. How does Suárez, the philosophical conciliator, harmonize them? Of which ear does Ar- istotle, as a matter of fact, speak? In an untypically less clear para- graph, Suárez at ﬁ rst appears to refer to the sensorium proper, i.e., to the intrinsic ear covered by the eardrum. Nevertheless, later on he inconspicuously moves to the external ear, which, rather than the organ, is the (adjacent) medium. Suárez makes clear that if the operation of hearing is to function well, even this “medial air” of the external ear is to be de se immobile. When Aristotle speaks about the motion, so Suárez, he does not mean that this motion is a sign of its “essence” and proper functioning. Quite on the contrary, it is a manifestation of disorder. Suárez quotes from a passage from Aristotle’s De anima following the sentence quoted above: “… sound [coming from that “special motion of its own”; D. H.] comes from an outside source, and it is not a property of the ear”. 52 Whisper in our ears is not a natural state, based on
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22 Lee mas

Similarities between ion waves in plasmas and gravity waves in incompressible fluids

IV we consider uniform, steady plasma flows and study in detail the resulting wave pattern for arbitrary wavelength, ion temperature, and acoustic Mach number (the ratio of flow veloc[r]

ACTIVE SOUND DESIGN: VACUUM CLEANER

The acoustical channel is explicitly feasible to intuitively inform the user of a product about the current status of operation and to give a feedback about the performed action. The inherently produced sound of the product often is not sufficient to give an appropriate feedback, so that additional signals have to be generated and reproduced. A patent pending method of Active Sound Design for vacuum cleaners is presented in this paper. The amount of currently aspired dust is measured, and this data is used to generate an acoustical feedback. This feedback is played back via a loudspeaker integrated into the vacuum cleaner.
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SOUND AMBIENT ENVIRONMENT OF URBAN PLACES: COMPARISON OF SOUND APPRAISAL FACTORS WITH ACOUSTICAL PARAMETERS

Simultaneously of those inquiries, we have done three acoustical recordings of a quarter of an hour, at different specific moments of the day and for each location of boulevards, squares, market places and school yard. The external acquisition set consists of one transducer linked to a small acquisition unit (a single channel microphone), which transfers data in real-time to a notebook computer. This instrument allows several functions such as recording the raw audio signal (like a DAT recorder), measuring the noise level time history (like a data logging integrating sound level meter) or showing the changing real-time frequency spectrum (like a frequency analyser).
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Control of light by sound

The  phenomenon  of  acousto-­‐optical  interaction  is  shown  by  a  simple  experiment.  Using  an  acousto-­‐ optic  modulator  recycled  from  a  dismantled   industrial  laser,  a  laser  pointer,  and  minimum  control   electronics,  the  action  of  a  sound  wave  injected  on  the  modulator  generates  the  Bragg  and  Naman-­‐ Nath   diffraction   regimes,   depending   on   the   geometry   chosen   for   the   interaction   between   the   laser   beam  and  the  modulator.
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MEDIDAS DE ‘DRUM SOUND’ PARA SUELOS LAMINADOS

The word ‘Drum Sound’ (also called room sound, emitted sound or refleted sound) is defined as perceived level of airborne sound inside a room created by falling objects, walking persons and other impact sources. The measurements of ‘Drum Sound’ are usually realized for laminate floorings, the demand for reducing this type of noise in this floorings. This paper, is presents a comparative between different types of impact sheets, in order to chek the influence of these sheets on the level of ‘Drum Sound’.