Mycobacteria cause a range of diseases in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. An increase in non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections targeting skin has been described. Many hypotheses have been developed in order to explain it: the increasing burden of immunocompromised individuals, immigration from endemic countries, improved laboratory identification techniques, and changes inhuman behavior that expose individuals to this NTM. Mycobacterium mucogenicum group comprises M. mucogenicum, Mycobacterium aubagnense, and Mycobacterium phocaicum. This group of organisms was first named Mycobacterium chelonae-like organism in 1982. Most clinically significant cases of those organisms involved catheter-related infections. Nevertheless, we report an interesting patient with a cutaneous infection produced by M. mucogenicum mimicking a squamouscellcarcinoma; an excellent response to combined therapy with rifampicin and clarythromicin was observed.
Background: Primary corneal tumors are unusual in dogs although there has been a rise in the prevalence of canine corneal squamouscellcarcinoma in the past decades due to different factors. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation, presence of chronic keratitis or history of superficial trauma are some of them. We report for the first time a highly infiltrative corneal neoplasia with both exophytic and deep stromal growth, which presented atypical histologic features of a squamouscellcarcinoma.
Patients with Oral SquamousCellCarcinoma (OSCC) presented lesions in tongue (11; 42.0 %), palate (2; 6.3%), lip (3; 9.6%), buccal mucosa (4; 16.2%), gum (4; 16.2%) and floor of the mouth (3; 9.6%). It is noteworthy that patients with OSCC pre- sented at the clinical and/or cytology examination a significantly higher percentage of chronic trauma (16; 58%; p-value=0.0001), candidiasis (14; 51%; p-value=0.0001), plus a greater percentage of pa- tients with OSCC work in an environment of risk (8; 31%; p-value=0.0429). Meanwhile, the “risk lifestyle habits” variable showed a significant association be- tween consumption of alcohol and tobacco with the case/control condition (Table I).
OBJETIVE: To determine the prevalence in patients with diagnosis of oropharyngeal squamouscellcarcinoma in association with genotypes VM/9/7=OPNOYPZRO\THUWHWPSSVTH]PY\ZLZWLJPHSS`NLUV[`WL MATERIAL AND METHOD: An ambispective, observational, trans ]LYZL HUK KLZJYPW[P]L Z[\K` VM `LHYZ JHYYPLK V\[ PU patients from the Hospital Juárez de México, in which we performed determination of DNA and microarrays for detection of HPV, from fresh tissue biopsies of patients with suspicious clinical lesions and WHYHMÄULTILKKLK[PZZ\LPUWH[PLU[ZKPHNUVZLK^P[OVYVWOHY`UNLHS squamouscellcarcinoma.
The esophageal squamouscellcarcinoma (ESCC) is the prevailing histology sub- type of esophageal cancer and is distinguished by its high mortality and its geo- graphic differences in regards to its incidence. The exact cause of this neoplasia is still unknown in spite of all the research made in this area. Our understanding about pathogenesis, epidemiology and behaviour of the ESCC is still in progress thanks to the advances on the field of molecular biology. Some of these advances include the research of etiopathogenesis (virus, as the human papillomavirus, and the genes susceptible to cancer), genes associated with tumors (oncogenes, tumor suppres- sor genes), as well as new forms of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for the treatment of this neoplasia.
To evaluate the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mean vascular density (MVD) in normal oral mucosa (NOM), oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamouscellcarcinoma (OSCC). Material and methods: Descriptive case study. Nineteen histological samples diagnosed with NOM, 18 diag- nosed with OED, and 19 with OSCC, were analyzed with immunohistochemistry against EGFR and CD31. EGFR expression was evaluated by extent and intensity of its expression in normal, dysplastic and neoplastic epithelium. MVD was determined through the detection of blood vessels by antibodies against CD31. Results: Extension of EGFR expression was highest in OSCC followed by OED and lowest in NOM, resulting in significant different between the degrees of extension (p<0.001). Intensity of EGFR was similar in NOM, OED and OSCC, without differences in its expres- sion (p=0.533). Differences in MVD were found between NOM and OSCC groups (p<0.01), and between OED and OSCC groups (p<0.01), with no differences between NOM and OED groups (p=0.91). MVD was 21.17±4.98 in NOM, 23.40±5.77 in OED and 33.92±8.39 in OSCC. Conclusion: EGFR is expressed in normal, dysplastic or neoplastic oral epithelium. However, the extent of its expression is greater as malig- nancy increases. MVD varies according to the diagnosis.
HNSCC mainly progress to adjacent tissue and nodes while distant metastasis is a late event. The ability of tumor cells to invade is an acquired and progressive phe- nomenon mediated, in many cases, by the alteration of membrane glycoproteins such as mucins. Dabelsteen and Gao  proposed that the presence of different glycosyla- tion patterns modulate the behavior of these membrane glycoproteins involved in cell signaling. In adenocarci- noma, particular interest has been focused on MUC1 mucin; in previous publications we have extensively detected MUC1 and associated epitopes in HNSCC and also we have isolated this mucin from larynx primary squamouscellcarcinoma [6-8]. MUC1 is a large het- erodimeric glycoprotein formed by a highly glycosilated extracellular portion associated to a small cytoplasmic tail .
Another possibility to suppress angiogenesis is the induction of apoptosis selectively in proliferating ECs. Cell viability of proliferating HAEC was selectively reduced by NP-0 (1.00 mg/mL) and NP-10 (0.25 mg/mL), which demonstrated that α -TOS incorporated chemically and physically in the NPs is active during the time of the experiment, 24 h (Figure 1A,B). Cell viability was reduced due to the selective induction of oxidative stress and the accumulation of ROS (Figure 2C) that triggers apoptosis, as Annexin-V and caspase-3 highly increased in proliferating HAEC cultures in the presence of the NPs (Figures 1C and 2A, respectively). Actually, NP-0 and NP-10 activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (intrinsic pathway), as ROS accumulation and apoptosis induction in proliferating HAEC were inhibited in the presence of the mitochondrially targeted antioxidant MitoQ (Figure 2B,D,E) . This selectivity is due to a specific up-regulation of the anti-oxidant systems in the arrested ECs, (e.g., manganese superoxide dismutase, MnSOD), which avoids the accumulation of ROS and the induction of oxidative stress [8,13]. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Dong et al., which demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by targeting the mitochondria of proliferating ECs is a plausible factor by which α-TOS inhibits angiogenesis . Moreover, these results suggest that agents such as α -TOS will efficiently kill angiogenic ECs of tumorigenic blood vessels while being nontoxic to the arrested ECs of normal blood vessels .
by biopsy of primary SCC of NCPS were identified be- tween 1998 and 2003. Of these, 17 fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: complete clinical record, no treatment before the initial diagnostic biopsy, and adequate mate- rial for the immunohistochemical study of MMP-1 and MMP-11. Of the 17 cases, ten were females and seven were males, with an average age of 58 years (range 37 to 85). Two patients were classified as clinical stage II, six to stage III, and nine to stage IV. Eight patients presented extension to adjacent critical structures. Twelve cases (70%) were moderately differentiated SCC, four (24%) were poorly differentiated, and one (6%) was a well-dif- ferentiated carcinoma. Eleven cases (65%) presented an invasion pattern in layers, cords, and solid bands; six (35%) presented invasion in small groups and individual neoplastic cells. Regarding nuclear polymorphism, 50% to 70% of mature malignant cells (considered as moderate nuclear polymorphism) were found in ten cases (59%). The remnant seven cases (41%) presented less than 25% of mature neoplastic cells (high nuclear polymorphism). Most patients received combined treatment based on radiotherapy and surgery (eight patients), four patients received chemotherapy, and two patients were subjected to chemo- and radiotherapy. Ten patients presented local recurrences, three developed lymphatic node metastasis, and one of the latter metastasized to the brain. Tumor persistence was observed in four patients (23.5%), six developed lymphatic node metastasis. The 14 patients with persistence and/or recurrence with tumor activity died (82%). Of the remainder three patients (18%) two were alive without tumor activity and one died without tumor. The postoperative follow-up of patients was 40 months, with an average 6 to 24 months (table 1).
The activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2) was found in oral squamouscell carcinomas (OSCC) but not in normal mucosa. Molecular changes associated to early carcinogenesis have been found in mucosa near carcino- mas, which is considered a model to study field cancerization. The aim of the present study is to analyze NOS2 expression at the histologically normal margins of OSCC.
Se expone el caso de un toro de la raza Simmental puro, de 9 años de edad, con presencia de lesiones cutáneas compatibles con Carcinoma de Células Escamosas a nivel de ojo y nariz. Se le realizó evaluación clínica y caracterización anatomopatológica de las lesiones cutáneas, siendo estas de aspecto granulomatoso exofitico, con eritema, edema, descamación con formación de costras, de consistencia firme y presencia de exudación serosanguinolenta. Posteriormente, previa sedación y aplicación de anestesia local fue tomada una biopsia de tejido desde la periferia de la lesión cancerosa con punch de 6 mm, posteriormente fijada en formol al 10% y llevadas al laboratorio de Patología del Departamento de Ciencias Pecuarias de la Universidad de Córdoba, Colombia, donde fueron procesadas hasta su inclusión en parafina. Finalmente, la muestra fue teñida con la coloración de Hematoxilina - Eosina (H-E), donde se ratificó la presencia de islas con núcleo central de queratina rodeadas de células tumorales, así como cordones ramificados de células epiteliales neoplásicas con grado variable de diferenciación escamosa y con alta presencia de mitosis. El diagnóstico definitivo fue de Carcinoma de Células Escamosas bien diferenciado.
Lung cancer is the second most prevalent malignant tumor among both men and women and is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Mexico. In addition, the death rate due to lung cancer is increasing [1, 2] . Cigarette smok- ing is considered to be the most important risk factor. However, it is conceivable that environmental factors are associated with lung carcinogenesis, such as diesel fumes, wood smoke, silica, asbestos, arsenic, and residential radon exposure [3, 4] . Recently, a viral etiology of lung cancer has been proposed  . Several viral nucleic acid sequences have been detected in lung pathologies, including those of the Epstein-Barr virus in squamouscellcarcinoma (SQC) and adenocarcinoma of the lung [6, 7] , those of zoonotic viruses such as Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus in sheep bree- ders who develop lung cancer  , and recently those of human papillomavirus (HPV) in lung cancer [9–15] . Key Words
Background: Cervical carcinoma (CC) is one of the most frequent neoplasms, especially in developing countries. The most common histopathological type is squamouscellcarcinoma (SCC), followed by adenocarcinoma (AC) and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC). Prognosis according to histological type is controversial. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe and compare the prognoses of the most common histologies of CC in the early stages. Materials and Methods: We reviewed records of patients attended at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico with CC surgically treated Stages IA2-IB1 and IIA1, including the histological types SCC, AC, and ASC. Patients who had another malignant neoplasm, cervical cancer in situ, locally advanced neoplasm, and metastatic neoplasm were excluded from the study. A descriptive and comparative analysis was conducted. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free period were calculated for each histological type with the Kaplan–Meier method and were compared with the log-rank test. Results: A total of 202 records were obtained, of which 131 (64.9%) had SCC, 57 (28.2%) AC, and 14 (6.9%) ASC. The 5-year DFS was 94.4% for SCC, 98.1% for AC, and 92.3% for ASC, without a statistically significant difference (p = 0.55). The 5-year OS for SCC was 97.9%, for AC was 97.8%, and for ASC was 100%, without a statistically significant difference (p = 0.702). Conclusions: DFS and OS did not differ between the most common histological types of CC at the early stages.
Introducción: oral cancer in Brazil still presents high incidence and mortality rates and has different characteristics throughout the national territory. Although in most cases the diagnosis is late, there is a great possibility for cure when patients are treated early. Objective: to describe the sociodemographic profile of patients with oral squamouscellcarcinoma and the possible etiological factors associated. Methods: this was a descriptive prospective cross-sectional study carried out in Napoleão Laureano Hospital, state of Paraíba, from January 2012 to May 2013. The study included patients with advanced-stage oral squamouscellcarcinoma identified during clinical examination and confirmed by histopathology. The following variables were assessed: age, sex, comorbidity, smoking, alcohol use, tumor location, time of development, clinical staging, histopathological grading and proposed treatment. Results: a total of 15 cases of patients with stage III and IV oral squamouscellcarcinoma were found. Of these, 80 % were males with a mean age of 62.59 years and lesions affecting predominantly the mouth floor, followed by the tongue. The most common sign was the presence of tumor greater than 3.0-cm diameter, including ulcerated, leukoplastic and erythroplastic areas, in addition to pain and difficulty in feeding and phonation. Conclusion: the majority of patients identified, with advanced-stage squamouscellcarcinoma showed moderate cellular differentiation between stages III and IV, and was composed by males with smoking and alcohol drinking habits in the seventh decade of life.
control were invited to participate and they signed an in- formed consent, previously approved by Araucanía Sur Health Service Ethics Committee. A total of 985 samples from cervical scrapes (cytobrush) were collected and eval- uated for HPV infection. The median age of enrollment was 33 years old (Interquartile range 15 years). The age of participants was divided into four groups: ≤ 26 years old, between 27 and 33 years old, between 34 and 41 years old and ≥42 years old. Normal epithelium samples (n = 76) were collected from women who regularly attending to Miraflores public Clinic for gynecological control, and the cervical cytology (Papanicoulau) was found without al- terations in current and past controls. Preneoplastic and neoplastic samples were separated into groups according the histological diagnoses (The 1991 Bethesda System ) as follows: 249 LSIL, 636 HSIL and 24 squamous cervical carcinomas (SCC). These samples were collected at the Doctor Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital in Temuco, Chile (public hospital), between 2004 and 2012, during gynecological examination. The diagnoses of pre- neoplastic and neoplastic lesions were confirmed by colposcopy-guided biopsy in the Pathology Anatomy and Citology Unit of Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital. Molecular test was performed at Molecular Pathology La- boratory, School of Medicine, Universidad de La Frontera.
Four to five serial sections (3 microns) were obtained. To detect Ki-67 expression the monoclonal antibody MIB1 (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) was used and for hTERT the 2C4 monoclonal antibody (Novus Bio, Littleton, CO). The immunochemical detection system Cytoscan HRP/DAB (Cell Marque Corporation, Hot Springs, AR) was used. The histological sections were deparaffinated and antigenic recovery was done in a ImmunoDNA Retriever solution with citrate (BioSB, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA). After, the primary antibody was added in a 1:50 dilution for Ki-67 and 1:200 for hTERT, diaminobenzidine was added as a chromogen. Finally they were stained with haematoxylin (Merck).
regulating the motility of these cells. Thus, the HDAC 6/ER-α interaction represents a potential therapeutic target, for reducing the metastatic potential of ccRCC. Pharmacological inhibition of HDAC 6 and ERα in renal tumor cell lines showed similar effects as ERα knockdown in these cells. Tamoxifen showed en- hanced effects on α-tubulin acetylation in 786–0 cells, and this effect was greater with the addition of pano- binostat. Single agent and combination treatments in- creased HDAC 6 and ER-α expression in C2H6 and 786-O cells; however this did not result in increased HDAC 6 activity. The mechanisms of increased ERα and 786-O expression by treatments are not entirely known. These results indicate that in ccRCC, tamoxi- fen treatment may reduce metastatic potential. Fur- thermore, when combined with an HDAC inhibitor, such as panobinostat (that has cytotoxic effects), can lead to both anti-tumor effects and reduced metasta- sis. Moreover, in 100 ccRCC tumors, HIF-1/2α and HDAC 1 positively correlated with one another; how- ever, HDAC 1 expression did not correlate with over- all or disease free survival. TCGA data further revealed that HDAC 1 overexpression is associated with worse overall survival and higher tumor stage (not statistically significant). Hence, targeting HDAC 1 by using class I specific HDAC inhibitors may not only reduce the invasiveness of the disease, but the level of HDAC 1 itself can be used as a prognostic indicator in ccRCC. Similarly, HDAC 6 mRNA upreg- ulation, although not statistically significant, showed a trend towards worse overall survival as well as higher tumor stage in ccRCC patients. Therefore, targeting HDAC 6 using a class II specific HDAC inhibitor
rentes localizaciones del cuerpo humano; son ca- paces de infectar las células de la capa basal del epitelio, se replican y expresan en estrecha coor- dinación con el programa de diferenciación del mis- mo. El desarrollo del cáncer de origen epitelial a causa de la infección mantenida por VPH constitu- ye un proceso que después de una larga latencia, pasa a un estadio premaligno, conocido como neo- plasia intraepitelial, en el cual se experimentan cam- bios fenotípicos de las células infectadas y finalmente la lesión evoluciona a carcinoma in situ. 1-19
En cuanto a la relación de la expresión de p16 con otras variables, en nuestro estudio, si se han observado diferencias significativas entre la inmunoexpresión de p16, el sexo (p=0.04) y la edad de los pacientes (p=0.041) pero no en cuanto al grado de diferenciación. Yuen et al 145 presentan una serie de 225 pacientes con carcinoma escamoso de cabeza y cuello, de los que 54 estaban localizados en mucosa de cavidad oral, sin especificar los de mucosa lingual. La expresión de p16 presenta diferencia estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los localizados en laringe (63%) y los de cavidad oral (15%) y también observan relación significativa con el tamaño tumoral, siendo más frecuente en neoplasias T3-T4. Sin embargo, no encuentran diferencias significativas en la expresión de p16 dependientes del sexo, edad de los pacientes ni el grado de diferenciación. Al contrario de lo obtenido por Yuen et al 145 , nosotros no hemos encontrado diferencia significativa en la expresión de p16 y el tamaño tumoral (T).
El carcinoma escamoso, epidermoide o espinocelular es la forma hística más frecuente de cáncer bucal, pues este suele originarse en un epitelio escamoso. En este caso se presentó de esa misma forma, lo cual concordó, además, con lo obtenido por varios investigadores 8,9 . Respecto a la localización del cáncer bucal en las diversas estructuras y los órganos que forman este complejo, las zonas más afectadas son la lengua y el paladar, siendo ésta la ubicación que se presenta en este caso. Lo que concuerda con investigaciones realizadas por Rodríguez Rodríguez y colaboradores y Escalona Veloz. 5,10 , sin embargo, también difirió de lo obtenido por algunos especialistas, como Miranda Tarragó y colaboradores 9 y Ordoñez Dora y colaboradores 11 .